Slave trade

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  • The British colonies in North America received only 4% of the total slaves from Africa. Brazil and the West Indies- received about 80% combined.
  • Picture: Cape Coast Castle, W. Africa
  • Triangular Trade
    The triangular trade demonstrates how people were reduced to commodities to be sold. Goods such as metal, cloth, beads and guns went from Britain to Africa, enslaved Africans went to America and the Caribbean, and raw products such as sugar, tobacco and cotton came back to Britain.
    Show the picture of the sugar nippers.
            One of the reasons the trade lasted for so long was because it was incredibly profitable. The British appeared to have an insatiable appetite for luxury goods from the Caribbean, especially sugar and this demand fuelled supply.
            Before the twentieth century, sugar came in cones from which chunks would be nipped off and used to sweeten the bitter taste of coffee, chocolate and tea. What people consumed in one part of the world altered forever the lives of those from other parts of the world.
  • Brazilians still speak Portuguese not Spanish.
  • With the arrival of the Europeans the demand for slaves in the Americas increased significantly.
    As disease reduced the native populations in Spanish conquered territories, the Spanish began relying on imported slaves from Africa.
  • Why is the population of African Americans higher in the US than it is these other places?
  • European products (cloth, firearms) were sent to the coast of Africa for slaves
    Slaves were carried to the Americas (Middle Passage)
    Sugar, Tobacco, and other goods were than carried to Europe
    European products (cloth, firearms) were sent to the coast of Africa for slaves to begin the triangle trade again
  • Slaves were taken from the holding forts,  Chained together in pairs with leg-irons and carried to the ships. Once aboard they were branded with a red-hot iron, like cattle, to show who owned them and their clothes removed.
  • Chained in darkness and filth, seasickness and disease were rife. The heat in the hold could be over 30°c and the slaves would have no access to toilets or washing facilities. So foul was the smell of slave ships that other vessels took care to steer well away from them. In such conditions disease spread, and many slaves died.   
  • Many slave captains were notorious for their cruelty. The actual voyage could take from 6 weeks to three months. It has been estimated that between 9-11 million people were taken from Africa by European traders and landed alive on the other side of the Atlantic. But 1½ million Africans are buried in the Atlantic Ocean between Africa and the Americas. It was reported that schools of sharks would follow the ships waiting for their next meal.
  • Chained in darkness and filth, seasickness and disease were rife. The heat in the hold could be over 30°c and the slaves would have no access to toilets or washing facilities. So foul was the smell of slave ships that other vessels took care to steer well away from them. In such conditions disease spread, and many slaves died.  
  • The slave owners wanted big men that could work hard. The ship captains kept bringing them what they wanted. What effect did this have on African Society, culture, and economy?
  • Wall street gets its name from the fact that it was here where slaves were put on the block to be sold. Neighboring businesses did not approve of the slave trade convinced the city to build a wall around the street so passerby's would not have to witness what was happening.
  • “Africans became enslaved mainly through four ways:
    first, criminals sold by the chiefs as punishment;
    secondly, free Africans obtained from raids by African and a few European gangs;
    thirdly, domestic slaves resold, and
    fourthly; prisoners of war."
    (Adu Boahen (University of Ghana).
  • This was a slave holding fort.
  • Africans on the West Coast because the destination of the slaves was in the West. Had the European powers built colonies in Asia or Australia that needed slave labor, the slaves would have come from the East Coast region.
  • Slave trade

    1. 1. Good Mafternoon! 3/10/14EQ: EQ: How did slavery influence the development of Latin America? HW: Finish Thumbprint cartoon SPONGE 1.Take a handout from the green tray and paste on to page 53 2.Update your TOC DateDate ## TitleTitle 3-10-14 53 Trade and Slavery
    2. 2. Directions • Fold your cartoon into 6 or 8 scenes-1st scene must say Columbian Exchange and have your name on it • Other scenes must use pictures and words to convey what the Columbian Exchange was. • All pictures must contain thumb- prints – be creative! • use a WASHABLE MARKER to color
    3. 3. Good Morning! 1/10/12Good Morning! 1/10/12 Looking at these images, what do they have in common and what do they have to do with slavery in Latin America?
    4. 4. Slavery and Triangle Trade
    5. 5. Triangle Trade
    6. 6. European Background • Portuguese started African slave trade in 1441 • First Africans in Hispanola in 1505 • 1450-1850 ~12 million Africans sent to Americas
    7. 7. Why Africans? • Native Americans dying off Some degree of disease resistance • No muskets and gunpowder • Africans participated in trade by enslaving others, selling debtors and criminals, and kidnapping • Skilled workers – Knew how to extract precious ore from mines – Familiar with soils and crops • Not familiar with the land—making
    8. 8. Portuguese Slave Trade • The Portuguese population was too small to provide a large number of colonists. • The sugar plantations required a large labor force. • Slaves filled this demand. Europeans and Africans Meet to Trade
    9. 9. Slave Trade and Sugar • Portuguese crop growers extended the use of slave labor to South America. • Because of this, Brazil would eventually become the wealthiest of the sugar-
    10. 10. European Slave Trade
    11. 11. Plantations • The first was established by the Spanish on Hispaniola in 1516. • Originally the predominant crop was sugar. In addition to sugar, plantations produced crops like tobacco, indigo, and cotton. • In the 1530s Portuguese began organizing plantations in Brazil, and Brazil became the world’s leading supplier of sugar.
    12. 12. Plantations• Labor intensive= HARD WORK • Relied almost exclusively on large amounts of slave labor supervised by small numbers of European or Euro- American managers. Brazilian sugar mill in the 1830s
    13. 13. Justification- Why?• Slavery made development of the New World profitable $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $
    14. 14. Slavery Expands • In 1518, the first shipment of slaves went directly from West Africa to the Caribbean where the slaves worked on sugar plantations. • By the 1520s, the Spanish had introduced slaves to Mexico, Peru, and Central America where they worked as farmers and miners. • By the early 17th century, the British had introduced slaves to North America.
    15. 15. Impact of Slave Trade on the Americas •Diverse Culture- Cultural Diffusion- Africans brought part of their culture (like music food, traditions, Language) to the Americas. •Made Latin American colonies (Brazil) wealthy
    16. 16. Triangular Trade
    17. 17. Exportation • Trip called the Middle Passage • 5000 miles, 3 wks. to 3 mos. • 20-25% died • Strip Africans’ self respect and self identity
    18. 18. Slave Master Brands
    19. 19. The Middle Passage
    20. 20. The Middle Passage
    21. 21. Inspection and Sale
    22. 22. First Slave Auction New Amsterdam (Dutch New York City - 17c)
    23. 23. Cape Coast Castle, W. Africa
    24. 24. What role did geography play inWhat role did geography play in thethe Triangle of Trade?Triangle of Trade?
    25. 25. Europeans began the Atlantic slave trade in the 1500s. Their colonies in the Americas needed labor to work on large plantations. European traders sold enslaved Africans to colonists. Families were split up, and many people died. By the time the slave trade ended in IMPACT ON WEST AFRICA

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