1. REPORTER: LOURISE ARCHIE C. SUBANG BSED I - ACHAPTER
3NATURAL HISTORY OF LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENTI. Question: How
did really the language of a child developed? Ans. There is no definite or
exact sequence on how a child can acquire language. Butsince the birth of
child psychology many had developed theories or studies that led to
someinformation on how we as children acquire language. As the studies
were compiled and revised,it eventually formed a framework basis for the
study of Language Development. Traditionally language development
depends upon the principle of reinforcement. The principle of reinforcement
is a psychological concept based on the idea that the consequences of an
action will influence future behavior. Rewarding behavior is considered
reinforcement, because it teaches the subject that the behavior is desired,
and encourages the subject to repeat it. Punishing a behavior, on the other
hand, teaches the subject that the behavior is not desired, and should not
be repeated. Other learning theorists however believed that language is
acquired by imitation. Noam Chomsky – (American linguist, philosopher,
cognitive scientist, political activist, author, and lecturer) rather proposes
the nativist theory of language acquisition as the basis of how language is
learned. He states that children have an innate Language Acquisition
Device or LAD. This enables them to learn a language early and quickly.
His theory was supported by the concept of the universality of language
that use he same set of sounds and combinations. Though some theorists
don’t agree with him. Its because that there were clear evidence of the
variations of grammatical and syntactic rules. Also it ignores the social
context in which language is acquired. Modern theorists clings to the
interactionist view of language is learned. They say that children are
biologically ready for language but requires extensive experience with
spoken language for ample development. Acquiring language is always an
active and interactive. This involves the ffg. Formulating Testing Evaluating
languages’ rules Jerome Bruner ( American psychologist who has
contributed to cognitive psychology and cognitive learning theory in
educational psychology, as well as to history and to the general philosophy
of education) one of the modern theorists. He also point out the critical
roles in which the parents and other caregivers have in the language
acquisition process. He proposes the use of Language Acquisition Support
System (LASS). This refers to the importance of a child’s social support
network, which works in conjunction with innate mechanisms to encourage
or suppress language development.
2. THE ANTECEDENTS OF THE LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT What do
you mean of the word “antecedent”? It means that which precedes or goes
before. So therefore, antecedents of the language development talks about
the ways or means which help the child to prepare him/her in learning the
language. Just like in going o school you prepare yourself. Now here are
the following devises that makes up the antecedents.
PSUEDODIALOGUES – this is one of the early training devices.
Characterized by the give and take of the conversation between the child
and the mother or other person. Adults maintain the flow of conversation.
Example: oooglieooogliegoogliegooglie PROTODECLARATIVES – the
child uses gestures to make a description about the statement.
PROTOIMPERATIVES – the child still uses gestures but these gestures
are used to let someone do for him/her. Make statements about the things
and let someone do it for him/her. HISTORY OF THE LANGUAGE
DEVELOPMENTTraditionally language developmentdepends upon the
principle ofreinforcement. Other learning theorists believed that language is
acquired by imitation.Noam Chomsky - rather proposes thenativist theory
of language acquisition asthe basis of how language is learned. Modern
theorists clings to the interactionist view of language is learned. Under the
modern theorists is Jerome Bruner - . He also point out the critical roles in
which the parents and other caregivers have in the language acquisition
process. He proposes the use of Language Acquisition Support System
3. THE ANTECEDENTS OF THE LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT
ANTECEDENTmeans that which precedes or goes before. So therefore,
antecedents of the language development talks about the ways or means
which help the child to prepare him/her in learning the language.
FORMS/TYPES OF ANTECEDENTS PSUEDODIALOGUES – this is
PROTODECLARATIVES PROTOIMPERATIVES one of the early training –
the child uses – the child still uses devices. Characterized by the gestures
to make a gestures but these give and take of the description about the
gestures are used to conversation between the child statement. let
someone do for and the mother or other him/her. Make person. Adults
maintain the statements about the flow of conversation. things and let
Example: oooglieoooglie someone do it for googliegooglie. him/her.
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The antecedents of language developmentPresentation Transcript
1. The Antecedents of Language Development
2. What is the meaning ofantecedent?
3. It means that which precedes or goesbefore. So therefore, antecedents
of thelanguage development talks about theways or means which help the
child toprepare him/her in learning the language.Just like in going to school
you prepareyourself. Now here are the followingdevices that makes up the
4. PSUEDODIALOGUESThis is one of the early training
devices.Characterized by the give and take of theconversation between the
child and themother or other person. Adults maintain theflow of
5. PROTODECLARATIVESThe child uses gestures to make adescription
about the statement.
6. PROTOIMPERATIVESThe child still uses gestures but thesegestures
are used to let someone do forhim/her. Make statements about the
thingsand let someone do it for him/her.
7. • Bilingualism is the ability to speak or write fluently in two languages.• It
refers to those children who speak/have been spoken to in two languages
in the home since birth and who are spoken to in only or both of those two
languages at daycare or school
8. Aside from the obvious advantage of being able to speak more than one
language,itimpacts the child positively in the sense of self esteem ,future
job opportunities and ability to live and travel abroad.
9. There are two major patterns inbilingual language acquisition:•
Simultaneous Bilingualism• Sequential Bilingualism.
10. • In simultaneous bilingualism,the child acquires two languages at the
same time before the age of 3 years• In the first stage they may mix words
or parts of words from both languages in the first stage.
11. • Stage 2 occurs at 4 years and older when distinction between the two
languages takes place ,and the child uses each language seperately e.g. I
like ice-cream. Gusto kongsorbetes.
12. • Sequential bilingualism also occurs before the child is 3 years old, but
the child can draw on the knowledge and experience of the first language
while acquiring the second language
13. Ages of bilingual acquisitonOne way of categorizing types ofbilingual
acquisition is by the ageat which the two languages areacquired- infants,
child,adolescent, and adult.
14. Infant or early bilingual acquisiton involves the child learning
twolanguages virtually simultaneosly from the outset. Sometimes this
results from having parents who have different native languages, but also
speak the other parent’s language.
15. • Early age of bilingual exposure has a significant impact on multiple
aspects of a child’s development: linguistic, cognitive and reading.Children
who experience early and extensive exposure to both of their languages
quickly grasp the fundamentals of both of their languages and in a manner
similar to that of monolingual language learners
16. Child bilingual acquisiton may start quite early in life, but involves the
successive acquisition of two languages, as do adolescent and adult
17. This may be occasioned by the familymoving to another country, the
arrivalof a caregiver who speaks a different language, or the child starting a
nursery class or school is taught in adifferent language from the one used
18. Adolescent bilingual acquisition refers to the acquisiton of a second
language after puberty, while adult bilingual acquisition refers to acquisition
after the teen years.
19. SECOND LANGUAGE LEARNING STRATEGIESMonolingual children
can differ in the types of strategies they use when first to start to
talk.Analytic learners Gestalt learners(left brain dominant) (right brained)
20. Analytic Learners• learn single words and later string them together in
multiword uttereances.learn more quickly in large part because things are
usually taught in an analytic manner in the public school
21. Gestalt learners• Concentrate on acquiring multiwordsexpressions(You
know what? I wanna do it, etc) , which they initially treat as a whole, and
only break down into their constituent parts.
22. A comparison between analytic and gestalt modes in language
acquisitionAnalytic Mode Gestalt Mode•Basic units of •Basic units
oflanguage are single language may bewords. words, multiword
utterances, phrases, and/or clauses
23. Analytic Mode Gestalt Mode•Early language •Early languageacquisition
involves acquisition involvesmovement from acquisition ofsingle words to
two multiword utterancesand three-words functioning as singleutterances
24. COGNITIVE ADVANTAGES OF BILINGUALISM
25. 1. Bilingualism does not impact on early languagemilestones like
babbling.2. In bilingual homes, infants readily discriminatebetween two
languages phonologically andgrammatically.3. Learning a grammatical
device as using “s” todenote plurals in one language facilitate
learningcorresponding devices in other language.
26. 4. Bilingualism is associated with an advantage in 4metalinguistic
ability or capacity to think aboutlanguage among preschool and school
agechildren.5. Most bilingual children manifest greater abiliythan
monolingual children when it comestofocusing attention on language skills.
27. Bilingual children have been shown to have:1. better metalinguistic
awareness (abilityto identify and describe characteristicsand features of
language);2. better classification skills;3. better concept formation;4. better
analogical reasoning;5. better visual-spatial skills;6. better storytelling
skills;7. better semantic development.
28. COGNITIVE DISADVANTAGES OF BILINGUALISM
29. 1. Limited VocabularyInfants in bilingual homes haveexpressive
vocabularies thatare as large as those of themonolingual, but the words
theyknow are divided between twolanguages resulting into amore limited
vocabulary whichcontinues into the school years.
30. 2. Think more slowly in thelanguage in which they havethe lesser
fluency.Bilingual children are fluent inboth languages and thus,encounter
fewer problems,But they, do not attain equalfluency.
31. 3. Parents who choosebilingualismshouldconsider whether they
canhelp their childrenachieve fluency in bothlanguages.
32. 4. Children who speak their immigrant parentslanguage tend to be
attached to their parentsculture of origin and therefore are able to speakthe
33. Language and culture have important implications for how achildren
learn languages in school and how teachers teachlanguage.Some
Implications are:1. Children use the four language system at the same time
in the process of communicating.2. Children bring their unique
backgrounds of experience to the process of learning.3. Children’s cultural
and linguistic diversity impact on the student’s learning process.