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Chapter 3 - Exam 70-640 Windows Server 2008 Active Directory, Configuring

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MCTS Guide to Configuring Microsoft Windows Server 2008 Active Directory - Chapter 3: Introducing Active Directory

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Chapter 3 - Exam 70-640 Windows Server 2008 Active Directory, Configuring

  1. 1. MCTS Guide to Configuring Microsoft Windows Server 2008 Active Directory Chapter 3: Introducing Active Directory
  2. 2. MCTS Windows Server 2008 Active Directory 2 Objectives 2 • Describe the role of a directory service and the physical and logical Active Directory structure • Install Active Directory • Describe the main Active Directory objects • Explain configuring and applying group policies
  3. 3. MCTS Windows Server 2008 Active Directory 3 The Role of a Directory Service • A network directory service stores information about a computer network and offers features for retrieving and managing that information. • Generally considered to be an administrative tool, but users make use of directory services to find resources • Directory services provide a centralized management tool, but due to complexity, requires careful planning prior to setup
  4. 4. MCTS Windows Server 2008 Active Directory 4 Windows Active Directory • First used by Windows 2000 Server • Offers the following features: – Hierarchical organization – Centralized but distributed database – Scalability – Security – Flexibility – Policy-based administration
  5. 5. MCTS Windows Server 2008 Active Directory 5 Overview of the Active Directory Structure • Physical structure – Consists of sites and servers configured as domain controllers • Logical structure – Makes it possible to pattern the directory service’s look and feel after the organization in which it runs
  6. 6. MCTS Windows Server 2008 Active Directory 6 Active Directory’s Physical Structure • An Active Directory site is simply a physical location in which domain controllers communicate and replicate information regularly • Each domain controller contains a full replica of the objects that make up the domain and is responsible for the following functions: – Storing a copy of the domain data and replicating changes to that data to all other domain controllers throughout the domain – Providing data search and retrieval functions for users attempting to locate objects in the directory – Providing authentication and authorization services for users who log on to the domain and attempt to access network resources
  7. 7. MCTS Windows Server 2008 Active Directory 7 Active Directory’s Logical Structure • Organizational Units (OUs) • Domains • Trees • Forests
  8. 8. MCTS Windows Server 2008 Active Directory 8 Active Directory’s Logical Structure (cont.) • The Organizational Unit (OU) is an Active Directory container used to organize a network’s users and resources into logical administrative units • An OU contains Active Directory objects, such as: – User accounts – Groups – Computer accounts – Printers – Shared folders – Applications – Servers – Domain controllers
  9. 9. MCTS Windows Server 2008 Active Directory 9 Active Directory’s Logical Structure (cont.)
  10. 10. MCTS Windows Server 2008 Active Directory 10 Active Directory’s Logical Structure (cont.) • Domain: The core structural unit of an Active Directory; contains OUs and represents administrative, security, and policy boundaries • Small to medium companies usually have one domain; larger companies may have several domains to separate geographical regions or administrative responsibilities
  11. 11. MCTS Windows Server 2008 Active Directory 11 Active Directory’s Logical Structure (cont.)
  12. 12. MCTS Windows Server 2008 Active Directory 12 Active Directory’s Logical Structure (cont.) • A tree is a grouping of domains that share a common naming structure • Can consist of a parent domain and possibly one or more child domains • Child domains can also have child domains
  13. 13. MCTS Windows Server 2008 Active Directory 13 Active Directory’s Logical Structure (cont.)
  14. 14. MCTS Windows Server 2008 Active Directory 14 Active Directory’s Logical Structure (cont.) • Forest: A collection of one or more Active Directory trees. A forest can consist of a single tree with a single domain, or it can contain several trees, each with a hierarchy of parent and child domains • Main purpose is to provide a common Active Directory environment, in which all domains in all trees can communicate and share information, while simultaneously allowing independent operation and administration
  15. 15. MCTS Windows Server 2008 Active Directory 15 Active Directory’s Logical Structure (cont.)
  16. 16. MCTS Windows Server 2008 Active Directory 16 Installing Active Directory • To install AD DS on a full Windows Server 2008 installation, use Server Manager • If DNS is not already present on the network, you must install the DNS Server Role. • Once the Server Manager wizard for installing Active Directory finishes, you must run dcpromo.exe
  17. 17. MCTS Windows Server 2008 Active Directory 17 Installing Active Directory (cont.) • Dcpromo.exe steps to install: – Step 1: Existing domain or new domain – Step 2: Fully qualified domain name (FQDN) for new forest root domain – Step 3: Choose forest functional level • The functional level is critical to the feature set available to administrators after install, as well as the software requirements for any other DCs – If you want backwards compatibility with older domain controllers on the network, choose Windows 2000 functional level – If you choose Windows Server 2008 functional level, you can’t run Windows Server 2003 or Windows 2000 domain controllers (but they can run as member servers)
  18. 18. MCTS Windows Server 2008 Active Directory 18 Installing Active Directory (cont.) • After step 3, you have three additional options for the DC: • Install DNS Server – Recommended for the first domain controller in a new domain • Global Catalog – Selected by default (and can not be disabled) if the server is to be the first DC in a forest • Read-only Domain Controller (RODC) – Not selected by default, and disabled for the first DC in the domain
  19. 19. MCTS Windows Server 2008 Active Directory 19 Installing Active Directory (cont.) • The sysvol folder is a shared folder that stores the information from Active Directory that’s replicated to other domain controllers • Directory Services Restore Mode is used to perform restore operations on Active Directory if it becomes corrupted or parts of it are deleted accidentally.
  20. 20. MCTS Windows Server 2008 Active Directory 20 The Active Directory Schema • An object is a grouping of information that describes a network resource • The schema defines the type, organization, and structure of data stored in the AD database • Schema classes define the types of objects that can be stored in Active Directory • Schema attributes define what type of information is stored in each object • The information stored in each attribute is called the attribute value
  21. 21. MCTS Windows Server 2008 Active Directory 21 The Active Directory Schema (cont.)
  22. 22. MCTS Windows Server 2008 Active Directory 22 Active Directory Container Objects • Organizational Units • Folder Objects • Domain objects
  23. 23. MCTS Windows Server 2008 Active Directory 23 Organizational Units • Primary container object for organizing and managing resources in a domain • OUs can organize multiple objects into one administrative group that can be configured with specific policies relevant to that group • Authority of an OU can be delegated • Nesting OUs can build a hierarchical Active Directory structure that mimics the corporate structure for easier object management
  24. 24. MCTS Windows Server 2008 Active Directory 24 Folder Objects • Four created by default: – Builtin; Houses default groups created by Windows – Computers; The default location for computer accounts created when a new computer or server becomes a domain member – ForeignSecurityPrincipals; Initially empty but later contains user accounts from other domains added as members of the local domain’s groups – Users; Stores two default users (Administrator and Guest) and several default groups • New folder objects cannot be created • Administrative control can be delegated (except on builtin folder)
  25. 25. MCTS Windows Server 2008 Active Directory 25 Domain Objects • Core logical structure in AD, contains OU and folder container objects, as well as leaf objects • Larger companies may use multiple domains to separate administration, define security boundaries, and define policy boundaries • Each domain object has a default GPO linked to it that can affect all objects in the domain
  26. 26. MCTS Windows Server 2008 Active Directory 26 Active Directory Leaf Objects • User Accounts – Three types: Local, domain, and built-in • Groups – Consists of users with common permissions • Computer Accounts – Represents a computer that is a domain controller or domain member • Other Leaf Objects: – Contact – Printer – Shared folder
  27. 27. MCTS Windows Server 2008 Active Directory 27 Locating Active Directory Objects • Active Directory objects can be searched for using the Find Users, Contacts, and Groups dialog box • Can search a single domain or an entire directory (all domains) • Not all objects are available to all users
  28. 28. MCTS Windows Server 2008 Active Directory 28 Introducing Group Policies • A Group Policy Object (GPO) is a list of settings that administrators use to configure user and computer operating environments remotely. • Installing Active Directory creates two GPO’s by default: – Default Domain Policy – Default Domain Controllers Policy
  29. 29. MCTS Windows Server 2008 Active Directory 29 Introducing Group Policies (cont.) • You can edit existing GPO’s (including defaults) and create and manage GPO’s by using the Group Policy Management MMC • Two nodes for every GPO: – Computer Configuration; Used to set policies that apply to computers within the GPO’s scope – User Configuration; Used to set policies that apply to all users within the GPO’s scope
  30. 30. MCTS Windows Server 2008 Active Directory 30 Introducing Group Policies (cont.)
  31. 31. MCTS Windows Server 2008 Active Directory 31 The Computer Configuration Node • Software Settings – Enables Administrators to install and manage applications remotely • Windows Settings – Contains Scripts extension, Security Settings node, and the Policy-based QoS node • Administrative Templates – Contains the Control Panel, Network, Printers, System, and Windows Components folders.
  32. 32. MCTS Windows Server 2008 Active Directory 32 Introducing Group Policies (cont.)
  33. 33. MCTS Windows Server 2008 Active Directory 33 Introducing Group Policies (cont.)
  34. 34. MCTS Windows Server 2008 Active Directory 34 Introducing Group Policies (cont.)
  35. 35. MCTS Windows Server 2008 Active Directory 35 The User Configuration Node • Policies folder contains the same three folders as in the Computer Configuration node, but policies defined here affect domain users within the GPO’s scope, regardless of which computer the user logs on to. • Software Settings – Can assign or publish application packages • Windows Settings – Contains six items – Remote Installation Services – Scripts extension – Security Settings node – Folder Redirection node – Policy based QoS node – Internet Explorer Maintenance node • Administrative templates
  36. 36. MCTS Windows Server 2008 Active Directory 36 How Group Policies Are Applied • GPO’s can be applied in four places: – Local Computer – Site – Domain – Organizational Unit • Policies are applied in the above order – Policies that are not defined or configured are not applied at all – Last policy to be defined takes precedence; If a policy is defined at the domain level and OU level, then the OU level’s setting is the one applied
  37. 37. MCTS Windows Server 2008 Active Directory 37 Chapter Summary • A directory service is a database that stores network resource information and can be used to manage users, computers, and resources throughout the network. • Active Directory is a hierarchical, distributed database that’s scalable, secure, and flexible. Active Directory’s physical structure is composed of sites and domain controllers, and the logical structure is composed of organizational units, domains, trees, and forests.
  38. 38. MCTS Windows Server 2008 Active Directory 38 Chapter Summary (cont.) • Server manager installs the Active Directory Domain Services role. Once Server Manager is finished, dcpromo.exe is used to finish installation. • The data in Active Directory is organized as objects. Available objects and their structure are defined by the Active Directory schema, which is composed of schema classes and schema attributes. The data in a schema attribute is called an attribute value
  39. 39. MCTS Windows Server 2008 Active Directory 39 Chapter Summary (cont.) • Two types of objects in AD: Container objects and leaf objects • Leaf objects generally represent security accounts, network resources, and GPOs • Active Directory objects can be located easily with search functions in Active Directory Users and Computers and Windows Explorer • GPOs are lists of settings that enable administrators to configure user and computer operating environments remotely
  40. 40. MCTS Windows Server 2008 Active Directory 40 Chapter Summary (cont.) • Policies defined in the Computer Configuration node affect all computers in the Active Directory container to which the GPO is linked. Policies defined in the User Configuration node affect all users in the Active Directory container to which the GPO is linked.

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