CCNA 3 v3.0 Module 4 - Switching Concepts

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CCNA 3 v3.0 Module 4 - Switching Concepts

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CCNA 3 v3.0 Module 4 - Switching Concepts

  1. 1. 1© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. CCNA 3 v3.0 Module 4 Switching Concepts
  2. 2. 222© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Purpose of This PowerPoint • This PowerPoint primarily consists of the Target Indicators (TIs) of this module in CCNA version 3.0. • It was created to give instructors a PowerPoint to take and modify as their own. • This PowerPoint is: NOT a study guide for the module final assessment. NOT a study guide for the CCNA certification exam. • Please report any mistakes you find in this PowerPoint by using the Academy Connection Help link.
  3. 3. 333© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. To Locate Instructional Resource Materials on Academy Connection: • Go to the Community FTP Center to locate materials created by the instructor community • Go to the Tools section • Go to the Alpha Preview section • Go to the Community link under Resources • See the resources available on the Class home page for classes you are offering • Search http://www.cisco.com • Contact your parent academy!
  4. 4. 444© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Objectives • Introduction to Ethernet 802.3 LANs • Introduction to LAN switching • Switch operation
  5. 5. 555© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 802.3 LAN Development: Today’s LANs
  6. 6. 666© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Devices Function at Layers
  7. 7. 777© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Factors that Impact Network Performance • Network traffic (congestion). • Multitasking desktop operating systems (Windows, UNIX, and Mac) allow simultaneous network transactions. • Faster desktop operating systems (Windows, UNIX, and Mac) can initiate faster network activity. • Increased number of client/server applications using shared network data.
  8. 8. 888© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Typical Causes of Network Congestion
  9. 9. 999© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Ethernet 802.3 • Performance of a shared-medium Ethernet/802.3 LANs is negatively affected by factors such as the following: The broadcast delivery nature of Ethernet. Carrier sense multiple access collision detect (CSMA/CD) access method allows only one host to transmit at a time. Multimedia applications with higher bandwidth demand such as video and the Internet. The latency of additional devices added by the extension of LANs by using repeaters. The distance added by using Layer 1 repeaters.
  10. 10. 101010© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Half-Duplex Ethernet Design
  11. 11. 111111© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Network Congestion
  12. 12. 121212© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Network Latency Latency, or delay, is the time a frame or a packet takes to travel from the source station to the final destination.
  13. 13. 131313© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Ethernet 10BASE-T Transmission Times • Bit time (or slot time) — The basic unit of time in which 1 bit can be sent. For electronic or optical devices to recognize a binary 1 or 0, there is a minimum duration during which the bit is "on" or "off. " • Transmission time — Equals the number of bits being sent times the bit time for a given technology. Another way to think about transmission time is as the time it takes a frame to actually be transmitted. (Small frames take a shorter amount of time, large frames take a longer amount of time to be transmitted.)
  14. 14. 141414© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Benefits of Using Repeaters
  15. 15. 151515© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Full-Duplex Transmitting
  16. 16. 161616© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. LAN Segmentation Segmentation allows network congestion to be significantly reduced within each segment.
  17. 17. 171717© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. LAN Segmentation with Bridges
  18. 18. 181818© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. LAN Segmentation with Routers
  19. 19. 191919© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. LAN Segmentation with Switches
  20. 20. 202020© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. LAN Switch Operation
  21. 21. 212121© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Ethernet Switch Latency
  22. 22. 222222© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Layer 2 Switching
  23. 23. 232323© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Layer 3 Switching
  24. 24. 242424© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Symmetric Switching
  25. 25. 252525© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Asymmetric Switching
  26. 26. 262626© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Memory Buffering • Port-based memory buffering Packets are stored in queues that are linked to specific incoming ports. It is possible for a single packet to block all other packets because its destination port is busy (even if the other packets could be delivered). • Shared-memory buffering All packets use a common memory buffer. Packets in the buffer are then linked (mapped) dynamically to the appropriate destination port. Helps balance between 10- and 100-Mbps ports.
  27. 27. 272727© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Two Switching Methods
  28. 28. 282828© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Store and Forward
  29. 29. 292929© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cut Through
  30. 30. 303030© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Functions of Ethernet Switches
  31. 31. 313131© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Frame Transmission Modes
  32. 32. 323232© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Network Switch Using CAM
  33. 33. 333333© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. How Switches and Bridges Filter Frames • Bridges and switches only forward frames, which need to travel from one LAN segment to another. • To accomplish this task, they must learn which devices are connected to which LAN segment. • Bridges are capable of filtering frames based on any Layer 2 fields.
  34. 34. 343434© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. LAN Segmentation Using Bridges
  35. 35. 353535© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Microsegmentation of the Network A switch employs “microsegmentation” to reduce the collision domain on a LAN. The switch does this by creating dedicated network segments, or point-to-point connections.
  36. 36. 363636© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Switches and Collision Domains The network area where frames originate and collide is called the collision domain. All shared media environments are collision domains.
  37. 37. 373737© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Three Methods of Communication
  38. 38. 383838© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Switches and Broadcast Domains • Broadcasting is when one transmitter tries to reach all the receivers in the network. The server station sends out one message, and everyone on that segment receives the message.
  39. 39. 393939© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Communication Between Switches and Workstations

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