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Preschool

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Preschool

  1. 1. Ch 8-Journey
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>Physical Characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Developmental Milestones </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrition </li></ul><ul><li>Sleep and Rest </li></ul><ul><li>Play </li></ul><ul><li>Safety </li></ul><ul><li>Health Promotion </li></ul>
  3. 3. Physical Characteristics <ul><li>Height – 2.5-3”/ year </li></ul><ul><li>Weight-5-7 lbs/year </li></ul><ul><li>More slender appearance </li></ul><ul><li>Extremities grow faster than the trunk. </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid growth of muscles=about 75% of weight gain. </li></ul><ul><li>More erect posture, less clumsy. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Physical (con’t) <ul><li>Dental </li></ul><ul><li>Dental Visit </li></ul><ul><li>May develop dental decay and plaque buildup </li></ul><ul><li>Daily brushing and flossing as well as visits to the dentist q6months </li></ul><ul><li>Good nutrition, low carb snacks o help prevent tooth decay. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Sensory Development <ul><li>Eyes and ears </li></ul><ul><li>Signs of ear infection </li></ul><ul><li>Vision improves to 20/20 </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of depth perception = clumsiness </li></ul><ul><li>Hearing is mature </li></ul><ul><li>Frequent ear infections </li></ul>
  6. 7. Motor Skills <ul><li>Gross </li></ul><ul><li>Dancing </li></ul><ul><li>Walking and running on tip toes </li></ul><ul><li>Hop and balance on one foot </li></ul><ul><li>Tricycle </li></ul><ul><li>Catch a ball </li></ul><ul><li>Jump and skip rope </li></ul><ul><li>Soccer, basket ball and skating </li></ul><ul><li>Imitate dance steps </li></ul>
  7. 8. Fine Motor Skills <ul><li>Self care activities </li></ul><ul><li>Dressing </li></ul><ul><li>Feeding </li></ul><ul><li>Toileting </li></ul><ul><li>Buttons, zippers and snaps </li></ul><ul><li>Fork and knife </li></ul><ul><li>Pour own drinks </li></ul><ul><li>Draw and use scissors </li></ul><ul><li>Copy letters </li></ul>
  8. 9. Sexual Development <ul><li>Aware of genitals and sexual identity </li></ul><ul><li>May become strongly attached to the parent of the opposite sex </li></ul><ul><li>Curious about differences </li></ul><ul><li>Respond with simple explanations </li></ul><ul><li>Use correct terms </li></ul><ul><li>Masturbation is common </li></ul>
  9. 10. Psychosocial Development <ul><li>Erikson-the child has learned to trust and has developed a sense of independence. </li></ul><ul><li>Pretend, explore and try out new roles </li></ul><ul><li>Exploration as initiative </li></ul><ul><li>Good role models </li></ul><ul><li>Must have the freedom to explore </li></ul>
  10. 11. Discipline <ul><li>Set limits to protect children </li></ul><ul><li>Strive to follow rules </li></ul><ul><li>Discipline teaches impulse control </li></ul><ul><li>Positive reinforcement </li></ul><ul><li>Discipline should be short in duration </li></ul><ul><li>Time out can be useful </li></ul>
  11. 12. Psychosocial Development Con’t <ul><li>Sibling rivalry </li></ul><ul><li>Allow children to resolve themselves </li></ul><ul><li>Do not place blame </li></ul><ul><li>Have them suggest resolutions </li></ul><ul><li>Divorce </li></ul><ul><li>Parents resolve their conflicts and spare the child </li></ul><ul><li>Have child feel loved and protected </li></ul><ul><li>Child should feel that they have their own space in both homes </li></ul>
  12. 13. Psychosocial Development <ul><li>Preschool </li></ul><ul><li>Preschool </li></ul><ul><li>Preschool education </li></ul><ul><li>Promotes cognitive, moral and social development </li></ul><ul><li>Friendships </li></ul><ul><li>Child should not be forced </li></ul><ul><li>Should be a clean environment that allows for exploration and play </li></ul>
  13. 14. Cognitive <ul><li>Piaget- Preoperational </li></ul><ul><li>Development of language and memory </li></ul><ul><li>General concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Highly creative </li></ul><ul><li>Magical thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Longer attention spans </li></ul>
  14. 15. Moral Development <ul><li>Kohlberg-preconventional stage of moral development </li></ul><ul><li>Model and imitate adult behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Begin to develop a conscience </li></ul><ul><li>Values and beliefs </li></ul><ul><li>Begin to realize that lying is a bad thing to do </li></ul>
  15. 16. Nutrition <ul><li>Canada’s food guide </li></ul><ul><li>1800 calories a day </li></ul><ul><li>3 snacks and 3 meals </li></ul><ul><li>Food habits of peers </li></ul><ul><li>Milk is still important </li></ul><ul><li>Good food choices </li></ul><ul><li>Mealtimes are important time with family </li></ul>
  16. 17. Sleep and rest <ul><li>10-12 hours a night </li></ul><ul><li>Some naps- 30-60 minutes </li></ul><ul><li>Consistent routines </li></ul><ul><li>Nightmares </li></ul>
  17. 18. Play <ul><li>Cooperative or associative play </li></ul><ul><li>Understand rules </li></ul><ul><li>Sharing </li></ul><ul><li>Personalities emerge </li></ul><ul><li>Toys that involve activity </li></ul><ul><li>Look at me , watch me </li></ul><ul><li>Seeking approval </li></ul><ul><li>TV-good social relationships and help imagination </li></ul>
  18. 19. Safety <ul><li>Less likely to fall </li></ul><ul><li>More aware of dangers </li></ul><ul><li>Clothing </li></ul><ul><li>MVA </li></ul><ul><li>Outdoor activities </li></ul><ul><li>Stranger danger </li></ul>
  19. 20. Heath Promotion <ul><li>Immunizations </li></ul><ul><li>Hygiene practices </li></ul><ul><li>Thumb sucking </li></ul><ul><li>Bedwetting </li></ul><ul><li>Fears </li></ul>
  20. 21. Summary pg 131 <ul><li>Preschool </li></ul><ul><li>Ages 3-6 </li></ul>

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