Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Chapter 21 Skeletal


Published on

Published in: Health & Medicine
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Chapter 21 Skeletal

  1. 1. Chapter 21 The Skeletal System <ul><li>Objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the skeletal system </li></ul><ul><li>Explain various types of body movement </li></ul><ul><li>Identify abnormal curvatures of the spine </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the male and female pelvis </li></ul><ul><li>Identify types of fractures </li></ul><ul><li>Review case study </li></ul>
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>The skeletal system makes up the framework of the body. </li></ul><ul><li>It consists of 206 bones. </li></ul><ul><li>The rest of the skeletal system is composed of cartilage and ligaments. </li></ul><ul><li>Two divisions of the skeletal system are: </li></ul><ul><li>The axial skeleton </li></ul><ul><li>The appendicular skeleton </li></ul>
  3. 3. Bones and Their Classification <ul><li>Bones consist of 50% water and 50% solid (osseous tissue) matter. </li></ul><ul><li>Bones are classified according to shape: </li></ul><ul><li>Long (arm) </li></ul><ul><li>Short (hand) </li></ul><ul><li>Flat (skull) </li></ul><ul><li>Irregular (vertebra) </li></ul><ul><li>Sesamoid (knee cap) </li></ul><ul><li>Sutural bones (skull) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Functions of Bones <ul><li>Providing shape, support and framework of the body. </li></ul><ul><li>Providing protection for the internal organs. </li></ul><ul><li>Serving as a storage place for minerals salts, calcium and phosphorus. </li></ul><ul><li>Role in formation of red blood cells. (bone marrow) </li></ul><ul><li>Area of attachment for skeletal muscle </li></ul><ul><li>Making movement possible through articulation. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Lifespan Considerations the Child <ul><li>Bones begin to develop from cartilage. Babies are born with a large amount of cartilage. These bones eventually fuse into normal adult bones. </li></ul><ul><li>Babies bones are soft but become harder as minerals are deposited, “ossification”. </li></ul><ul><li>As a child grows, new bone tissue is made between special areas b/t the head of the bone and it’s shaft called the “growth plate”. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Lifespan Considerations the Adult <ul><li>Women build bone until age 35 and then begin to lose about 1% of their bone mass annually. </li></ul><ul><li>Men start about 10-20 years later. </li></ul><ul><li>Most of the skeletal changes during the aging process occur because of connective tissue changes. </li></ul><ul><li>Most bone loss is due to loss of bone mineral content. </li></ul><ul><li>Less joint movement = an increase in joint disease such as arthritis. </li></ul><ul><li>Bone healing is slower in older adults than in children. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Joints and Movement <ul><li>Abduction </li></ul><ul><li>Adduction </li></ul><ul><li>Circumduction </li></ul><ul><li>Dorsiflexion </li></ul><ul><li>Eversion </li></ul><ul><li>Extension </li></ul><ul><li>Flexion </li></ul><ul><li>Inversion </li></ul><ul><li>Pronation </li></ul><ul><li>Retraction </li></ul><ul><li>Rotation </li></ul><ul><li>Supination </li></ul>
  8. 8. Axial Skeleton <ul><li>The central portion of the skeleton </li></ul><ul><li>Consists of the skull, sternum, ribs, vertebrae, sacrum and coccyx. </li></ul>
  9. 9. The Appendicular Skeleton <ul><li>Responsible for body movement </li></ul><ul><li>Consists of the upper an lower extremities, the pectoral girdle, the pelvic girdle. </li></ul><ul><li>The male pelvis is shaped like a funnel. It is stronger and heavier than the females, more suited for lifting and running. </li></ul><ul><li>The female pelvis is shaped more like a basin, to accommodate the fetus and childbirth. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Abnormal Curvature of the Spine <ul><li>Kyphosis -abnormal outward curvature of the thoracic spine, “humpback” </li></ul><ul><li>Lordosis -abnormal forward curvature of the lumbar spine, “swayback” </li></ul><ul><li>Scoliosis -abnormal lateral curvature of the spine. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Fractures <ul><li>Open/ Simple </li></ul><ul><li>Closed/Compound </li></ul><ul><li>Comminuted </li></ul><ul><li>TransverseGreenstick </li></ul><ul><li>Colles’s </li></ul><ul><li>Compression </li></ul><ul><li>Spiral </li></ul><ul><li>Pott’s </li></ul>
  12. 12. Patient Education <ul><li>Keys to maintain or promote bone loss: </li></ul><ul><li>Dietary supplements </li></ul><ul><li>Exercise </li></ul><ul><li>Lifestyle modification </li></ul><ul><li>Hormone replacement </li></ul>
  13. 13. Case Study <ul><li>If Josephine has broke her wrist, what is the most likely type of fracture? </li></ul><ul><li>Why did the physician order physical therapy? </li></ul><ul><li>What other lifestyle changes could she make to slow the development of her osteoporosis? </li></ul>