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Chapter 21 Skeletal

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Chapter 21 Skeletal

  1. 1. Chapter 21 The Skeletal System <ul><li>Objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the skeletal system </li></ul><ul><li>Explain various types of body movement </li></ul><ul><li>Identify abnormal curvatures of the spine </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the male and female pelvis </li></ul><ul><li>Identify types of fractures </li></ul><ul><li>Review case study </li></ul>
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>The skeletal system makes up the framework of the body. </li></ul><ul><li>It consists of 206 bones. </li></ul><ul><li>The rest of the skeletal system is composed of cartilage and ligaments. </li></ul><ul><li>Two divisions of the skeletal system are: </li></ul><ul><li>The axial skeleton </li></ul><ul><li>The appendicular skeleton </li></ul>
  3. 3. Bones and Their Classification <ul><li>Bones consist of 50% water and 50% solid (osseous tissue) matter. </li></ul><ul><li>Bones are classified according to shape: </li></ul><ul><li>Long (arm) </li></ul><ul><li>Short (hand) </li></ul><ul><li>Flat (skull) </li></ul><ul><li>Irregular (vertebra) </li></ul><ul><li>Sesamoid (knee cap) </li></ul><ul><li>Sutural bones (skull) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Functions of Bones <ul><li>Providing shape, support and framework of the body. </li></ul><ul><li>Providing protection for the internal organs. </li></ul><ul><li>Serving as a storage place for minerals salts, calcium and phosphorus. </li></ul><ul><li>Role in formation of red blood cells. (bone marrow) </li></ul><ul><li>Area of attachment for skeletal muscle </li></ul><ul><li>Making movement possible through articulation. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Lifespan Considerations the Child <ul><li>Bones begin to develop from cartilage. Babies are born with a large amount of cartilage. These bones eventually fuse into normal adult bones. </li></ul><ul><li>Babies bones are soft but become harder as minerals are deposited, “ossification”. </li></ul><ul><li>As a child grows, new bone tissue is made between special areas b/t the head of the bone and it’s shaft called the “growth plate”. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Lifespan Considerations the Adult <ul><li>Women build bone until age 35 and then begin to lose about 1% of their bone mass annually. </li></ul><ul><li>Men start about 10-20 years later. </li></ul><ul><li>Most of the skeletal changes during the aging process occur because of connective tissue changes. </li></ul><ul><li>Most bone loss is due to loss of bone mineral content. </li></ul><ul><li>Less joint movement = an increase in joint disease such as arthritis. </li></ul><ul><li>Bone healing is slower in older adults than in children. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Joints and Movement <ul><li>Abduction </li></ul><ul><li>Adduction </li></ul><ul><li>Circumduction </li></ul><ul><li>Dorsiflexion </li></ul><ul><li>Eversion </li></ul><ul><li>Extension </li></ul><ul><li>Flexion </li></ul><ul><li>Inversion </li></ul><ul><li>Pronation </li></ul><ul><li>Retraction </li></ul><ul><li>Rotation </li></ul><ul><li>Supination </li></ul>
  8. 8. Axial Skeleton <ul><li>The central portion of the skeleton </li></ul><ul><li>Consists of the skull, sternum, ribs, vertebrae, sacrum and coccyx. </li></ul>
  9. 9. The Appendicular Skeleton <ul><li>Responsible for body movement </li></ul><ul><li>Consists of the upper an lower extremities, the pectoral girdle, the pelvic girdle. </li></ul><ul><li>The male pelvis is shaped like a funnel. It is stronger and heavier than the females, more suited for lifting and running. </li></ul><ul><li>The female pelvis is shaped more like a basin, to accommodate the fetus and childbirth. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Abnormal Curvature of the Spine <ul><li>Kyphosis -abnormal outward curvature of the thoracic spine, “humpback” </li></ul><ul><li>Lordosis -abnormal forward curvature of the lumbar spine, “swayback” </li></ul><ul><li>Scoliosis -abnormal lateral curvature of the spine. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Fractures <ul><li>Open/ Simple </li></ul><ul><li>Closed/Compound </li></ul><ul><li>Comminuted </li></ul><ul><li>TransverseGreenstick </li></ul><ul><li>Colles’s </li></ul><ul><li>Compression </li></ul><ul><li>Spiral </li></ul><ul><li>Pott’s </li></ul>
  12. 12. Patient Education <ul><li>Keys to maintain or promote bone loss: </li></ul><ul><li>Dietary supplements </li></ul><ul><li>Exercise </li></ul><ul><li>Lifestyle modification </li></ul><ul><li>Hormone replacement </li></ul>
  13. 13. Case Study <ul><li>If Josephine has broke her wrist, what is the most likely type of fracture? </li></ul><ul><li>Why did the physician order physical therapy? </li></ul><ul><li>What other lifestyle changes could she make to slow the development of her osteoporosis? </li></ul>

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