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A&P Chapter 30 The Urinary System


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A&P Chapter 30 The Urinary System

  1. 1. THE URINARY SYSTEM Chapter 29 A&P
  2. 2. OBJECTIVES <ul><li>Describe the purpose and function of the urinary system </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the organs and the function of each </li></ul><ul><li>List 3 processes involved in the production of urine </li></ul><ul><li>Normal constituents of urine. </li></ul><ul><li>Common disorders </li></ul><ul><li>Lifespan considerations </li></ul><ul><li>Case study </li></ul>
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION <ul><li>The urinary system consists of organs that produce and excrete urine from the body. </li></ul><ul><li>Urine contains waste: mostly excess water, salts and nitrogen compounds. </li></ul><ul><li>Primary organs are the kidneys </li></ul><ul><li>Normal adult bladder can store up to .5 liters. </li></ul><ul><li>Also responsible for regulating blood volume and blood pressure. </li></ul><ul><li>Regulates electrolytes. </li></ul>
  4. 4. ORGANS OF THE URINARY SYSTEM <ul><li>The components of the urinary system include : </li></ul><ul><li>the kidneys </li></ul><ul><li>the ureters </li></ul><ul><li>the urinary bladder </li></ul><ul><li>the urethra. </li></ul>
  6. 6. KIDNEYS <ul><li>The kidneys are bean-shaped organs located at the back of the abdominal cavity. </li></ul><ul><li>They lie on either side of the spinal column. </li></ul><ul><li>This area is known as the flank area and is against the muscles of the back. </li></ul><ul><li>The external kidney has a notch at the concave border known as the hilum. </li></ul><ul><li>The hilum is the entrance for renal artery, veins, nerves and lymphatic vessels. </li></ul>
  7. 7. INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF THE KIDNEY <ul><li>The cortex is the outer layer; arteries, veins, convoluted tubes and glomerular capsules </li></ul><ul><li>The medulla is the inner layer; renal pyramids </li></ul>
  8. 8. NEPHRONS <ul><li>1 million nephrons </li></ul><ul><li>The functional unit of the kidney </li></ul><ul><li>Remove waste products of metabolism from the blood plasma. </li></ul><ul><li>Waste products are urea, uric acid, creatinine, sodium, potassium chloride and ketone bodies. </li></ul>
  9. 9. URETERS, BLADDER AND URETHRA <ul><li>Ureters -tubes that carry newly formed urine from the bladder to the kidneys. </li></ul><ul><li>Bladder -muscular sac that serves as a reservoir for urine; bladder stretches to accommodate urine. </li></ul><ul><li>Urethra - tube extends from the bladder to the external opening of the urinary system, the urinary meatus </li></ul>
  10. 10. URINE <ul><li>The formation of urine has 3 processes, filtration, reabsorption and tubular secretion. </li></ul><ul><li>Urine consists of 95% water and 5% solid substances. </li></ul><ul><li>The need to urinate is usually felt at 300-350ml of urine in the bladder. </li></ul><ul><li>Typically 1000-1500 mL is voided daily. </li></ul><ul><li>Observations of urine? </li></ul>
  11. 11. COMMON DISORDERS <ul><li>Cystitis- inflammation of the bladder “honeymoon disease” </li></ul><ul><li>Glomerulonephritis- a type of kidney disease </li></ul><ul><li>Incontinence- stress, urge, overflow, functional, reflex and mixed </li></ul><ul><li>Kidney stones- renal calculi caused my mineral salt deposits in the kidneys </li></ul><ul><li>Polycystic kidney disease- cysts develop in the kidneys </li></ul><ul><li>Pyelonephritis- infection of the kidney and renal pelvis. </li></ul><ul><li>Renal Failure- kidney do not function as they should </li></ul>
  12. 12. LIFESPAN CONSIDERATIONS <ul><li>Child </li></ul><ul><li>At 10 weeks gestation the kidney begin to form </li></ul><ul><li>Newborns kidneys are not able to concentrate urine </li></ul><ul><li>Kidneys are more susceptible to trauma </li></ul><ul><li>Diapers- more susceptible to UTI </li></ul><ul><li>Older Adult </li></ul><ul><li>Kidney lose mass and the blood vessels degenerate </li></ul><ul><li>Kidneys lose their ability to filter </li></ul><ul><li>Dehydration can happen more quickly </li></ul><ul><li>Electrolyte balance happens more quickly </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of muscles tome in urinary structures </li></ul><ul><li>Decreased bladder capacity </li></ul>
  13. 13. CASE STUDY <ul><li>What substance was found in his urine? </li></ul><ul><li>If he could not pass the kidney stone, what treatment would have to be done? </li></ul><ul><li>What types of dietary restrictions should be followed? </li></ul>
  14. 14. THE FAR SIDE