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Translation in prokaryotes


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Translation in prokaryotes

  2. 2. The process in which the messenger RNA (mRNA) generated by transcription is interpreted by the ribosome to generate a particular amino acid succession, or polypeptide that will fold into an active protein.
  3. 3. Bringing the Small Ribosomal Subunit to the Initiation Codon  Binding of small ribosomal subunit to the initiation codon at m-RNA.  How small subunit of ribosomes select initiation codon Shine-Dalgarno Sequence Initiation factors  IF1,IF2,IF3
  4. 4. Bringing the first aa-tRNA into the ribosome  AUG is an initiation and only one codon for METHIONINE. It is always first amino acid in polypeptide chain t-RNA enter at P site and bind to both AUG & IF2 Assemble complete Initiation complex  Larger subunit join complex  GTP hydrolyse  IF2-GDP release 
  5. 5. Series of steps is repeated over and over as amino acids are polymerised in growing polypeptide chain Aminoacyl-t RNA Selection  Entry of second aminoacyltRNA in A site Must join EF-Tu bound to GTP  EF-Tu is require to deliver aminoacyltRNA to A site  Complex of aminoacyltRNA Tu-GTP enter  GTP is hydrolyse and TuGTP release
  6. 6. Peptide Bond Formation  Two amino acid, attached with separate tRNA are juxtaposed in such position that the can react  Amine nitrogen of the aatRNA in A site carries out a nucleophilic attack on carbonyl carbon of amino acid bound to tRNA of P site
  7. 7. A component of large ribosomal subunit known as ribozyme.
  8. 8. TRANSLOCATION  It is actually characterized by a ratchet-like motion of ribosomes Ribosomes moves three nucleotide along mRNA in 5’-3’ direction   Dipeptidyl-tRNA shift from A site P site GTP hydrolyse and EF-GGDP leaves
  9. 9. Releasing the Deacylated tRNA   Deacylated tRNA leaves ribosome Empty E site
  10. 10.  STOP CODON Release Factor   Class 1 RFs RF1, RF2 Class 2 RFs GTP binding protein