Where does cocoa come from???
• First people who made chocolate were the
Mayas and the Aztecs
• They drank chocolate as a bitter and
spicy beverage called “xocoatl” (“bitter
• It symbolized life and fertility and was also
used as medicine
• It was a drink for wealthy and important
people (royalty, priests, etc.)• Cocoa
beans were also used as money
• 1528: Hernán Cortéz came to Spain with
cocoa beans and the formula for the
• 1615: The Spanish princess Anne of
Austria married Luis XIII of France, so
chocolate came to France
• 1657: A Frenchman opened the first
“Chocolate House” in London became
as popular as Coffee Houses
• 1674: The first solid chocolate in a stick
form had been sold
• End of 17th century: chocolate came to
first pralines were made by a German
1792: A chocolate factory was opened in
1875: The first milk chocolate was put on
• The industrialization of chocolate
reduced the production costs and
allowed all levels of society to enjoy
chocolate. Children rapidly became
a great market for chocolate makers. This started
a trend of novelties with the 1923 launch of the
Milky Way by the American Frank Mars while his
son invented the namesake bars, the Mars bar.
• At the same time, Milton Hershey, another
American chocolate producer vastly
expanded his chocolate sales through
clever marketing and capitalizing on
impulse purchases of chocolate in main
street grocery stores. Hershey was called
the "Henry Ford" of chocolate because he
produced a quality chocolate bar at a price
everyone could afford.
• The chocolate industry has grown to a
worldwide industry topping $50 Billion in retail
sales worldwide and continues to show healthy
growth. Recently, there has been an increasing
trend towards high quality chocolates such as
chocolates with high cocoa content and or
chocolates flavored with natural flavors and rich
Types of Chocolates:
The main types of chocolate are
• These types of chocolate may be
produced with ordinary cacao beans
(mass-produced and cheap) or special
cacao beans (aromatic and expensive) or
a mixture of these two types.
– Pure, unsweetened chocolate contains
primarily cocoa solids and cocoa butter in
– Much of the chocolate consumed today is in
the form of sweet chocolate , combining
chocolate with sugar.
– Milk chocolate is sweet chocolate that
additionally contains milk powder or
– White chocolate contains cocoa butter, sugar,
and milk but no cocoa solids.
& SAMIAH ASHER
Theobroma cacao- the Cocoa
• Grows best in tropical rainforest.
• Mostly reaches 7.5 metres in height.
• Has broad leaves 25 cm long with
pale coloured flowers from which
• Tree bears fruit when 3 to 4 years
• Each tree yields 20-30 pods per
• Mostly cultivated from Indonesia,
Malaysia & Ghana.
Types of cocoa pods
Hardy and vigourous,
produces beans with
Not much hardy with
its mild or weak
Cultivated hybrids of
the other two.
Widely grown in
West Africa and
Grown in Indonesia,
Central and South
Grown mainly in the
Caribbean, but also
in Cameroon and
Papua New Guinea.
Harvesting of Cocoa Trees
• Harvesting takes place twice
a year from november to
january and from may to july.
• Fruit is hand-picked to protect
• Once harvested, the pods are
opened and their seeds are
• Beans and the pulp are laid in
the fermentation boxes.
• Fermentation produces heat
requiring the beans to be
• Germination in the cacao bean
is killed by the high
temperatures produced during
the fermentation process.
• After the 5 days process of
fermentation, beans are brown
and have a better flavor.
• After fermentation, the water present in the
beans is dried up to convert them into
• Cacao beans are often dried in the sun, which
can happen on tarps, mats, or patios.
• Humidity in the beans is decreased down to 68% for storage and export.
• Once dried, they can be stored for 4-5 years.
• After sorting and bagging, the cocoa beans
are then loaded on ships to be delivered to
• In the manufacturing plant, the
selected beans undergo extensive
sampling and testing procedure.
• Then roasting takes place at
usually 210 F for about 10-35
• The beans are roasted to darken
the colour and to further bring out
the flavour characteristics of the
• The process of removing shells
from around the beans.
• The dried beans are cracked
and a stream of air separates
the shell from the nib, the small
pieces used to make chocolate.
• The nibs, key ingredient, contain
approximately 53 percent cocoa
butter, depending on the cacao
• The beans are then usually grounded in a
milling or grinding machine called a
• The nibs are grounded into a paste called
• A roll refiner or ball mill is used to create
heat that melts and distributes the cocoa
butter and to further reduce the particle
size of cocoa mass.
• Flavor of the chocolate bar depends on the
percentage of cocoa butter in the liqour.
• With more grinding and the addition of
sugar, lecithin, milk or cream powder or
milk crum and spices such as vanilla
depending upon the manufacturer,
chocolate is made.
• Conching is a process of mixing the cocoa
• It is continuously mixed at a certain
temperature to develop flavor remove
moisture and break down large pieces.
This can take hours to days depending on
the desired outcome.
• The finest chocolates are conched for 5
• The next step is tempering the chocolate
is slowly heated and cooled allowing the
cocoa mass to solidify and stabilize.
• Without tempering the chocolate would
separate and would not harden well.
• After the chocolate is properly tempered
• Addition of other ingredients
• Chocolate cools when it becomes solid
• labeled, packed to be shipped to and to be
• Chocolate is very sensitive to temperature
• Ideal storage temperatures are between
15 and 17 °C.
• Fat bloom is dull white film on surface of
• temperature fluctuating or exceeding 24 C
• Dry and hard to the touch.
• sugar bloom is caused by temperature
below 15 C or excess humidity.
• Chocolate manufactures want to make
sure every chocolate and cocoa product
that leaves their warehouse is of the
• Tasting Panel meets weekly.
• write a descriptive analysis of a product's
aromas, flavors, aftertaste, mouth feel,
and so on.
Heart Health Benefits of Chocolate:
• Dark chocolate is good for your heart.
• Lower Blood Pressure.
• Lower Cholesterol.
• Chocolate can also protect heart vessels of
Chocolate also holds benefits apart from
protecting your heart.
• It stimulates endorphin production, which gives a
feeling of pleasure.
• It contains serotonin, which acts as an antidepressant.
• It contains theobromine, caffeine and other
substances which are stimulants.
Balance the Calories:
• Chocolate is still a high-calorie, high-fat food.
• No more than 100 grams, or about 3.5 ounces,
of dark chocolate a day to get the benefits.
• One bar of dark chocolate has around 400
• If you eat half a bar of chocolate a day, you must
balance those 200 calories.
• Increase the brain activity.
• Antioxidants (polyphenol) contained in chocolate
can help us eliminate free radicals and prevent
• eating chocolate can help us improve emotions
and release high pressure.
Keeping Your Teeth Healthy
According to researcher the cocoa extract works
even better than fluoride when it comes to
USE OF CHOCOLATE IN
Dark, light, semisweet,
bittersweet, milk, white
and other varieties of
chocolate all have their
places in baking. It is
used to make Pastries
• USED AS FACIAL
• facials are all the rage
• Today chocolate is used
as a face mask .
• Chocolate is high in
• As A Weapon
During World War II it was
believed the Nazis were
going to try and
Churchill using a bomb
disguised as a bar of milk
• Chocolate's reputation for making people feel
good is based not only on its caffeine
content, but on its naturally occurring mood
• Phenylethylalanine .
found in the blood of people in love.
• Anandamide .
stimulates areas of your brain also affected by
the active ingredients in marijuana.