Submitted to: Sir Waqar MalikSubmitted by: Maryam Jamil,37Zahida Malik,13Amna Ashfaq,29Maryam Yaseen,14
"Regardless of how the infringer sees it... piracy is theft ofintellectual property and is no more justifiable than shoplifting,stealing cable service or other utilities. Developers invest time andmoney to develop a... product and deserve to make a fair profit - sothey can develop new ...products. This is particularly crucial forsmall developers... whose survival depends on income from sales toa limited market“
"Pirated copyright goods shall mean any goods whichare copies made without the consent of the rightholderor person duly authorised by the rightholder in thecountry of production and which are made directly orindirectly from an article where the making of that copywould have constituted an infringement of a copyrightor a related right under the law of the country ofimportation"
The explosion of media piracy was galvanized by theinvention of the MP3 format back in 1993. Thisformat allowed the copying of CDs to computerdevices, from which pirate CD replicas could then beproduced. The MP3 format wasnt used as widely forpiracy until the Napster website opened in 1999.This highly publicized site allowed users to trade anddownload musical files. Though Napster waseventually closed after the recording industrybrought a number of lawsuits against it, a variety ofpeer-to-peer file services has since sprung up acrossthe Net, making it easy to download media filesillegally.
Print Music Films Software Internet (online)
Any unauthorized use of a copyrighted work, such as abook, school manual, journal article or sheet music,represents an infringement of copyright or a case ofcopyright piracy, unless covered by a copyright exception.Piracy of printed works affects both paper copies and worksin digital format. In some developing countries, trade inpirated books often exceeds the legitimate market.Educational institutions represent a primary target marketfor pirates.Infringing activities include both illegal commercialphotocopying and/or printing and reproduction of booksand other printed material in digital form, as well asdistribution in hard copy or digital format.
Music piracy includes both traditional unlawful use ofmusic and unauthorized use of music on on-linecommunication networks. Bootlegging (unauthorized recording and duplication of alive or broadcast performance) Counterfeiting (unauthorized copying of the materialsupport, labels, artwork and packaging) are the mostwidespread types of traditional music piracy. The unauthorized uploading and making available to thepublic of music files or downloading such files from anInternet site is referred to as Internet or on-line piracy. On-line piracy may also include certain uses of "streaming"technologies.
As in the case of music, film piracy is either traditionalor done over the Internet. It includes, but is not limitedto, videocassette and optical disc piracy, theatricalcamcorder piracy, theatrical print theft, signal theft andbroadcasting piracy, and on-line piracy.
Software piracy refers to practices that involve theunauthorized copying of computer software.
The unauthorized downloading or distribution overthe Internet of unauthorized copies of works such asmovies, music, videogames and software is generallyreferred to as Internet or on-line piracy. Illicitdownloads occur through file-sharing networks, illegalservers, websites and hacked computers. Hard goodspirates also use the Internet to sell illegally duplicatedDVDs through auctions and websites.
Low level of public awareness High consumer demand for cultural products Misconceptions about piracy Inefficient intellectual property protection and weakenforcement of rights High cost of cultural goods Difficulty of access to legitimate works Considerable business profits for pirates
In the United States, as in many countries around theworld, breaking copyright on media is illegal If an individual breaks federal law regarding mediapiracy, she is liable to end up in court. Even a first-timeoffender can end up paying as much as $250,000 in fines,or face a maximum five years in jail. Copyright holders,like the Recording Industry Association of America, alsohave the ability to sue individuals, and can potentially beawarded as much as $150,000 for every copyrighted filedistributed illegally.
Authorities responsible for enforcing the copyright law1. Police- Section 74 (3) of the Copyright Law.2. Federal Investigation Agency- Second Schedule of FIA Act of 1974.3. Customs- Sections 58, 65A to 65C of the Copyright Law.4. Judiciary- Civil/Criminal- Sections 59 to 77 of the Copyright Law.5. Pakistan electronic Media Regulatory Authority (PEMRA)-PEMRA Ordinance 2007
Megaupload, a Hong-Kong based company, was a filesharing site founded by Kim Dotcom in 2005. Users couldfreely upload and download files from the site, but neededto pay a small sum to upgrade their access to "premiumaccess" so as to have access to faster download speeds, nofile limitations etc. However, the site was shut down on the19 January 2012, after being accused of costing copyrightholders of films, music and other content more than $500million dollars in revenue by enabling millions of freedownloads of these materials. Movie industry wascomplaining that the company was making money out ofpirated material
One of the worlds largest file sharing sites. User base of at least a 150 million people around theworld So widely used that profits earned founder KimDotcom 42 million dollars in 2011 82,764,913 unique visitors 1,000,000,000 page views throughout history 25 petabytes of storage
1. Counterfeiting2. Internet Piracy3. End User Piracy4. Client-Server Overuse5. Hard-Disk Loading
This type of piracy is the illegal duplication,distribution and/or sale of copyrighted material withthe intent of imitating the copyrighted product.
This occurs when software is downloaded from theInternet. The same purchasing rules apply to on-linesoftware purchases as for those bought in compact discformat.
This occurs when an individual reproduces copies ofsoftware without authorization.
This type of piracy occurs when too many users on anetwork are using a central copy of a program at thesame time
This occurs when a business sells new computers withillegal copies of software loaded onto the hard disks tomake the purchase of the machines more attractive.
Warning Sign1. Prices that are too good to be true. Auction Sites1. Unbundled OEM and System Builder software2. No box and manual on CD3. No tech support4. Key/serial number only5. Disc only6. CD-R/backup copy7. Software delivered via e-mail8. Software described as "cannot be registered"9. Compilation - more than one program on a single CD Spam1. Be cautious of unsolicited spam that promotes Symantec/Norton branded software2. File spam complaints with FTC3. Visit sources of spam for more information on spam
1. Decrease in Sales of Legal Copies2. Retail Price Effects of Piracy3. Estimating the Amount of Piracy4. The Expectation of Piracy5. Non-profit Losses6. A Past Piracy Problem In June of 1996, the largest ever video piracy operation in the United States wasdismantled in New York. The nationwide counterfeit business sold more than100,000 pirated videos a week, grossing approximately $500,000. Theinvestigation, dubbed “Operation Copy Cat”, culminated when search warrantswere executed by the New York City Police Department, assisted by the MPAA,on 17 locations, including four labs. Authorities arrested 36 people and seized817 VCRs, 77,641 pirated videos, $40,000 in case, 37,000 blank cassettes, morethan 100,000 sleeves, labels and other sophisticated equipment used in theduplicating process. The economic impact on MPAA member companies isestimated to be more than $87 million a year.
There are two methods proposed by Peter Troost may help in thewar on piracy.1. build copy protection into an operating system2. Meterware (superdistribution)
Even though anti-piracy organizations have madegreat strides in their fight, with the enormous growthof the Internet, current anti-piracy methods will notcompletely stop piracy. The damage done to the industry and legitimate enduser does not outweigh the few advantages that piracydoes have. The chances of being caught, the fines, andthe jail sentences are constantly increasing. Organizations and industry need to come up withsolutions to increase copyright protection, inform theuneducated, and negate the advantages that computerpiracy has.