Submitted To; Sir Raza e MustafaSubmitted By; Maria KhalilRoll Number; 09050610-043Department; BS-Physics 3rd semesterSubject EnglishTopic ‘ Role of women in development’ Role of women in development:Background:In the 1940s, 1950s and 1960s, women were only viewed as mothers and housewives, withindevelopment policies and programmes. Their economic activities and contributions were ignoredand not valued. Development theorists and planners saw men as the agents and actors of
development. Men were seen to be the breadwinners of their families. Women wereinvisible.Women were an under-utilized resource for development.Women in Islam:Islamic law makes no demand that women should confine themselves to household duties. Infact the early Muslim women were found in all walks of life. The first wife of the Prophet, was abusiness woman. Women traded in the marketplace, and the Khalifah Umar, not normally notedfor his liberal attitude to women, appointed a woman, Shaffa Bint Abdullah, to supervise themarket. Other women, like Laila al-Ghifaria, took part in battles, carrying water and nursing thewounded.Status of women in world:women perform two thirds of the world’s work. women earn one tenth of the world’sincomewomen are two thirds of the world’s illiterate. women own less than one hundredth of theworld’s property Working Women in Pakistan:Women in Pakistan have progressed in various fields of life such as politics, education,economy, services, health and many more. 16% of Pakistani women were "economically active"(either employed, or unemployed but available to furnish labor).Female workers are more likely to be full-time workers in all farm sizes in NWFP (89.54%) andSindh (74,36%). Punjab shows an almost equal division between full-time workers (55.6%) andpart-time workers, while in Balochistan 82.84 percent of female family workers are part-time.Role of rural women:Rural -women are major contributors in four sub-sectors of the rural economy, crop production,livestock production, cottage industry, household and family maintenance activities, such astransporting water, fuel and fodder to and from the home, food preparation and preservation andcaring for children, the elderly and the disabled women make up 76 percent of all part-timeworkers and only 25 percent of those acknowledged as full-time workers.Role of urban women:In urban areas, females find their way to schools, colleges, universities or scholarships abroad.Other than the medicine, which was once considered to be the only profession which womenjoined, Now even the most technical spheres like engineering, architecture, communications andIT. Women can now be seen encouraging cricket teams and participating all kinds of sports fromcricket to athletics and even marathon recently held in Lahore.
Today, women in Pakistan hold high ranking positions as the CEOs and executives. Recently thepresident has appointed Dr Shamshad Akhtar as the first female governor of the State Bank ofPakistan. Two lady doctors of the Pakistan Army have also risen to the rank of major general.The female doctors joined hands with the male doctors in the most inaccessible earth quake hitareas in the northern part of Pakistan to treat the sick and wounded.Role of women in economic development: Womens development is intrinsic to the development of the developing world. Women producemore than 80 percent of the food in the Sub-Saharan Africa and 50-60 percent in Asia. Womenalso contribute substantially to the family budget through income-generating activities such asfood processing, trading of agricultural products and handicraft production. Women in history of Pakistan;Fatima Jinnah, sister of Mohammed Ali Jinnah, was an instrumental figure in the Pakistanmovement. She was the first Muslim woman to contest the presidency in 1965, as a candidate ofthe Combined Opposition Party. Mohtarma Benazir Bhutto was the first female prime minister ofPakistan (1988)(1991) and the first woman elected to head a Muslim country.Role of women defense systemA total defence system aims at ensuring the physical. civil economic social and psychologicalsecurity. Women role in defence system covers many fields e.g. role of women in medical,armed forces,millitary,navy and submarines etc. Role of women in medicalIn medical field women are working well as compared to males,Women works as a gynecologistpreventing lives of thousands of women and with their proper cure preventing them from fataldisease. In surgery they also perform a notable contribution. Women working as a midwife andnurse and also a lady doctor serves to save the lives of people nurses receive silver star awardpreviously. Role of women in militaryDepartment of Defense (DOD) women played a vital role in the theater of operations. By lateFebruary, more than 37,000 military women were in the Persian Gulf, making up approximately6.8 percent of US forces. 3,700 Navy, 2,200 Marine, and 5,300 Air Force (USAF) womendeployed. Women served in almost all of the hundreds of occupations open to them; as a matterof law and policy, women were excluded from certain specific combat military occupationalspecialties.
Role of women in armed forces Permit women to fill active combat roles, including New Zealand, Canada, Denmark, Finland,France, Germany, Norway, Israel, Serbia, Sweden and Switzerland. Other nations allow femalesoldiers to serve in certain Combat Arms positions, such as the United Kingdom, which allowswomen to serve in Artillery roles, while still excluding them from units with a dedicated Infantryrole. By Service, there were approximately 26,000 Army.Women on submarinesThe Royal Norwegian Navy became the first navy in the world to permit female personnel toserve in submarines, appointing a female submarine captain in 1995, followed by the RoyalAustralian Navy (RAN) in 1998 and thereafter Canada and Spain, all operators of conventionalsubmarines. By Service, there were approximately 3700 navy and 2200 in submarines.Role of women in navyIt was noted that women now represented 15% of the Active Duty Navy and that women todayearn about half of all science and engineering bachelor’s degrees.In the late 20th century andearly 21st century, there have been a significant representations of "women warriors" in popularculture, occasionally including women in the military.Role of women in physics and engineering.Women played also a role in physics and engineering for making weapons for country survivalin all over the world. About 20%women are working in the fields of physics but the ratio is nowincreasing. Women’s role in technologyWomen in the history of technology : Women historically have been under-represented in scientific and technical fields. There aremultiple reasons for this, Being the cultural stereotypes and definitions of women and men,which, in the Western world, are grounded in the religious and political culture and have beeninstitutionalized through our education and socialization over the centuries. Women have been given limited educational opportunities, have been restricted by law frommany activities, and have been excluded from professional societies and publications Today weare seeing far more participation by women in the technical fields But in reality, there havealways been women who applied their common sense and natural abilities to contribute to theirworld through scientific and technical innovations.Autumn Stanley, in her book Mothers andDaughters of Invention, proposes that many of the anonymous inventions which mark human
prehistory were developed by women. Since women were responsible for gathering food, theyprobably identified potential food crops such as grains, tubers, fruits and herbs, and transplantedor sowed them near early tribal settlements. This would qualify as the invention of agriculture Women’s role in processing of food The processing of foods also falls to women in most primitive societies. Grinding roots andgrains requires technological development in the form of tools, and storage of perishable fooditems requires the invention of processes such as drying, jerking, smoking, and pickling. Manyfoods which we take for granted, such as tapioca and olives, must be chemically processed just inorder to be edibleClothing preparation:Another field of prehistoric technology which probably fell to women was clothing. Preparationof hides, weaving, and sewing are all activities generally done by women in primitive cultures.The development of preserving, softening, bleaching and dyeing methods for animal skins, theinvention of weaving techniques and equipment including carding and sewing implements suchas hooks, needles, scissors, and sinew or fiber threads may all be credited to our unknown fore-mothers.Mechanical inventions:A variety of medical instruments and devices were invented and patented by women during thenineteenth century, including sterilization techniques and devices, medical beds and chairs, fieldambulances and stretchers, splints, and an improved speculum. The modern intravenous drip wasdeveloped by a team which included Justine Wagner, who worked during the firsthalf of this century. She also helped develop resuscitation techniques for victims of electricshock, and cryogenic therapy to destroy cancer cells.Industrial revolution:From the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, we know that women invented and improvedmachinery and industrial designs. One of our countrys earliest successful industries the strawbonnet business was built on several related inventions, all by women. It began in 1798, withBetsey Metcalfs development of an improved method of braiding straw to make straw bonnets.Her invention formed the basis of a flourishing cottage industry. Mary Dixon Kies helped theindustry expand in 1809 by developing a process for weaving the straw for bonnets. Impact of women development in society.Positive impact:
People who speaks more of women’s freedom try to prove that a woman is a fitting member of asociety to perform any sort of work as a man.They also justify with the reference to the advancedand progressed societies on earth that women can render better services outdoor in comparisonwith those rendered indoor.They lay much emphasis on the equality of men and women; theywant to see women, enjoying an equal status to men.Development increase at a high rate.Negative impact:All positive impacts are opposed by those who say that the best services of a woman is to lookafter man’s generation. They declare it to be the most sacred profession for a woman, justifyingthat she is already doing it by nature. According to them the contrary role of the Western womenby working in offices, factories and other fields of men, might give them desired freedom but notthe deserved respect.In this way women are exploited by loading with double duty of home and job. She cannot giveher duties properly and generations are being affected.