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Presented to:                 Sir Yusuf KhanPresented by :                 09040606-028                           -031    ...
   Classification   Tabulation   Tabulation   Frequency Distribution   Graphical representation   Diagrams   Graph
   Definition         “The process of dividing a set of    observation or objects into classes or Group.”   One way clas...
   TO reduce the Large sets……….   To display points of similarity……….   To save mental strain by eliminating………   To r...
   Classes should be arranged so that each    observation can be placed in one and only    one class .   Classes should ...
TABULATIONSystematic presentation of data classified under suitable head and subheads and place in columns and rows
   Title   Column captions and boxhead   Row captions and Stub   Prefatory Notes and Footnotes   Source Notes   Body...
…….Title……                     prefatory notesBoxhea               Column captionsd             units  STUB ……    ……. B   ...
   Frequency:                  “ The number of observations    falling in a particular class is referred to as    the cla...
   It is a tabular summary of a set of data that    shows that frequency or number of data    items that falls in each of...
   The number or the values of the variables    which describe the classes.   Upper class limits   Lower class limits
Upper class limits• Are the largest numbers that can  actually belong to different classes                     1-3     10 ...
Lower class limits• Are the smallest numbers that can  actually belong to different classes                    1-3      10...
   The class boundaries are the precise numbers    which separate one class from another, the    selection of these numbe...
Class midpoints• Midpoints of the classes• Class midpoints can be found by  adding lower class limits to the upper  class ...
Class midpoints• Midpoints of the classes         Class limits( in miles)   Frequency         123                       10...
   The class width of a class is equal to the    differences b/w class boundaries.   It can also be obtain by   Differe...
   Decide on the number of classes into which    the data are to be grouped.   Determine the range variation in the data...
   Decide where to locate the class limit of the    lowest class and the lower class boundary.   Determine the remaining...
   Twenty five army officers were given a blood    test to determine their blood type.the data    set is :        A      ...
   It frequency distribution is:        CLASS               FREQUENCY        A                   5        B              ...
 Suppose a researchers wished to do a study on the  number of miles that the employees of a large  department store trave...
Classes   Frequency1-3       104-6       147-9       1010-12     613-15     516-18     5Total                 50
   It is very hard for us to tell the information    from such a table full a raw data .Therefore    the researcher organ...
Graph        Diagramssimple          pie diagrams      PictogramsComponentMultiple bar charts
   A simple bar chart consist of horizontal or    vertical bars of equal width and lengths    proportional to the value t...
   When the magnitude of a factor is given with    its sub factors , Each bar is further is sub    divided into component...
   A popular device for portraying the statistical    data by means of picture or small symbols.                     Pie ...
Time series historigram     cumulative f polygon                            Histogram Frequency polygon
   Graph present the data in a simple, clear and    effective manner.    facilitate comparison b/w two or more than    t...
   A curve showing changes in the value of one    or more items from one period of time to the    next is known as the gr...
   A histogram consist of a set of adjacent    rectangles whose bases are marked off by    class boundaries ( not class l...
   A frequency polygon is a graph that displays    the data by using lines that connect points    plotted for frequencies...
   When a frequency polygon or histogram is    constructed over class midpoints make it    sufficiently small for large n...
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  1. 1. Presented to: Sir Yusuf KhanPresented by : 09040606-028 -031 -011 -001 -048 -014
  2. 2.  Classification Tabulation Tabulation Frequency Distribution Graphical representation Diagrams Graph
  3. 3.  Definition “The process of dividing a set of observation or objects into classes or Group.” One way classification Two way classification A manifold or cross classification
  4. 4.  TO reduce the Large sets………. To display points of similarity………. To save mental strain by eliminating……… To reflect important aspects………… To prepare the ground for comparison…..
  5. 5.  Classes should be arranged so that each observation can be placed in one and only one class . Classes should be inclusive. The conventional classification procedure should be adopted. The classification procedure should not be so elaborate.
  6. 6. TABULATIONSystematic presentation of data classified under suitable head and subheads and place in columns and rows
  7. 7.  Title Column captions and boxhead Row captions and Stub Prefatory Notes and Footnotes Source Notes Body and arrangement of data Spacing and rulings
  8. 8. …….Title…… prefatory notesBoxhea Column captionsd units STUB …… ……. B D …… …… …. ... O Y …… …..FOOT NOTES……….SOURCE NOTES………..
  9. 9.  Frequency: “ The number of observations falling in a particular class is referred to as the class frequency or simply “frequency” is denoted by f”
  10. 10.  It is a tabular summary of a set of data that shows that frequency or number of data items that falls in each of several distinct classes or simply the arrangement of data according to magnitude is called frequency distribution.
  11. 11.  The number or the values of the variables which describe the classes. Upper class limits Lower class limits
  12. 12. Upper class limits• Are the largest numbers that can actually belong to different classes 1-3 10 4-6 14 upper class limit 7-9 10 10-12 6 13-15 5 16-18 5
  13. 13. Lower class limits• Are the smallest numbers that can actually belong to different classes 1-3 10 4-6 14 Lower class limit 7-9 10 10-12 6 13-15 5 16-18 5
  14. 14.  The class boundaries are the precise numbers which separate one class from another, the selection of these numbers removes the difficulty. If any ,in knowing the class to which particular value should be assighned e.g 0.5-3.5,3.5- 6.5,6.5-9.5 Class boundaries ( in Frequency miles) 0.5-3.5 10 3.5-6.5 14 6.5-9.5 10 9.5-12.5 6 12.5-15.5 5 15.5-18.5 5
  15. 15. Class midpoints• Midpoints of the classes• Class midpoints can be found by adding lower class limits to the upper class limits and dividing the sum by two.
  16. 16. Class midpoints• Midpoints of the classes Class limits( in miles) Frequency 123 10 456 14 Mid 789 10points 10 11 12 6 13 14 15 5 16 17 18 5
  17. 17.  The class width of a class is equal to the differences b/w class boundaries. It can also be obtain by Difference b/w two successive lower and upper class limits. Difference b/w two successive class marks Denoted by h or c.
  18. 18.  Decide on the number of classes into which the data are to be grouped. Determine the range variation in the data Divide the range variation by the number of classes to determine the approximate width or size of the equal class-interval
  19. 19.  Decide where to locate the class limit of the lowest class and the lower class boundary. Determine the remaining class limit and class boundaries by adding the class-interval repeatedly. Distribute the data into appropriate classes. Total the frequency column to see that all the datas have been accounted for.
  20. 20.  Twenty five army officers were given a blood test to determine their blood type.the data set is : A B B AB O O O B AB B B B O A O A O O O AB AB A O B A
  21. 21.  It frequency distribution is: CLASS FREQUENCY A 5 B 7 O 9 AB 4 TOTAL 25 Now some general observations can be obtained from looking at the data in the form of frequency distribution. For example, the majority officers belonging to group O
  22. 22.  Suppose a researchers wished to do a study on the number of miles that the employees of a large department store travelled to work each day.The researcher first would have to collect the data by asking each employee the approximate distance the store is from or his or her home.The data are: 1 2 6 7 12 13 2 6 9 5 18 7 5 3 15 15 4 17 1 14 4 16 4 5 8 6 5 18 5 2 9 11 12 1 9 2 10 11 4 10 9 18 8 8 4 14 7 3 2 6
  23. 23. Classes Frequency1-3 104-6 147-9 1010-12 613-15 516-18 5Total 50
  24. 24.  It is very hard for us to tell the information from such a table full a raw data .Therefore the researcher organizes the data by constructing a frequency distribution. The frequency is the number of values in a specific class of distribution.
  25. 25. Graph Diagramssimple pie diagrams PictogramsComponentMultiple bar charts
  26. 26.  A simple bar chart consist of horizontal or vertical bars of equal width and lengths proportional to the value they represent. Multiple Bar Chart To depict a number of related factors for comparison various years or at a number of places multiple bar diagrams.
  27. 27.  When the magnitude of a factor is given with its sub factors , Each bar is further is sub divided into components in proportion to to the magnitude of the sub factors . It is also called sub-divided bars.
  28. 28.  A popular device for portraying the statistical data by means of picture or small symbols. Pie diagrams A pie diagrams is a circle that is divided into sections according to the percentage of frequencies in each category of the distribution.
  29. 29. Time series historigram cumulative f polygon Histogram Frequency polygon
  30. 30.  Graph present the data in a simple, clear and effective manner. facilitate comparison b/w two or more than two statistical series. It provide picture of a statistical series.
  31. 31.  A curve showing changes in the value of one or more items from one period of time to the next is known as the graph of time series . This curve also called historigaram .
  32. 32.  A histogram consist of a set of adjacent rectangles whose bases are marked off by class boundaries ( not class limit) on the X- axis and whose heights are proportional to frequencies associated with respective classes.
  33. 33.  A frequency polygon is a graph that displays the data by using lines that connect points plotted for frequencies at the midpoints of classes. The frequencies represent the heights of midpoints .
  34. 34.  When a frequency polygon or histogram is constructed over class midpoints make it sufficiently small for large number of observations, is smoothed. And shows a continuous curve it is called frequency curve.

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