• History of Greece
• Greek Mythology And ancient History
• Civilizations of Greece
• History & Role of women in ancient
• Culture and languages of Greeks
History of Greece
• There are Many ages of Ancient Greek’s
• Cycladic Civilization (3200 – 1100) B.C
in Art &
Minoan Civilization (2700 – 1500) B.C
• Civilization in crete began in about 3000 BC called minoan
• Crete is a land of mountains and hills.
• Surrounded by seas which are rich in fish of all kinds.
• Wheat, olives, and grapes grow in valleys.
• There were a number of large palaces and small towns, the
most famous palace was at knosses.
• The Minoan people were very skilled at making pottery, jewelry, gold and
bronze goods of all kinds.
• They traded Olive oil and wine all around the Mediterranean coasts and
• The Minoan civilization ended in about 1450 BC When a volcanic island
120 km away exploded.
• The civilization never recovered and was later conquered by the
Mycenaean Civilization ( 1900 –
• 2000 BC some Aryan tribes moved into southern Greece
• This civilization is called Mycenaeans , it was named after their city Mycenae.
• They were skilled craftsmen in pottery and metal work.
• Main city for trade was Troy In about 1200 BC a war broke out between the two cities.
• A Trojan kidnapped Helen, the wife of a Greek King.
• The Greeks besieged Troy for ten years. Many people were slaughtered of Troy.
• In about 1200 BC Mycenaeans Greece and Crete was conquered by Aryan people called
& Ancient History
Gods of Greeks.
Zues: God of the Sky
Poscidon: Ruler of the seas
Aphrodite: The daughter of Zues
(Goddess of love & beauty)
Athena: The Goddess
(Goddess of Wisdom)
Artemis: Goddess of the hunt
1- Greeks thought there was a world beneath the ground which the spirit reached by
crossing a black river called styx, which flowed between the land of the living and
The dead were ferried across this river by a one-armed boatman called Charon, who
had to be paid for his services.
For this reason when Greeks were buried, a small coin was placed under their
2- Greek doctors believed that music, dancing and watching plays were good for
people who had mental problems.
Civilizations of Greece
• World’s greatest civilizations began in Greece.
• People here all spoke Greek.
• All have different governments and laws.
• Some city states had Kings, some were ruled by
noblemen, some were ruled by people themselves.
• There were about 150 cities in Greece.
• The most important cities & civilizations were Athens &
• The two main civilizations of Greece were named after
Athens & Sparta.
• From about 650 – 350 BC.
• Athens was a beautiful city of wonderful buildings, temples, markets, theatres, sports grounds and
• Life was pleasant and people liked slaves even though they had no legal rights, they were still
generally treated well.
• Women of all ranks were rarely allowed to go out except for religious ceremonies after they were
married and otherwise remained in special quarters in their homes.
• Athens was a democracy. The city had only a small army, though in war time every man was
expected to fight.
• Athens is the capital and the largest city of Greece.
• It is a center for economic, political, financial and culture life in knowledge.
• Athens is the symbol of freedom, art, and democracy in the conscience of the civilized world.
• Athens took its name from the goddess Athena, the goddess of wisdom.
• Sparta: Sparta was the Dorian Greek military
state, considered as the protector of Greece as
it was providing large army to Greece for
• Sparta was ruled by dictatorship.
• There were few beautiful buildings, little art or literature. Even their coins were made of iron and not
gold or silver.
• Everything from houses to all that which was in them belonged to a state.
• At meal times they were even made to eat together in public and could not eat in their own homes.
• The Spartans thought mainly of war and how to train for it.
• Free men were not allowed to be craftsmen or traders but spent their whole life from the ages of 7 to
about 50 living in army camps, preparing for battle.
• Even on their wedding day the groom had his marriage feast in the army baracks and bride had her
with friends near her home.
• Baby boys who did not look strong at birth were left on the mountainside for days and, if they were
still alive at the end of that period, they were brought up by their mothers.
• At age of 7, boys were taken away to camp for hard and cruel training.
History & Role of woman in Ancient
Pandora was the first human woman created
by Athena on the instructions of Zeus.
• The life of women in Ancient Greece fell into
• 1- An existence of inferiority in Athens
• 2- A life of influence and respect in Sparta
Women Roles of Athens
• Women in Athens grew up with no rights
• were considered inferior and thought to be so
unintelligent that a man needed to save them
• E.g. a woman's job was to care for the
children, cook and clean unless she had
servants or slaves to do that for her, and have
• Given little or no voice
• Take care of children
• Sheltered lives
• Maintain household
• Serve husband Dutifully
• Look attractive
• Not allowed to vote
• As soon as girls were married, they’d become husband’s slaves
• Had no legal rights
• Not allowed to go out except for religious ceremonies.
• They spent much of their lives spinning wool or linen.
• They normally ate in their own quarters separately from the men.
• Their husbands could marry them off to anyone else if they wanted to
and, even after the man’s death, they were not free.
• Poorer women without slaves were a little better off because they had to
go into the market to buy food, and some even had stalls there.
• Women of household were not admitted of course, but professional
performers entertained the drinkers with dancing and flutes or harp
playing in the drinking parties.
Woman roles of Sparta
• Female dominancy
• Can cast a vote
• Spartan girl’s were permitted
to exercise outdoors.
• Women were treated equally
• Spartan women were taught to read and write and were expected
to be intelligent and emotionally strong enough to administer and
• Spartan women were afforded a public education as well. This was
very radical - other Greek girls were not formally educated.
• were greatly influential in society
Culture & Languages
• Dance: Ancient Greeks believed that dancing was invented by the
Gods and therefore associated it with religious ceremonies
• Music: Greece has a highly influential musical tradition
• The Greek’s invented theatre, which began as a religious festival to
honor the wine God Dionysus.
• The Greeks also wrote poetry.
• Olympic Games: In 776 BC the Greeks held games in honor of the
god Zeus at the small town of Olympia.
• Women in most city-states of ancient Greece had very
few rights. They were under the control and protection
of their father, husband, or a male relative for their
entire lives. Women had no role in politics. Women
with any wealth did not work. They stayed indoors
running their households. The only public job of
importance for a woman was as a religious priestess.