ESP T_Kit on Fishery


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ESP T_Kit on Fishery

  1. 1. ESP T-Kit on Fishery PRESENTED BY M A R YA M E S K A N D A R J O U Y 20/12/2013
  2. 2. Objectives  Understand the concept of Fishery in general  Be able to identify different fishery types  Be familiar with the term ―fish‖ in science  Be able to apply fishery technical words to use in real world
  3. 3. Fishery Generally, a fishery is an entity engaged in raising or harvesting fish which is determined by some authority to be a fishery. According to the FAO, a fishery is typically defined in terms of the "people involved, species or type of fish, area of water or seabed, method of fishing, class of boats, purpose of the activities or a combination of the foregoing features". The definition often includes a combination of fish and fishers in a region, the latter fishing for similar species with similar gear types. A fishery may involve the capture of wild fish or raising fish through fish farming or aquaculture. Directly or indirectly, the livelihood of over 500 million people in developing countries depends on fisheries and aquaculture. Overfishing, including the taking of fish beyond sustainable levels, is reducing fish stocks and employment in many world regions. If fisheries are poorly managed, environmental impacts go unchecked. Unsustainable fishing practices put seafood resources and fishing livelihoods at risk – the United Nations FAO estimates that 11 of the world's 15 major fishing areas, and 69 percent of the world's major fish species, are in decline and in need of urgent management.
  4. 4. The term “fish”  In biology – the term fish is most strictly used to describe any animal with a backbone that has gills throughout life and has limbs, if any, in the shape of fins. Many types of aquatic animals commonly referred to as fish are not fish in this strict sense; examples include shellfish, cuttlefish, starfish, crayfish and jellyfish. In earlier times, even biologists did not make a distinction — sixteenth century natural historians classified also seals, whales, amphibians, crocodiles, even hippopotamuses, as well as a host of aquatic invertebrates, as fish.  True fish – The strict biological definition of a fish, above, is sometimes called a true fish. True fish are also referred to as finfish or fin fish to distinguish them from other aquatic life harvested in fisheries or aquaculture.
  5. 5. Types Fisheries are harvested for their value. They can be saltwater or freshwater, wild or farmed. Examples are the salmon fishery of Alaska, the cod fishery off the Lofoten islands, the tuna fishery of the Eastern Pacific, or the shrimp farm fisheries in China. Capture fisheries can be broadly classified as industrial scale, small-scale or artisanal, and recreational. Close to 90% of the world’s fishery catches come from oceans and seas, as opposed to inland waters. These marine catches have remained relatively stable since the mid-nineties (between 80 and 86 million tons). Most fisheries are wild fisheries, but farmed fisheries are increasing. Farming can occur in coastal areas, such as with oyster farms, but more typically occur inland, in lakes, ponds, tanks and other enclosures. There are species fisheries worldwide for finfish, mollusks, crustaceans and echinoderms, and by extension, aquatic plants such as kelp. However, a very small number of species support the majority of the world’s fisheries. Some of these species are herring, cod, anchovy, tuna, flounder, mullet, squid, shrimp, salmon, crab, lobster, oyster and scallops. All except these last four provided a worldwide catch of well over a million tons in 1999, with herring and sardines together providing a harvest of over 22 million metric tons in 1999. Many other species are harvested in smaller numbers.
  6. 6. Overfishing Overfishing is the act whereby fish stocks are depleted to unacceptable levels, regardless of water body size. Low biological growth rates and critically low biomass levels result from overfishing. For example, overfishing of sharks has led to the upset of entire marine ecosystems. The ability of a fishery to recover from overfishing depends on whether the ecosystem’s conditions are suitable for the recovery. Dramatic changes in species composition can result in an ecosystem shift, where other equilibrium energy flows involve species compositions different from those that had been present before the depletion of the original fish stock. For example, once trout have been overfished, carp might take over in a way that makes it impossible for the trout to re-establish a breeding population.
  7. 7. Vocabulary Bank
  8. 8. Fishery Definition the occupation or industry of catching, processing, or selling fish or shellfish. Sample sentence The marine fishery is in steep decline or even collapse.
  9. 9. Fish Definition a limbless cold-blooded vertebrate animal with gills and fins and living wholly in water. Sample sentence The fossils rarely exhibited any traces of the soft tissues of fish .
  10. 10. Fisherman Definition A person who catches fish for a living or for sport. Sample sentence Earthworms are then moved to the surface, much to the fisherman 's delight.
  11. 11. Overfishing Definition Deplete the stock of fish in (a body of water) by too much fishing. Sample sentence Years of badly managed and overfishing has left tuna in a parlous state.
  12. 12. Back bone Definition The series of vertebrae extending from the skull to the pelvis; the spine. Sample sentence Cut off head and tail and remove fish from backbone .
  13. 13. Gill Definition The respiratory organ of aquatic animals, as fish, that breathe oxygen dissolved in water. Sample sentence Your fish doesn't have lungs, and gills only work in water.
  14. 14. Fin Definition A flattened appendage on various parts of the body of many aquatic vertebrates and some invertebrates, including fish and cetaceans, used for propelling, steering, and balancing. Sample sentence The two subspecies differ in color and size of their dorsal fin .
  15. 15. Aquatic animals Definition An aquatic animal is an animal, either vertebrate or invertebrate, which lives in water for most or all of its life. Sample sentence Aquatic animals are subject to pressure from overfishing.
  16. 16. Cuttlefish Definition A swimming marine mollusk that resembles a broad squid, having eight arms and two long tentacles that are used for Sample sentence Among the invertebrates the octopus, squid and cuttlefish are rather brainy. grabbing prey.
  17. 17. Shellfish Definition An aquatic shelled mollusk or a crustacean esp. one that is edible. Sample sentence Allergies to peanuts, tree nuts, and shellfish tend to be lifelong.
  18. 18. Starfish Definition A marine echinoderm with five or more radiating arms. The undersides of the arms bear tube feet for locomotion and, in predatory species, for opening the shells of mollusks. Sample sentence It seems to me that the outbreak of crown-of thorns starfish is a natural event.
  19. 19. Crayfish Definition A nocturnal freshwater crustacean that resembles a small lobster and inhabits streams and rivers. Sample sentence The predators feed on other fish, as well as small amounts of crab and crayfish .
  20. 20. Jellyfish Definition A free-swimming marine coelenterate with a jellylike bell- or saucer-shaped body that is typically transparent and has stinging tentacles around the edge. Sample sentence Their nets are trapping jellyfish : giant, gelatinous,wobbly and worthless.
  21. 21. Seal Definition A diverse group of semi-aquatic marine mammals many of which are commonly called seals Sample sentence Crops will spread north as seal hunters become farmers.
  22. 22. Whale A very large marine mammal with a streamlined hairless body, a horizontal tail fin, and a blowhole on top of the head for breathing. Sample sentence There is no eel so small but it hopes to become a whale .
  23. 23. Amphibians Definition A cold-blooded vertebrate animal of a class that comprises the frogs, toads, newts, and salamanders. Sample sentence There is some chemical that can get into groundwater and it's bad for fish and amphibians.
  24. 24. Crocodile Definition A large predatory semi-aquatic reptile with long jaws, long tail, short legs, and a horny textured skin, using submersion and stealth to approach prey unseen. Sample sentence Among others at risk: wild ginseng, orchids and the crocodile newt.
  25. 25. Hippopotamus Definition A large thick-skinned semi-aquatic African mammal, with massive jaws and large tusks. Sample sentence They were found among stone tools and butchered hippopotamus bones.
  26. 26. Salmon Definition A large edible fish that is a popular game fish, much prized for its pink flesh. Salmon mature in the sea but Migrate to freshwater streams to spawn. Sample sentence Salmon in all their varieties are a great resource for humanity.
  27. 27. Cod Definition Cod is the common name for the genus Gadus of demersal fishes, belonging to the family Gadidae. Sample sentence In the autumn the dried cod was stored in depots and sometimes used as payment.
  28. 28. Tuna Definition A large and active predatory schooling fish of the mackerel family. Sample sentence The fishing potential, mostly lobster and tuna , is not fully exploited.
  29. 29. Mollusks Definition An invertebrate of a large phylum that includes snails, slugs, mussels, and octopuses. They have a soft, unsegmented body and live in aquatic or damp habitats. Sample sentence All cephalopod mollusks with three hearts are carnivorous.
  30. 30. Crustaceans Definition A n arthropod of the large, mainly aquatic group Crustacean, such as a crab, lobster, shrimp, or barnacle. Sample sentence Flamingoes, for instance, extract pink pigments from algae and crustaceans.
  31. 31. Echinoderm Definition A marine invertebrate of the phylum Echinodermata, such as a starfish, sea urchin, or sea cucumber. Sample sentence It is an echinoderm which have radial symmetry because of its embryonic development.
  32. 32. Kelp Definition A large brown seaweed that typically has a long, tough stalk with a broad frond divided into strips. Sample sentence Sea otters eat sea urchins and sea urchins eat kelp .
  33. 33. Herring Definition A silvery fish that is most abundant in coastal waters and is of great commercial importance as a food fish in many parts of the world. Sample sentence In my view, juxtaposing these two choices is a red herring.
  34. 34. Anchovy Definition A small shoaling fish of commercial importance as a food fish and as bait. It is strongly flavored and is usually preserved in salt and oil. Sample sentence Try the fried artichokes and a spicy anchovy bread sauce.
  35. 35. Flounder Definition Demersal fish found at the bottom of coastal lagoons and estuaries of the Northern Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Sample sentence Flounder are a group of flatfish species.
  36. 36. Mullet Definition A chiefly marine fish that is widely caught for food. Sample sentence Mullet are so profuse they will literally jump into a fisherman's boat.
  37. 37. Squid Definition An elongated, fast-swimming cephalopod mollusk with ten arms, typically able to change color. Sample sentence Feeding habits cobia feed primarily on crabs, squid and other fish.
  38. 38. Shrimp Definition A small free-swimming crustacean with an elongated body, typically marine and frequently harvested for food. Sample sentence There is also a thriving fishing industry, providing shrimp and oysters.
  39. 39. Crab Definition A crustacean with a broad carapace, stalked eyes, and five pairs of legs, the first pair of which are modified as pincers. Sample sentence No crab has ever been attacked by a truck when standing outside its burrow.
  40. 40. Lobster Definition A large marine crustacean with a cylindrical body, stalked eyes, and the first of its five pairs of limbs modified as pincers. Sample sentence There's no better way to enjoy lobster’s pure flavor than to have it boiled.
  41. 41. Oyster Definition Any of a number of bivalve mollusks with rough irregular shells. Sample sentence Therefore the first preparation was made for the oyster .
  42. 42. Scallops Definition An edible bivalve mollusk with a ribbed fan-shaped shell. Sample sentence Tales of skate wings cut into circles and sold as scallops are common.
  43. 43. Sardine Definition A young pilchard or other young or small herring like fish. Sample sentence The looters may have found a few old sardine cans but not much else.
  44. 44. Biomass Definition The total mass of organisms in a given area or volume. Sample sentence Conversion of biomass to bio fuel can be achieved by different methods which are broadly classified into: thermal, chemical, and biochemical methods.
  45. 45. Ecosystem Definition A biological community of interacting organisms and their physical environment. Sample sentence Wildebeests, also known as gnus, shape the ecosystem as they move.
  46. 46. References  
  47. 47. Thank You