Ap art history test 1

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Ap art history test 1

  1. 1. AP Art History Test 1
  2. 2. <ul><li>Woman from Willendorf </li></ul><ul><li>Found in Austria, c. 22,000 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>Fertility figure </li></ul><ul><li>Proportional changes for childbearing </li></ul><ul><li>Small scale; People = migratory </li></ul>Paleolithic
  3. 3. Paleolithic <ul><li> Hall of Bulls </li></ul><ul><li>Found in Lascaux Caves, France, c. 15,000 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>Limestone </li></ul><ul><li>Contour lines, creates mass & rhythm </li></ul><ul><li>Most animals alive </li></ul><ul><li>Less than 1% humans </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li> Stonehenge </li></ul><ul><li>Discovered in Salisbury Plain, England c. 2700-1500 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>People had permanent food supply; no longer migratory </li></ul><ul><li>Had a funeral component </li></ul><ul><li>Some stones are from Wales </li></ul><ul><li>It had at least 4 major building phases </li></ul><ul><li>Stonehenge is site specific for the summer solstice June 21 </li></ul><ul><li>Circle is 97’ in diameter </li></ul><ul><li>Uses post and lintel </li></ul>Neolithic
  5. 5. <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ziggurat of Ur </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>C.2100 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>Structures proclaimed the wealth, prestige, and stability of a city’s rulers and glorified its protective gods. </li></ul><ul><li>They functioned symbollically as brgidges between he earth and the heaens - a meeting place for humans and their gods. </li></ul><ul><li>Only priests were allowed in the Ziggurat </li></ul><ul><li>This ziggurat was dedicated to the moon god Nanna </li></ul><ul><li>The mud-brick structure was elevated by design, not as the result of successive rebuildings. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li> Uruk Vase </li></ul><ul><li>C. 3000 BCE; modern day Iraq; made of alabaster </li></ul><ul><li>Near Eastern sculptors told their stories by organizing picture space into registers or bands </li></ul><ul><li>Its lower registers show the natural world, beginning with plants and water </li></ul><ul><li>Above them on the solid groundline, rams and ewes alternate </li></ul><ul><li>In the middle register, are nude men carrying baskets of food stuff </li></ul><ul><li>In the top register Inanna is accepting an offering from a naked priest </li></ul><ul><li>The scene is usually interpreted as the ritual marriage between the goddess and a human during the fall New Year’s Festival </li></ul><ul><li>Hieratic scale is shown as Nanna dominates the scene </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><ul><ul><li>Votive Figures </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>C. 2700 from Modern day Iraq </li></ul><ul><li>Images dedicated to the gods </li></ul><ul><li>They represent an early example of an ancient Near Eastern relgious practice: the placement ina shrine of simple, small statues of individual worshipers before a larger, more elaborate image of a god. </li></ul><ul><li>Each sculpture served as a stand-in, at perpetual attention, making eye contact, and chanting its donor’s praises through eternity. </li></ul><ul><li>Sculptors followed the conventions of Sumerian art: representing forms with simplified faces and bodies and dress that emphasized the cylindrical shapes. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>The Great Lyre with Bull’s Head </li></ul><ul><li>C. 2500 Was found in the tomb of King Meskalamdug of Ur. </li></ul><ul><li>The bearded bull is intensely lifelike despite the blue beard </li></ul><ul><li>The lyre is made of wood, gold, silver, lapis, bitumen, and shell </li></ul><ul><li>On the panel below the head are four horizontal registers depicting a banquet in the realm of the dead. </li></ul><ul><li>Some of the harp imagery may have been inspired by the Epic of Gilgamesh </li></ul><ul><li>Because the lyre was used in funeral rites, its imagery probably depicts the fantastic realm of the dead, offerings to the goddess of the underworld, or a funeral banquet </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Victory Stele of Naram-Sin </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>C. 2250 BCE from Susa (Iran) made of sandstone </li></ul><ul><li>The concept of imperial authority was carved in this stone slab, commemorating a military victory of Naramsin, Sargon’s grandson </li></ul><ul><li>It is an early example of art created to celebrate the achievements of an individual ruler </li></ul><ul><li>Horizontal registers were replaced with wavy groundlines. </li></ul><ul><li>The images stand on their own with no explanatory inscription, but the godlike king is easily recognizable. </li></ul><ul><li>He is watched over by 3 solar deities and wears the horned crown. He stands at the center of the scene and is the largest. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stele of Hammurabi </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>C. 1780 from Susa (Iran) made of basalt; 7 feet 28 inches. </li></ul><ul><li>One of Hammurabi’s greatest accomplishments was the first systematic codification of his people’s rights, duties, and punishments for wrondoing. </li></ul><ul><li>This stele speaks to us both as a work of art that depicts a legendary event and as a historical document that records a conversation about justice between god and man. </li></ul><ul><li>The one sitting is Shamash, the sun god and god of justice. </li></ul><ul><li>Most of the stele was intended to ensure uniform treatment of people throughout his kingdom. </li></ul><ul><li>Punishment was based on wealth, class, and gender of the parties </li></ul><ul><li>This was the world’s most ancient full law code </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lamassu </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>C. 883-859 BCE found in Nimrud (Iraq) now in the Met, NY </li></ul><ul><li>These guardians figures flanked the major portals in Assurnasirpal II’s city </li></ul><ul><li>They were also used in the support of the gateway entrance to the city. </li></ul><ul><li>Art was an expression of military power </li></ul><ul><li>Assyrians decorated their palaces with scenes of victorious battles, presentations of tribute to the king, combat between men and beasts, and religious imagery </li></ul><ul><li>The Assyrian empire had a long and spread out reign </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Assurnasirpal II Killing of Lions </li></ul><ul><li>C. 850 BCE, from palace of Assurnasirpal II in Nimrud (Iraq) </li></ul><ul><li>This image probably depicts a ceremonial hunt, in which the king, protected by men with sword and shields rode back and forth killing animals as they were released into an enclosed area </li></ul><ul><li>This piece marks a shift in Mesopotamian art away from a sense of timelessness and toward visual narrative </li></ul><ul><li>Unlike earlier works, the man is not part of nature, standing among animals as their equal, but has assued dominion over nature </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Assurnasirpal and His Queen in the Garden </li></ul><ul><li>C. 647 BCE from the palace at Nineveh (Iraq) made of alabaster </li></ul><ul><li>This tranquil domestic scene is actually a victory celebration </li></ul><ul><li>The theme is royal power it signifies political strength and power </li></ul><ul><li>Much Assyrian art is relief carving </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li> Ishtar Gate </li></ul><ul><li>C. 575 BCE from Babyon (Iraq) made of glazed brick </li></ul><ul><li>This gate was the ceremonial entrance to Babylon </li></ul><ul><li>This gate was a symbol of Babylonian power </li></ul><ul><li>It was guarded by four crenellated towers and was decorated with tiers of mushhushshu, horned dragons, which were sacred to Maruk, the city’s patron god. </li></ul><ul><li>In the panel fragments, lions walk beneath stylized palm trees </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Royal Audience Hall (apadana) of Darius I and Xerxes I </li></ul><ul><li>C. 500 BCE located in Persepolis, Iran </li></ul><ul><li>This imperial complex was set on a raised platform and laid out on a rectangular grid </li></ul><ul><li>It was accessible only from a single ramp made of wide shallow steps </li></ul><ul><li>This apadana was set above the rest of the complex on a second terrace </li></ul><ul><li>It had open porches on 3 sides and a square hall large enough to hold several thousand people </li></ul><ul><li>On its walls are ranks of warriors that seem ready to defend the palace, while on the staircase, lions attack bulls at each side of the Persian generals </li></ul><ul><li>These animal combats emphasize the ferocity of the leaders and their men </li></ul><ul><li>The building looks Mesopotamian with its powerful lions, rooms full of columns </li></ul><ul><li>Themes: diversity of empire, military control/power </li></ul><ul><li>Other reliefs throughout the city depict displays of allegiance or economic prosperity </li></ul><ul><li>Persians had a high level of technical and artistic sophistication </li></ul>

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