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Ap art history term 2 test 3

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Ap art history term 2 test 3

  1. 1. AP Art History Test 3
  2. 2. <ul><li>Entombment </li></ul><ul><li>1525-28, Jacopo da Pontormo, Santa Felicita, Florence </li></ul><ul><li>Created as an altarpiece </li></ul><ul><li>Ambiguous composition, which enhances the visionary quality of the painting </li></ul><ul><li>Little sense of location or place </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional atmosphere expressed in odd poses and drastic shifts in scale </li></ul><ul><li>Great use of secondary colors and contrasting colors </li></ul><ul><li>No dead center </li></ul><ul><li>Moves in illogical way </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Madonna with the Long Neck </li></ul><ul><li>C. 1535, Parmigianino, Uffizi </li></ul><ul><li>Takes the renaissance art and bends and contorts it </li></ul><ul><li>Child assumes pose of pieta </li></ul><ul><li>Shatters perspective- no middle ground </li></ul><ul><li>He was influenced by Correggio and studied under Raphael and Michelangelo </li></ul><ul><li>St. Jerome is in the background </li></ul><ul><li>This work challenges the viewer’s intellect while it exerts its strange appeal to aesthetic sensibility </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Portrait of a Young Man </li></ul><ul><li>1530’s; Bronzino </li></ul><ul><li>Court painter for Medici </li></ul><ul><li>Best known for his portraits in the courtly Mannerist style </li></ul><ul><li>He rendered costumes and settings that created a cold and formal effect </li></ul><ul><li>The self-contained demeanor of his subjects conveys their haughty personalities </li></ul><ul><li>This work demonstrates his characteristic portrayal of his subjects as intelligent, aloof, elegant, and self-assured </li></ul><ul><li>The subject plays with a book. Suggesting his scholarly interests </li></ul><ul><li>His stare creates an unsettling effect </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Last Judgment </li></ul><ul><li>1534-1541; Michelangelo, fresco on the altar wall of Sistine Chapel </li></ul><ul><li>This was the first major commission of Pope Paul III </li></ul><ul><li>The figures are not clearly defined, but are writhing, rising, and falling </li></ul><ul><li>The Virgin is shrinking, which shows a change from Gothic tradition </li></ul><ul><li>Michelangelo painted his own self as the peeled skin held by St. Bartholomew </li></ul><ul><li>Conservative clergy criticized the work for its nudity </li></ul><ul><li>It was interpreted as a grim and constant reminder of the celebrants of the Mass -- the pope and his cardinals </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Campidoglio (Capitoline Hill) </li></ul><ul><li>1537, Rome, Michelangelo </li></ul><ul><li>It was his biggest project </li></ul><ul><li>He was the architect of St. Peter’s </li></ul><ul><li>Intention of palazzo was to show triumphant Catholicism </li></ul><ul><li>Roman Forum is behind it -- from the Roman past comes the Catholic, Roman present </li></ul><ul><li>The urban design links the present, past and future </li></ul><ul><li>Marcus Aurelius sculpture here </li></ul><ul><li>Best embodiment of aspirations of counter-reformation </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Self Portrait </li></ul><ul><li>1552, Sofonisba Anguissola, oil on parchment </li></ul><ul><li>She wasn’t the daughter of an artist </li></ul><ul><li>Michelangelo was very friendly to her and they exchanged paintings </li></ul><ul><li>She painted herself holding a medallion with a border spelling out her name and home town </li></ul><ul><li>Her sisters names appear in the middle </li></ul><ul><li>Shows enthusiasm for classics in Renaissance Italy </li></ul><ul><li>She later became the court painter for the queen of Spain </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Abduction of the Sabine Women </li></ul><ul><li>C. 1583, Giovanni da Bologna, Loggia dei Lanzi, Piazza della Signoria, Florence </li></ul><ul><li>Bologna was a French artist who became very popular among Italians </li></ul><ul><li>This work is flame-like in its multiple vantage points </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Interior Courtyard of the Palazzo del Te </li></ul><ul><li>1525-1535, Guilo Romano, Mantua </li></ul><ul><li>Romano was a Roman architect and follower of Raphael </li></ul><ul><li>It served as the Gonzaga family’s pleasure retreat </li></ul><ul><li>Built for Federigo Gonzaga </li></ul><ul><li>Shows mannerist influence </li></ul><ul><li>Rules bent on classical </li></ul><ul><li>Classical columns altered on purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Huge keystone </li></ul><ul><li>Big moving blocks </li></ul><ul><li>Voussoirs decorative </li></ul><ul><li>Inside is contemporary with the birth of Opera </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Façade of Il Gesu </li></ul><ul><li>C. 1575- 1584, Giacomo della Porta </li></ul><ul><li>Main Jesuit Church - Loyola didn’t live long enough to see its beginning </li></ul><ul><li>Cardinal Alessandro Farnese donated funds to the project </li></ul><ul><li>Della Porta succeeded Vignola (the chief architect) in finishing the dome and the façade </li></ul><ul><li>Has a wide, barrel-vaulted nave, shallow connected side chapels, but not aisles, short transepts </li></ul><ul><li>Façade emphasized central portal with its classical pilasters, engaged columns and pediments </li></ul><ul><li>The design has great verticality and centrality </li></ul><ul><li>It abandoned the early Renaissance grid of classical pilasters and entablatures </li></ul><ul><li>Has rhythmic flow, challenging Ren. flatness </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Saint Francis in Ecstasy </li></ul><ul><li>C. 1470’s, Giovanni Bellini </li></ul><ul><li>Work demonstrates Bellini’s intense investigation and recording of nature associated with early Renaissance </li></ul><ul><li>Illustrates his command of an almost Flemish realism </li></ul><ul><li>St. Francis stands in communion with nature </li></ul><ul><li>His hands show the stigmata </li></ul><ul><li>Old and new testament themes united to associate Francis with Moses and Christ </li></ul><ul><li>Tree = burning bush, grapevine + stigmata = Christ’s sacrifice </li></ul><ul><li>Details, luminous colors, symbolic elements = Flemish </li></ul><ul><li>Golden light = Venetian </li></ul><ul><li>Almost poetic </li></ul><ul><li>Preaching of divine in nature and his ecstasy of receiving stigmata </li></ul><ul><li>True landscape painting begins </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Pastoral Symphony (Fete Champetre) </li></ul><ul><li>C. 1508, Giorgione (and Titian?) </li></ul><ul><li>He introduced enigmatic pastoral themes, sensuous nude figures, and an appreciation of nature in landscape painting </li></ul><ul><li>He probably studied with Bellini </li></ul><ul><li>Da Vinci also probably inspired him </li></ul><ul><li>The fertile landscape seems to be the true subject </li></ul><ul><li>Like poetry, the painting evokes a mood, a golden age of love and innocence seen in ancient Roman pastoral poetry </li></ul><ul><li>Had profound influence on later painters </li></ul><ul><li>Naked women = muses - inspirational and model of beauty </li></ul><ul><li>“ Fete” = party </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Pesaro Madonna </li></ul><ul><li>1519-26, Titian, side-aisle altarpiece, Santa Maria Glorioso dei Frari, Venice </li></ul><ul><li>He studied under Gentile and Giovanni Bellini </li></ul><ul><li>Made official painter to the Republic of Venice </li></ul><ul><li>Commissioned by the commander of the papal fleet - Jacopo Pesaro - that had defeated the Turks </li></ul><ul><li>Asymmetrical setting, with Virgin and child on a high throne and arranged saints and the Pesaro family at the sides </li></ul><ul><li>St. Peter is shown in the center </li></ul><ul><li>Use of primary colors </li></ul><ul><li>Famous for his mastery of light and color </li></ul><ul><li>the composition is well balanced, but on diagonals </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Venus of Urbino </li></ul><ul><li>C. 1538, Titian, (Uffizi) </li></ul><ul><li>Painted for the duke of Urbino </li></ul><ul><li>Titian was inspired by flesh-and-blood beauty as by any source from mythology or the history of art </li></ul><ul><li>The dog is a symbol of fidelity </li></ul><ul><li>There is a domestic quality </li></ul><ul><li>She looks real and like classical sculpture </li></ul><ul><li>Mapped out in space, foreground, middle ground, background </li></ul><ul><li>Often referred back to </li></ul><ul><li>High court lady - prostitute </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Christ in the House of Levi </li></ul><ul><li>1573, Paolo Veronese </li></ul><ul><li>He created elaborate architectural settings and costumes, often unconnected with the main subject </li></ul><ul><li>Painted for the Dominican Monastery of Santi Giovanni e Paolo </li></ul><ul><li>The huge size of the work allowed Veronese to include the sort of anecdotal vignettes beloved by the Venetians </li></ul><ul><li>Jesus is at the center </li></ul><ul><li>Church officials of Venice were shocked by this painting </li></ul><ul><li>He was called before the Inquisition to to explain his reasons for some of the odd details </li></ul><ul><li>His reply showed great artistic autonomy </li></ul><ul><li>He simply changed the name of the work from the Last Supper to this title </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Last Supper </li></ul><ul><li>1594, Tintoretto, Venice </li></ul><ul><li>His style developed from and exaggerated the techniques of Titian </li></ul><ul><li>His goal was to combine Titian’s colors with Michelangelo’s drawing </li></ul><ul><li>Painted for the choir of the Church of San Giorgio Maggiore, which was designed by Palladio </li></ul><ul><li>High horizon vanishing point </li></ul><ul><li>Great individuality </li></ul><ul><li>The figures turn and move in a continuous serpentine line that unites the apostles, servants and angels </li></ul><ul><li>2 light sources: one real, one supernatural </li></ul><ul><li>Mood of intense spirituality, enhanced by deep colors </li></ul><ul><li>Reflects both Byzantine art and Mannerist aesthetic </li></ul><ul><li>Interpretation has changed to the institution of the Eucharist </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Villa Rotunda </li></ul><ul><li>C. 1566-70, Andrea Palladio, near Vicenza, Italy </li></ul><ul><li>Designed as a retreat for relaxation </li></ul><ul><li>He placed an Ionic order porch on each face of the building </li></ul><ul><li>It was inspired by another rotunda, the Roman Pantheon </li></ul><ul><li>It was purchased by the Capra family and also became known as Villa Capra </li></ul><ul><li>Great geometric clarity </li></ul><ul><li>A circle inscribed in a small square inside a larger square </li></ul><ul><li>The central dome on a domestic building was a daring innovation that secularized the dome </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>West façade of San Giorgio Maggiore </li></ul><ul><li>1560s, Palladio, Venice </li></ul><ul><li>His work was characterized by harmonious symmetry and a rejection of ornamentation </li></ul><ul><li>He was a stone mason </li></ul><ul><li>He changes domestic architecture </li></ul><ul><li>It has a renaissance façade, and a traditional basilica-plan elevation </li></ul><ul><li>He created the illusion of 2 temple fronts of different heights and widths </li></ul><ul><li>Colossal columns support an entablature and pediment that front the narrower clerestory level of the church </li></ul><ul><li>He kept Alberti’s motif of the triumphal arch entrance </li></ul><ul><li>This is part of a monastery </li></ul><ul><li>2 temple facades, harsh juxtaposition </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>The Burial of Count Orgaz </li></ul><ul><li>1586, El Greco, San Tome, Toledo, Spain </li></ul><ul><li>Trained as a Byzantine icon painter </li></ul><ul><li>Work shows a mix of Byzantine icon + late Renaissance </li></ul><ul><li>Entered Titian’s shop, but he must have studied under Tintoretto and Veronese </li></ul><ul><li>His style reflected Venetian artists’ rich colors and loose brushwork </li></ul><ul><li>It expressed the intense spirituality of mystics </li></ul><ul><li>Commissioned by Orgaz family </li></ul><ul><li>Local aristocracy are shown as well as religious notables </li></ul><ul><li>His own son is shown </li></ul><ul><li>St. Stephen & Augustine shown </li></ul><ul><li>Inverted Latin cross composition </li></ul><ul><li>Paints almost only religious scenes </li></ul><ul><li>He separated heaven and earth by elongation of heavenly figures and light </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>View of Toledo </li></ul><ul><li>C. 1610, El Greco </li></ul><ul><li>Painted later in his life </li></ul><ul><li>A cityscape transformed into a mystical illusion </li></ul><ul><li>His precisely accurate portrayal of Toledo’s geography and architecture seems to have been overridden by his desire to convey his emotional response to the city </li></ul><ul><li>Burst of heavenly light </li></ul><ul><li>Small figures everywhere </li></ul><ul><li>Shatters reality </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Bacchus </li></ul><ul><li>1595, Caravaggio, Florence </li></ul><ul><li>Looks classical </li></ul><ul><li>Equilibrium between real and unreal </li></ul><ul><li>Great foreshortening </li></ul><ul><li>Look that its not real - theatricality </li></ul><ul><li>Distinctive lighting = tenebrism </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>The Calling of St. Matthew </li></ul><ul><li>C.1600, Caravaggio, Rome </li></ul><ul><li>This was his first public commission, for Contarelli Chapel in the Church of San Luigi dei Francesi </li></ul><ul><li>Depicts Jesus calling Levi, the tax collector, to join his apostles </li></ul><ul><li>Jesus is nearly hidden by Peter </li></ul><ul><li>For his naturalism, he used antique and Renaissance sources </li></ul><ul><li>Jesus’ outstretched arm recalls the Creation of Adam by Michelangelo </li></ul><ul><li>Little symbolism - beginnings of modernism </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Judith with the Head of Holofernes </li></ul><ul><li>C. 1625, Artemisia Gentileschi </li></ul><ul><li>She was a follower of Caravaggio </li></ul><ul><li>She helped spread his style beyond Rome </li></ul><ul><li>She worked under her father </li></ul><ul><li>In Florence, she worked for the grand duke of Tuscany and was elected to the Florentine Academy of Design </li></ul><ul><li>She used Baroque naturalism and tenebrist effects, dramatically showing Judith still holding the bloody sword </li></ul><ul><li>She often painted heroic abused women </li></ul><ul><li>Mostly darkness, she pulls the light source into the canvas </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>Ceiling Fresco, Palazzo Farnese </li></ul><ul><li>1600, Annibale Carracci </li></ul><ul><li>This was the major monument of the early Baroque classicism </li></ul><ul><li>Painted for the Farnese family to celebrate a wedding </li></ul><ul><li>This was the gallery of their immense Roman palace </li></ul><ul><li>Commissioned by Cardinal Odarico Farnese </li></ul><ul><li>He started an art school with his brother in Bologna </li></ul><ul><li>Tribute to earthly love, expressed in mythological scenes </li></ul><ul><li>Its center piece is a joyous procession celebrating the wine god Bacchus’ love for Ariadne </li></ul><ul><li>He created the illusion of framed paintings, stone sculpture, bronze medallions and ignudi </li></ul><ul><li>All was inspired by Michelangelo </li></ul><ul><li>Looks like Raphael </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>Aurora </li></ul><ul><li>1615, Guido Reni, Rome </li></ul><ul><li>He studied briefly at the Acarracci academy </li></ul><ul><li>This work decorated the ceiling at Palazzo Rospigliosi-Palavacini </li></ul><ul><li>It emulates the illusionistic framed mythological scenes on the Farnese ceiling </li></ul><ul><li>Apollo is shown driving the sun chariot, escorted by Cupid and the Seasons, led by the flying figure of Aurora, goddess of the dawn </li></ul><ul><li>Idealized forms, seem to have been derived from an antique relief </li></ul><ul><li>Harmonious rhythms of gesture and drapery and intense color </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>Triumph of the Name of Jesus </li></ul><ul><li>1672-1685, Giovanni Battista Gaulli, </li></ul><ul><li>Student of Bernini - absorbed his taste for drama and multimedia effets </li></ul><ul><li>Viewer meant to be swept up in drama </li></ul><ul><li>Fills the vault of Il Gesu </li></ul><ul><li>Combines sculpture and painting to eliminate the presence of architecture </li></ul><ul><li>The whole composition is focused off-center on the letter IHS the monogram of Jesus and the insignia of the Jesuits </li></ul><ul><li>The subject is the Last Judgment </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>David </li></ul><ul><li>C. 1623, Gianlorenzo Bernini, life size </li></ul><ul><li>Made for a nephew of Pope Paul V </li></ul><ul><li>It introduced a new type of 3D composition that intrudes on the viewer’s space </li></ul><ul><li>The figure is ready to launch the lethal rock </li></ul><ul><li>It is all tension and determination </li></ul><ul><li>Energetic, twisting figure includes the surrounding space as part of the composition by implying the presence of an unseen adversary </li></ul><ul><li>New immediacy and inclusion in art </li></ul><ul><li>Bernini becomes the sculptor for the pope </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>Baldacchino </li></ul><ul><li>1624-33, Bernini, St. Peter’s </li></ul><ul><li>Commissioned by Pope Urban VIII </li></ul><ul><li>This work exemplifies the Baroque artists’ desire to combine architecture and sculpture so that works no longer fit into a single category or medium </li></ul><ul><li>The twisted columns symbolize the union of Old and New Testaments </li></ul><ul><li>Composite columns were used </li></ul><ul><li>The cast bronze looks like fabric </li></ul><ul><li>Many symbolic elements mark the site of the tomb of St. Peter and serve as a monument to Urban VIII and his family, the Barberini </li></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>The Ecstasy of St. Theresa of Avila </li></ul><ul><li>C. 1645-52, Bernini, life size </li></ul><ul><li>This work was for the decoration of the chapel of the Cornaro family in the Church of Santa Maria della Vittoria </li></ul><ul><li>Theatrical setting for a scene depicting Teresa’s vision of the angel of the Lord </li></ul><ul><li>The Cornaro family kneels on either side of the piece </li></ul><ul><li>Represents a vision described by the Spanish mystic in which an angel pierced her body, transporting her to a state of religious ecstasy </li></ul><ul><li>Complex theatrical interplay of various levels of illusion </li></ul><ul><li>Invites the viewer to identify with Teresa’s emotion </li></ul><ul><li>Skilled at capturing different textures in marble </li></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>Fountain of the Four Rivers </li></ul><ul><li>1648-51, Bernini, marble, Rome </li></ul><ul><li>The Piazzo Navona was under the influence of Pope Innocent X and his family </li></ul><ul><li>Bernini eventually got the commission of the new fountain </li></ul><ul><li>In the center is a rocky hill covered with vegetation and animals </li></ul><ul><li>4 great rivers of the world flow out, each representing a continent and personified by a colossal figure </li></ul><ul><li>Roman imitation of an Egyptian obelisk, topped by a dove (emblem of Pope’s fam.) </li></ul><ul><li>The obelisk was a technical marvel </li></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><li>Façade of S. Carlo alle Quattro Fontane </li></ul><ul><li>1665, Francesco Borromini, Rome </li></ul><ul><li>Built by the Trinitarian monks who hired Borromini </li></ul><ul><li>He worked under Bernini </li></ul><ul><li>This was his 1st independent commission </li></ul><ul><li>Elongated central plain </li></ul><ul><li>Worked from an overriding geometric scheme, the ideal, domed, central-plan church </li></ul><ul><li>The front was an undulating, sculpture-filled screen </li></ul><ul><li>Punctuated with large columns and deep niches that create dramatic effects of light and shadow </li></ul><ul><li>a giant cartouche is held up by angels </li></ul>
  32. 32. <ul><li>Colonnade of St. Peter’s </li></ul><ul><li>1657, Bernini, Rome </li></ul><ul><li>His design frames the 2 enormous curved porticoes or covered walkways supported by doric columns </li></ul><ul><li>Bernini spoke about them as representing the “motherly arms of the Church” reaching out to the world </li></ul>
  33. 33. <ul><li>St. Serapion </li></ul><ul><li>1628, Francisco de Zurburan </li></ul><ul><li>Horrifying depiction of martyrdom </li></ul><ul><li>Represented with understated control </li></ul><ul><li>Worked in Seville </li></ul><ul><li>Closely associated with monastic orders </li></ul><ul><li>Serapion was a member of the 13th century Mercedarians, a Spanish order founded to rescue the Christian prisoners of the Spanish Moors </li></ul><ul><li>He sacrificed himself in exchange for Christian captives </li></ul><ul><li>Intense realism </li></ul><ul><li>Silent and drained of color </li></ul><ul><li>Embodies Spanish art </li></ul>
  34. 34. <ul><li>Water Carrier of Seville </li></ul><ul><li>C. 1619, Diego Velazquez </li></ul><ul><li>Came from the Caravaggesque school of Seville </li></ul><ul><li>Entered Seville’s painters’ guild </li></ul><ul><li>Influenced by tenebrism and naturalism </li></ul><ul><li>The model in this work was a well-known Sevillian water seller </li></ul><ul><li>He arranged the elements with almost mathematical rigor </li></ul><ul><li>skilled at rendering sculptural volumes and contrasting textures illuminated by dramatic light </li></ul>
  35. 35. <ul><li>The Surrender at Breda </li></ul><ul><li>C. 1635, Velazquez </li></ul><ul><li>He moved to Madrid and became the court painter to King Philip IV </li></ul><ul><li>He was profoundly influenced by Italian painting </li></ul><ul><li>He treated the theme of triumph and conquest in an entirely new way, unlike traditional gloating military propaganda </li></ul><ul><li>The duke of Alba, the Spanish governor, had defeated the Dutch at Breda </li></ul><ul><li>The Dutch commander, Justin of Nassau, hands over the keys of Breda to the Spanish commander Ambrosio Spinola </li></ul><ul><li>Represents a courtly ideal of gentlemanly conduct </li></ul><ul><li>Displays his ability to arrange a large number of figures into an effective narrative composition </li></ul><ul><li>Great realism </li></ul><ul><li>Quick movement of painting </li></ul><ul><li>Suggests spontaneity of light </li></ul>
  36. 36. <ul><li>The Maids of Honor (Las Meninas) </li></ul><ul><li>1656, Velazquez </li></ul><ul><li>Huge work - nearly 10 ft. tall </li></ul><ul><li>Draw the viewer directly into its action </li></ul><ul><li>Viewer standing in the space occupied by King Philip and his queen </li></ul><ul><li>The central focus is on the couple’s 5 year old daughter, the infanta (princess) Margarita </li></ul><ul><li>He used a minimum of underdrawing </li></ul><ul><li>Built up his forms with layers of loosely applied paint </li></ul><ul><li>Technique captures appearance of light on surfaces </li></ul><ul><li>He proclaimed the dignity and importance of painting as one of the liberal arts - shown by his own portrait in this work </li></ul>

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