First Language acquisition - second class


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  • It was very influential theory of learning especially in the united states.
    The best proponent of this approach was B.F. skinner.
  • First Language acquisition - second class

    1. 1. Language AcquisitionLanguage Acquisition Instructor Marwan Alalimi
    2. 2. Revision • Linguistics • Applied linguistics • Linguistics in language teaching • language teaching operation. • Competence vs. performance.
    3. 3. First language acquisition • Acquisition vs. learning. • First language acquisition vs. Second language a acquisition. • Foreign language. • Dialect vs. accent
    4. 4. First language acquisition theories • Behaviorist theory: (say what I say). • Behaviorism (1940s- 1950s) • Language is not a mental phenomenon; it’s a behavior. • It’s learned by a process of habit formation. • Language development= immitation practice
    5. 5. The key principles of behaviorist school • Stimulus response principle.Stimulus response principle. • Repetition and reinforcementRepetition and reinforcement principle.principle. • Reward – punishment principle.Reward – punishment principle. • Stimulus response principle.Stimulus response principle. • Repetition and reinforcementRepetition and reinforcement principle.principle. • Reward – punishment principle.Reward – punishment principle.
    6. 6. The main components of the habit formation process • The child imitates the sounds and patterns hearing around him. • People recognize the child attempts as being similar to adults’ utterance • They reinforce or reward the sounds, by approval or by desirable reaction. • The child repeats the sounds to gain more rewards, such repetitions become habits. • In this manner, the verbal behavior is shaped until the habits coincide with the adult models.
    7. 7. Stimulus response principleStimulus response principle.. S = child asking for food R= mother gives food to herS = child asking for food R= mother gives food to her child.child.
    8. 8. Repetition and reinforcementRepetition and reinforcement principleprinciple.. Teacher explains Student doesn’t understand→Teacher explains Student doesn’t understand→ →→ teacher repeats again for reinforcement.→teacher repeats again for reinforcement.→
    9. 9. Reward – punishmentReward – punishment principleprinciple.. StudentStudent →→ studies hard rewarded bystudies hard rewarded by success→ success→ Student doesn’t study hard punished by failure.→Student doesn’t study hard punished by failure.→
    10. 10. We will examine a transcripts from a child and his mother - Child: No body doesn’t like me. - Mother: No, say “nobody likes me”. - Child: No body don’t like me. (the dialogue continues for several times) - Mother: Now listen carefully-say “No body likes me”. - Child: Oh, No body don’t like me.
    11. 11. We conclude…. • Children don’t learn by imitation. • They don’t learn through reinforcement. • They don’t learn through structural input. • They construct their own grammar.
    12. 12. Inadequacies of behaviorism • Language is not just verbal behavior. • Creativity’s not possible if we rely on learnt behavior. • Habit-formation can’t explain student’s competence. • Observing and imitating verbal behavior can’t explain the difference between surface and deep structure. E.g. john is easy to please/ john is eager to please.
    13. 13. Cognitive or innatist approach (it’s all in your mind( • Chomsky: All human languages are fundamentally innate and that the same universal principles underlie all of them. • A human child is born with the ability to learn any language. This ability enables them to use a language creatively. • (Language Acquisition Device) “LAD” refers to that children have inborn ability to learn a language which other beings don’t have. However, they learn from the environment in which they are brought up.
    14. 14. UG (Universal Grammar( • A name for Linguistic theory of the genetic component of the language faculty. There’s a reason why a child identifies some part of her/his environment as language related, how that happened? - It’s a Miracle. - Specifically Genetic capacity. We all have the same capacity for learning any language in the world.
    15. 15. Language UniversalsLanguage Universals LINGUISTIC UNIVERSALS >LINGUISTIC UNIVERSALS > UNIVERSAL GRAMMARUNIVERSAL GRAMMAR All languages have: 1. A grammar 2. Basic word order (in terms of SOV, etc.) 3. Nouns and verbs 4. Subjects and objects 5. Consonants and vowels
    16. 16. Language development Involves: • Phonological development - learning to produce speech sounds. • Semantic development - learning to understand the meanings of words. • Acquisition of grammar - the rules through which words can be arranged into sentences in a certain language
    17. 17. 1. Crying: Since birth, different cries for different needs. 2. Cooing: 2-3 months; vowel like sounds 3. Babbling: 3-9 months, adding consonant sounds to the vowels to make babbling sound, which at times can almost sound like real speech Stages of first language development
    18. 18. Stages of first language development 3. One-word sentence: just before or around 1 yr, most children begin to say actual words. Typically nouns and may seem to represent an entire phrase of meaning (holophrases). E.g. “Milk!” 4. Two-word sentence: around a two years children being to produce two words such as “ no juice” I don’t want juice or .
    19. 19. Stages of language development 5. Clipped sentences: 2-4 years children construct longer sentences – rapid speech. 6.Whole sentences: Moving through preschool years, they learn to use grammatical terms and increase words in their sentences. By age of 6 or so, nearly as fluent as an adult although the number of words they know is still limited when compared to adult vocabulary.
    20. 20. • Chomsky’s ideas are linked to the (CPH)- Animals including humans are generally programmed to acquire certain kinds of knowledge and skills at specific time in life, beyond those critical periods it’s either difficult of impossible to acquire the those abilities. • Regarding language, CPH suggest that children who are not given access to language in infancy and early childhood will never acquire language if these deprivation go on for too long. • The case of Victor and Genie. Critical Period Hypothesis
    21. 21. Thank you