Eating Disorders are potentially life-threatening illnesses which are simultaneously psychological and physical in nature.Ages between 15-25 years old.They tend to think of themselves as "fat" and "ugly" because of their body size and shape, even when this self-judgment is objectively inaccurate and false.
Many people with anorexia nervosa see themselves as overweight, even when they are clearly underweight. Eating, food, and weight control become obsessions.weigh themselves repeatedlyportion food carefully, and eat very small quantities of only certain foodsSome people with anorexia nervosa may also engage in binge-eating followed by extreme dieting excessive exerciseself-induced vomiting, and/or misuse of laxatives, diuretics, or enemas.
Bulimia nervosa is characterized by recurrent and frequent episodes of eating unusually large amounts of food and feeling a lack of control over these episodes. This binge-eating is followed by behavior that compensates for the overeating such as forced vomiting, excessive use of laxatives or diuretics, fasting, excessive exercise, or a combination of these behaviors. unlike anorexia
Drive for thinness (DT): an excessive concern with dieting, preoccupation with weight, and fear of weight gain.2.Bulimia: episodes of binge eating and purging3.Body dissatisfaction: not being satisfied with one's physical appearance4.Ineffectiveness: assesses feelings of inadequacy, insecurity, worthlessness and having no control over their lives. 5.Perfectionism:not being satisfied with anything less than perfect6.Interpersonal distrust: reluctance to form close relationships7.Interoceptive awareness (IA):"measures the ability of an individual to discriminate between sensations and feelings, and between the sensations of hunger and satiety",8.Maturity fears:the fear of facing the demands of adult life
Disordered Eating Eating Disorder• A reaction to a life situation • An illness• Absence of compulsive thoughts or • Frequent and persistent thoughtsproblems in regular functioning. and behaviors about body.• Self-help can result in change • Needs Professional Intervention
Threatening psychological & physical illness Consuming small or huge amount of food Mostly teenage woman Eating disorders are characterized by: abnormal and harmful eating behaviors. motivated by unhealthy beliefs concerning eating, weight, and body shape. difficulty accepting and feeling good about themselves.
CHARACTERISTCS Extreme thinness (emaciation) A relentless pursuit of thinness and unwillingness to maintain a normal or healthy weight. Intense fear of gaining weight. imbalance in the menstrual cycle among girls and women. Extremely restricted eating. denial of the seriousness of low body weight
PHYSICAL SYMPTOMS Thinning of the bones (osteopenia or osteoporosis) Brittle hair and nails Dry and yellowish skin Growth of fine hair all over the body (lanugo) Mild anemia and muscle wasting and weakness Severe constipation Low blood pressure, slowed breathing and pulse Damage to the structure and function of the heart Brain damage Multi-organ failure Drop in internal body temperature, causing a person to feel cold all the time feeling tired all the time Infertility.
consuming large amount of food Lack of control over episodes Followed by: Forced vomiting Fasting Excessive use of laxatives(diet pills) Excessive exercise Maintain healthy & normal weight
PHYSICAL SYMPTOMS Chronically inflamed and sore throat Swollen salivary glands in the neck and jaw area Worn tooth enamel, increasingly sensitive and decaying teeth as a result of exposure to stomach acid Acid reflux disorder and other gastrointestinal problems Intestinal distress and irritation from laxative abuse Severe dehydration from purging of fluids Electrolyte imbalance (too low or too high levels of sodium, calcium, potassium and other minerals) which can lead to heart attack
THIS YOUNG WOMAN HAS LOST ALMOST ALL ENAMEL FROM THE PALATAL SURFACES OF HER ANTERIOR TEETH (YELLOW DENTIN IS EXPOSED). A THIN WHITE RIM OFREMAINING ENAMEL IS SEEN AT GUM LINE AND AMALGAM FILLINGS STAND "HIGH AND DRY" AS THE TEETH ERODE AROUND THEM FROM REPEATED CONTACT WITH VOMIT
PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS Low self-esteem Feelings of inadequacy or failure Feeling out of control Response to change (puberty) Response to stress (sports, dance) Personal illness
INTERPERSONAL FACTORS Troubled family and personal relationships Difficulty expressing emotions and feelings History of being teased or ridiculed based on size or weight History of physical or sexual abuse
SOCIAL AND CULTURAL FACTORS Narrow definitions of beauty Influence of media Religious Reasons (eg: Hindu) immigration to a western country Mingling with people of different cultures
BIOLOGICAL FACTORS Eating disorders often run in families (learn coping skills and attitudes in family) Genetic component (certain chemicals in the brain control hunger, appetite and digestion have been found unbalanced).
THE EATING DISORDER INVENTORY (EDI) 64 questions divided into 8 subscales: 1. Drive for thinness 2. Bulimia 3. Body dissatisfaction 4. Ineffectiveness 5. Perfectionism 6. Interpersonal distrust 7. Interceptive awareness 8. Maturity fears
EATING ATTITUDES TEST (EAT-26) self-report measure of symptoms and concerns characteristic of eating disorders Consists of 26 questions can be used in a non-clinical can be administered in group or individual settings
CBT Individual, group, and/or family psychotherapy Medical care and monitoring Nutritional counseling Medications. no treatment for chronic cases yet
EATING DISORDER IN OMANEating disorders are generally found in western developed countriesIn Oman: Fatness was culturally preferred Recently Developed (why?) Studies showed that anorexia affects males more then females (is it true?) number is significantly increasing