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General Biology 1 - Lesson 1: Cell (structure,function, and theory)

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General Biology 1 - Lesson 1: Cell (structure,function, and theory)

  1. 1. Senior High School – STEM
  2. 2. General Biology1: SubjectDescription This subject is designed to enhance the understanding of the principles and concepts in the study of biology, particularly life processes at the cellular and molecular levels. It also covers the transformation of energy in organisms.
  3. 3. CONTENT I. CELL a. Cell Theory b. Cell Structure and Functions c. Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells d. Cell Types e. Cell Modifications f. Cell Cycle: Mitosis/Meiosis g. Transport Mechanism 1. Simple Diffusion 2. Facilitated Diffusion 3. Active Transport 4. Bulk/Vesicular Transport
  4. 4. CONTENT ii. Biological molecules  Structure and Functions of Biological Molecules a. Carbohydrates b. Lipids c. Proteins d. Enzymes e. Nucleic Acid
  5. 5. CONTENT ii. ENERGY TRANSFORMATION A. ATP-ADP Cycle B. Photosynthesis C. Cellular Respiration
  8. 8. LESSON 1: THE CELL (Theory, Structure and Functions) General Biology 1
  9. 9. OOTD: Objectives of the day! At the end of the lesson, I should be able to: Recite the postulates of cell theory and explain the roles of a cell in an organism, particularly in the levels of organization of an organism; Describe the structure and functions of major and subcellular organelles; Determine the role of each cellular organelle and explain how it relates to the functions of other organelles.
  10. 10. History ofcell  In 1665, British scientist Robert Hooke examined a piece of cork and found little structures in it which he compared to cellulae.  He named these structures “cells”. Later it was discovered that the cell he had found in the cork were actually outer walls of former plant cell.
  11. 11. HISTORY OFCELL  In the late 1600’s, Dutch scientist Anton van Leeuwenhoek examined different subjects , using a refined microscope than that of Hooke.  Leuwenhoek found moving protist and sperm, which he collectively termed “animalcules”
  12. 12. CellTheory: Definition The Cell Theory, developed in the mid-1800’s as a result of various discoveries about cells, it is one of the basic principles of biology. 1. The cell is the basic unit of life; 2. All living organisms are composed of cell; and 3. New cells are created from pre-existing cell
  13. 13. First Postulate:Cellis thebasic unit of life In order that an organism may be considered living, it must have a cell. One proof that an organism is alive just by looking at its cell is the movement of the organelles inside it.
  14. 14. First Postulate:Cellis thebasic unit of life In the cork that Hooke examined, the protoplasm of the cell had already dissipated, indicating the cell’s death. When Leeuwenhooek observed his teeth scrapings, he found animalcules shooting and spinning inside the cell.
  15. 15. Second Postulate: ALLLIVINGORGANISMSARECOMPOSED OF CELL In 1838, German botanist Mattthias Jacob Schleiden established that the small compartments in his plant specimens are cells. In 1839, a German zoologist named Theodore Schwann after doing microscopic studies of animal cells, instituted that all animals are also composed of cells.
  16. 16. Third Postulate: new cells arecreatedfrompre-existingcells German scientist Rudolf Virchow introduced the third tenet of the cell theory: Omnis cellula e cellula which means “Cells come from pre-existing cell”.
  17. 17. Development of Cell Theory 1590 – Zacharias Janssen invented a primitive microscope with the help of his father Hans. 1663-1665 – Robert Hooke viewed a thin slice of cork
  18. 18. Development of Cell Theory 1665-1676 Marcello Malpighi and Nehemiah Grew conducted separated investigations on plant cell. They determined the presence of organelles within its cells .
  19. 19. Development of Cell Theory 1670-1683 Anton van Leeuwenhoek upgraded Janssen’s microscope and produced his lens. With this invention, he discovered mobile organelles in many subjects, which he called animalcules.
  20. 20. Development of Cell Theory 1831- Robert Brown made a series of discoveries about cell organelles and ultimately discovered the nucleus. This became a major breakthrough in the history of biology.
  21. 21. Development of Cell Theory 1838 Matthias Schleiden microscopically examine plants and recognized that plant parts come from cells. In his writings in Contribution in Phytogenesis, he proposed that the different structures of a plant are all composed of cells.
  22. 22. Development of Cell Theory 1839 Theodore Schwann declared that animals are likewise composed of cells. This put an end to the debates – whether or not plants and animals are different in structural origin and composition.
  23. 23. Development of Cell Theory 1840 Albrecht von Roelliker stated that sperm and egg are composed of cells and that all humans are configured from cells. 1849 Louis Pasteur was developing fermentation, a process to kill bacteria, he proved that bacteria are able to multiply and that bacterial cells come from other bacterial cells.
  24. 24. Development of Cell Theory 1858 Rudolf Virchow declared, “Omnis cellula e cellula” which he meant that cells come from pre- existing cells. With this conclusion, the cell theory was completed.
  25. 25. Question! If life were to be found in other planets, would you expect it to form cells? Why or why not?
  26. 26. ASTROBIOLOGY Our space exploration has been continually searching for life in outer space. On the space probes sent to other planets (especially Mars), these are equipped to look after life. However, very high resolution are still not possible on-site.
  27. 27. Cell Structure and Functions
  28. 28. MAJORPARTSOF THE CELL Plasma Membrane Outer covering that separates the cell’s interior from its surrounding environment. Cytoplasm Consisting of a jelly-like cytosol within the cell in which other cellular components are found. Nucleus Serves as the brain of the cell and directs all of the cell’s activity.
  29. 29. PlasmaMembrane It encloses and safeguards its organelles from possible harm that foreign materials can inflict on them.
  30. 30. PlasmaMembrane It also controls the exchange of essential components and obtains chemical messages from other cells.
  31. 31. PlasmaMembrane:FLUIDMOSAIC MODEL The plasma membrane is a mosaic of components— primarily, phospholipids, cholesterol, and proteins—that move freely and fluidly in the plane of the membrane.
  32. 32. ComponentsofPlasmaMembrane 1. Phospholipids It is a lipid made of glycerol, two fatty acid tails, and a phosphate-linked head group. Biological membranes usually involve two layers of phospholipids with their tails pointing inward, an arrangement called a phospholipid bilayer.
  33. 33. ComponentsofPlasmaMembrane 2. Cholesterol It is another lipid composed of four fused carbon rings, is found alongside phospholipids in the core of the membrane.
  34. 34. ComponentsofPlasmaMembrane 3. Proteins Proteins help move large molecules or aid in cell recognition Peripheral proteins are attached on the surface (inner or outer) Integral proteins are embedded completely through the membrane
  35. 35. CYTOPLASM It is the entire region of a cell between plasma membrane and nuclear envelope. It is composed primarily of water, proteins and salts.
  36. 36. CYTOPLASM In the cytoplasm, the organelles are suspended in a gel-like solution called cytosol, which is composed of both organic and inorganic compounds. Cytosol accounts for about 70% of cellular content. It contains a rich supply of macromolecules and smaller organic molecules.
  37. 37. CYTOPLASM The Cytoplasm also contains enzymes that break down waste and enable metabolic reactions. It allows for cellular expansion and growth. Together with cytoskeleton, cytoplasm determines cell shape and accommodates movement for some cell types.
  38. 38. Nucleus Discovered by Robert Brown in 1833. It is the most vital part of the cell and dubbed as the “control center” It directs all of the cell’s activities and determines how a cell should appear and function.
  39. 39. Nucleus A double layer of nuclear membrane encloses the nucleus to keep it distinct from other cellular components. Nucleolus serves as the site of ribosomes synthesis. Nucleus holds chromosomes which carry tightly wrapped and coined DNA.
  40. 40. Thecellorganelles:endomembranesystem The endomembrane system is a group of membranes and organelles in eukaryotic cells that works together to modify, package, and transport lipids and proteins.
  41. 41. Thecellorganelles:endomembranesystem This system is made up of organelles that are communally linked by structure specific to each of them. These organelles are: 1. Endoplasmic Reticulum 5. Lysosomes 2. Ribosomes 6. Peroxisomes 3. Vacuoles 7. Centrosomes 4. Golgi Apparatus
  42. 42. Endoplasmic reticulum
  43. 43. Endoplasmic reticulum The Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) is a series of interconnected membranous sacs and tubules that collectively modifies proteins and synthesized lipids. These two functions are performs in separate areas of ER; the rough endoplasmic reticulum and smooth endoplasmic reticulum.
  44. 44. Endoplasmic reticulum The hollow portion of ER tubules is called lumen or cisternal space. The membrane of the ER, which is a phospholipid bilayer embedded with proteins , is continuous with nuclear envelope.
  45. 45. Rough endoplasmicreticulum It has ribosomes on its surface. It makes membrane proteins and proteins for export out of cell. Proteins are made by ribosomes on ER surface They are then threaded into the interior of the Rough ER to be modified and transported
  46. 46. smoothendoplasmicreticulum It incorporates proteins into cisternae and transports synthesized proteins across the cytoplasm, thereby allowing the synthesis of fatty acids and phospholipids. It is abundant in liver cell, where it detoxifies hydrophobic chemicals. This makes them water-soluble for excretion.
  47. 47. RIBOSOMES
  48. 48. RIBOSOMES Ribosomes are involved in providing a frame for proteins synthesis; hence they are site of protein production. They are present in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Developing muscle cells, skin and hair cells contain large numbers of free ribosomes.
  49. 49. Vacuoles
  50. 50. Vacuoles A vacuole is a fluid –filled vesicles enclosed by a membrane. It has a selectively membrane freely allowing water passage but retaining smaller molecules within it and stores chemicals within the cell. Vacuoles ability to break down large molecules makes it comparable with lysosomes in animal cells. Likewise, both organelles thrive in acidic environment.
  51. 51. lysosomes
  52. 52. lysosomes The lysosomes serve as digestion slots for cellular materials that are due for expiration or are no longer useful. It is the cell’s reprocessing area, where it hacks chemical bonds of any foreign substance it comes contact with, in order to recycle with the raw material
  53. 53. lysosomes It is dubbed as the cell’s “suicide bags” These organelles are capable for self-destruction In order to save the rest of the other organelles from being poisoned. This happens through autophagy, or the natural process of organelle destruction.
  54. 54. LYSOSOMES •Cells take in food by phagocytosis • Lysosomes digest the food & get rid of wastes •Example: macrophages
  55. 55. peroxisome
  56. 56. peroxisomeS •It is a small, round organelles enclosed by single membrane, somehow resembles that of a lysosomes. •It is responsible for self-damage and mostly disintegrate proteins, accommodate the breakdown of fatty acids and detoxify many poisons that enter the body. •It also shields the cell from serious damage caused reactive oxygen species (ROS) molecules
  57. 57. GolgiAPPARATUS
  58. 58. GolgiAPPARATUS Stacks of flattened sacs Have a shipping side (cis face) & a receiving side (trans face) Receive proteins made by ER Transport vesicles with modified proteins pinch off the ends CIS TRANS Transport vesicle
  59. 59. GolgiAPPARATUS •a stack of pancakes Modify, sort, & package molecules from ER for storage OR transport out of cell
  60. 60. CENTROSOME
  61. 61. CENTROSOME It comprised of two centrioles or cylindrical structures with a central cavity surrounded by microtubules arranged side by side. These structure take part in the assembly of spindle fibers at cell division and contribute to the successful outcome of mitosis.
  62. 62. CENTROSOME It is found in all eukaryotic cells, assist in arranging microtubules (hollow tubes of proteins) to be utilized for cell division. They also enable the said microtubules to form part of the cell’s microtubules to form part of the cell’s cytoskeleton. In this way, cellular shape is maintain and the cell structure is stabilized.
  63. 63. mitochondriA
  64. 64. mitochondria Mitochondria are the sites of cellular respiration, the metabolic process that uses oxygen to drive the generation of ATP by extracting energy from sugars, fats, and other fuels.
  65. 65. ADENOSINETRIPHOSPHATE It is the major energy currency of the cell that provides the energy for most of the energy-consuming activities of the cell. Mechanism: When the third phosphate group of ATP is removed by hydrolysis, a substantial amount of free energy is released.
  66. 66. MITOCHONDRIA The mitochondria are oval-shaped organelles found in most eukaryotic cells. They are considered to be the ‘powerhouses’ of the cell. Mitochondria are most plentiful in cells that require significant amounts of energy to function, such as liver and muscle cells.
  67. 67. MITOCHONDRIA  The mitochondria has two membranes that are similar in composition to the cell membrane:  Outer membrane—is a selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the mitochondria.  It is the site of attachment for the respiratory assembly of the electron transport chain and ATP Synthase.  It has integral proteins and pores for transporting molecules just like the cell membrane
  68. 68. MITOCHONDRIA  Inner membrane—folds inward (called cristae) to increase surfaces for cellular metabolism.  It contains ribosomes and the DNA of the mitochondria. The inner membrane creates two enclosed spaces within the mitochondria:  intermembrane space between the outer membrane and the inner membrane; and  matrix that is enclosed within the inner membrane.
  70. 70. CHLOROPLAST Chloroplasts, which are found in plants and algae, are the sites of photosynthesis. This process converts solar energy to chemical energy by absorbing sunlight and using it to drive the synthesis of organic compounds such as sugars from carbon dioxide and water.
  71. 71. CHLOROPLAST Chloroplasts are double membrane-bound organelles and are the sites of photosynthesis. The chloroplast has a system of three membranes: the outer membrane, the inner membrane, and the thylakoid system.
  72. 72. Structure of chloroplast Outer membrane—This is a semi-porous membrane and is permeable to small molecules and ions which diffuse easily. The outer membrane is not permeable to larger proteins.
  73. 73. Structure of chloroplast Intermembrane Space—This is usually a thin intermembrane space about 10-20 nanometers and is present between the outer and the inner membrane of the chloroplast.
  74. 74. Structure of chloroplast Inner membrane—The inner membrane of the chloroplast forms a border to the stroma. It regulates passage of materials in and out of the chloroplast. In addition to the regulation activity, fatty acids, and are synthesized in the inner chloroplast membrane.
  75. 75. Structure of chloroplast Stroma—This is an alkaline, aqueous fluid that is protein-rich and is present within the inner membrane of the chloroplast. It is the space outside the thylakoid space. The chloroplast DNA, chloroplast ribosomes, thylakoid system, starch granules, and other proteins are found floating around the stroma.
  76. 76. Structure of chloroplast Thylakoid System The thylakoid system is suspended in the stroma. It is a collection of membranous sacks called thylakoids. Thylakoids are small sacks that are interconnected.
  77. 77. Structure of chloroplast The membranes of these thylakoids are the sites for the light reactions of the photosynthesis to take place. The chlorophyll is found in the thylakoids.  The thylakoids are arranged in stacks known as grana. Each granum contains around 10- 20 thylakoids.
  78. 78. Practice:HOMEWORK Draw and label each part of plant and animal cell in a short bond paper.
  79. 79. ENRICHMENT Why cells are generally small in size?

Editor's Notes

  • Plasma Membrane of cells that specialize in absorption are folded into fingerlike projection called microvilli,

    Such cells are typically found lining the small intestine,

    People with CELIAC DISEASE have an immune response to gluten, protein found in barley, wheat, and rye.

    The immune response damages microvilli. And thus afflicted individuals cannot absorb nutrients

    This lead to malnutrion, cramping and diarrhea.

    Patients suffering from celiac must follow gluten-free diet
  • Inner and outer membrane of the nuclear membrane are phospholipid bilayer.

    It is punctuated with pores (nuclear pore) that controls the passage of ions, molecules, and RNA

  • Protein movement is a vital function of endomembrane system as it essential in carrying out the process within a cell.

    Function as depository of nutrients
    Disintegrator of organism.

    It ensures smooth flow of activities in the cell.


  • ROS, by product of normal cellular respiration and can be enhanced by exposure to drugs, radiation, tobacco usage. Which cause oxidative stress.
  • Manufacturer or shipping center of cell.
  • The word thylakoid is derived from the Greek word thylakos which means 'sack'.

  • Cells are so little, so they can maximize their ratio of surface area to volume.Smaller cells have a higher ratio which allow more molecules and ions move across the cell membrane per unit of cytoplasmic volume. Cells are so small because they need to be able to get the nutrients in and the waste out quickly.