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ground tackle (anchoring and mooring)

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for deck cadets

ground tackle (anchoring and mooring)

  1. 1. Ground Tackle – Anchoring and Mooring Quartermaster Requirement 8
  2. 2. 10/11/13 Quartermaster 8 - Ground Tackle (Anchoring & Mooring)2 Quartermaster Requirement 8  Teach the Ordinary and Able requirements No. 8, Ground Tackle, to a crew.  Know the methods of bringing a boat to anchor or mooring with special emphasis on wind and current with respect to the vessel's course and speed.  Take charge of the craft used by your ship and give all commands to the crew for anchoring and weighing anchor in several different wind and current situations.  Take charge of the craft used by your ship and give all commands to the crew for picking up a mooring buoy and properly mooring the vessel in several wind and current situations.  Note: Depending on the type of craft used by your ship, this requirement may be met either under sail or power.  Reference:  "Ground Tackle" on page 145.
  3. 3. 10/11/13 Quartermaster 8 - Ground Tackle (Anchoring & Mooring)3 Anchor Rode  The rode is the line and/or chain which goes to an anchor. It is often composed of both chain and rope.  The chain is attached to the anchor and it helps the anchor to lie flat on the bottom. This has three benefits:  The chain lies flat on the bottom and increases the horizontal pull on the anchor. This will increase the anchor's purchase.  The chain will not chafe as it lies on and is pulled across the bottom.  The chain acts as a shock absorber as the boat intermittently pulls on the rode, lifting the chain off the bottom.
  4. 4. 10/11/13 Quartermaster 8 - Ground Tackle (Anchoring & Mooring)4 Purchase  Be sure that the anchor has a good purchase on the water's bottom or it will drag and the boat will drift.  Check the purchase by observing the tension on the rode and any change in position of the boat as the boat is placed in reverse.  While at anchor, intermittently check the tension on the rode as the boat's bow raises and lowers with the waves.  Also take several compass fixes and/or GPS positions to aid in determining if the boat is drifting and pulling the anchor.
  5. 5. 10/11/13 Quartermaster 8 - Ground Tackle (Anchoring & Mooring)5 Scope  As a general guide, let out at least seven times the rode as the depth of the water plus the boat's freeboard (distance from the water surface to the deck)  This ratio is called the anchoring scope.  Dragging anchor is often caused by not letting out enough rode.  Scope may be decreased to 5:1 if an all chain rode is used.  Scope may be increased in high wind or wave conditions.  Check the depth of the water where you anchor in relationship to the tide.  For example, if you anchor with a 7:1 scope at low tide in six feet of water and a six foot tide comes in, your scope will be reduced to 3.5:1  Or you may inadvertently become grounded.  Sailor's Tip: Place fathom or foot markers on the rode to help judge how much line has been let out.
  6. 6. 10/11/13 Quartermaster 8 - Ground Tackle (Anchoring & Mooring)6 Swing  If a single anchor is placed, your boat will swing around the anchor as the direction of wind changes.  This is especially true on the coast where one encounters land and sea breezes.  The water must be deep enough for anchorage along the entire arch of this swing.  If less swing is desired, set two anchors at 180 degrees from each other.
  7. 7. 10/11/13 Quartermaster 8 - Ground Tackle (Anchoring & Mooring)7 Crowded Anchorage  Boats anchored next to each other with a different swing radius are at risk to drift into each other if the current or wind changes.  Look at the other boats and note the type and the angle of their rodes to the water.  This will help you judge the amount of rode let out and give an idea of the swing radius of the other boats.  If a boat has an all chain rode, it may have a 5:1 or less scope and have a smaller swinging radius than a boat with a combination chain and rope line.
  8. 8. 10/11/13 Quartermaster 8 - Ground Tackle (Anchoring & Mooring)8 Desired Anchorage  Always anchor in a similar fashion as the boat next to you or the two boats may drift into each other.  For example: If your boat is fixed in place with two anchors and the other boat has a single anchor, the other boat may be blown into your boat.  A good anchorage has the following characteristics:  Protected from wind and waves & swells.  Enough depth at low tide along the full swing of the rode.  Enough space along the full swing of the rode.  Good bottom which will hold an anchor.
  9. 9. 10/11/13 Quartermaster 8 - Ground Tackle (Anchoring & Mooring)9 Trip Line  One may place a second line (trip line) to the head of the anchor.  There is usually a metal loop to allow for the placement.  Bring the line up to the surface and attach to a flotation device.  Using this line the anchor can be pulled out by its head and will be easy to remove.  The length of the trip line is equal to the water depth at high tide plus 5 to 10 feet.
  10. 10. 10/11/13 Quartermaster 8 - Ground Tackle (Anchoring & Mooring)10 Anchor Commands  Aweigh Anchor To raise an anchor off the bottom  Drop Anchor To lower an anchor gently to the bottom  Take In Slack The deckhands are to pull in the slack and snub it around a cleat.  Take A Strain The deckhands are to pull on the line named, snubbing it around the cleat but allowing a little slippage.  Ease Off The line is allowed to slip more freely.  Hold This means to check the line temporarily.  Secure Lines Tie the lines down permanently  Back Anchor Carry out a smaller anchor ahead of the one by which the vessels rides to take off some of the strain.
  11. 11. 10/11/13 Quartermaster 8 - Ground Tackle (Anchoring & Mooring)11 Using Two Anchors  Using two anchors is a difficult maneuver.  Reduces the swing radius of the sailboat.  Increases holding power in heavy weather.  The tension on the anchor rodes is important when setting the second anchor  Too much tension may cause the first anchor to break loose  Too little tension on the rode may cause it to go astern and foul your prop.
  12. 12. 10/11/13 Quartermaster 8 - Ground Tackle (Anchoring & Mooring)12 Setting Two Anchors  Drop anchor.
  13. 13. 10/11/13 Quartermaster 8 - Ground Tackle (Anchoring & Mooring)13 Setting Two Anchors  Drop anchor.  Use intermittent reverse thrust.
  14. 14. 10/11/13 Quartermaster 8 - Ground Tackle (Anchoring & Mooring)14 Setting Two Anchors  Drop anchor.  Use intermittent reverse thrust.  Turn the boat and use forward thrust.  KEEP THE RODE AWAY FROM THE PROP.
  15. 15. 10/11/13 Quartermaster 8 - Ground Tackle (Anchoring & Mooring)15 Setting Two Anchors  Drop anchor.  Use intermittent reverse thrust.  Turn the boat and use forward thrust.  KEEP THE RODE AWAY FROM THE PROP.  Drop the second anchor.
  16. 16. 10/11/13 Quartermaster 8 - Ground Tackle (Anchoring & Mooring)16 Setting Two Anchors  Drop anchor.  Use intermittent reverse thrust.  Turn the boat and use forward thrust.  KEEP THE RODE AWAY FROM THE PROP.  Drop the second anchor.  Use reverse thrust to position the boat between the two anchors.
  17. 17. 10/11/13 Quartermaster 8 - Ground Tackle (Anchoring & Mooring)17 Setting Two Anchors  Drop anchor.  Use intermittent reverse thrust.  Turn the boat and use forward thrust.  KEEP THE RODE AWAY FROM THE PROP.  Drop the second anchor.  Use reverse thrust to position the boat between the two anchors.  The final angle between the two anchor rodes should be between 30° and 60°.
  18. 18. 10/11/13 Quartermaster 8 - Ground Tackle (Anchoring & Mooring)18 Mediterranean Mooring  Commonly found in Europe, South and Central America.  Maximizes the number of boats which can be docked to a pier.  Each boat is docked with its stern to the pier with a rode and anchor going forward, away from the pier.  Boats are then docked next to each other.  During the maneuver the anchor is set and the boat is backed into position.  Prop-walk can create difficulty staying on course.  Be careful not to put too much tension on the rode when backing up or the anchor may break loose
  19. 19. 10/11/13 Quartermaster 8 - Ground Tackle (Anchoring & Mooring)19 Mediterranean Mooring  Use intermittent forward thrust to maneuver to where you will drop anchor.
  20. 20. 10/11/13 Quartermaster 8 - Ground Tackle (Anchoring & Mooring)20 Mediterranean Mooring  Use intermittent forward thrust to maneuver to where you will drop anchor.  Drop anchor.
  21. 21. 10/11/13 Quartermaster 8 - Ground Tackle (Anchoring & Mooring)21 Mediterranean Mooring  Use intermittent forward thrust to maneuver to where you will drop anchor.  Drop anchor.  Use intermittent reverse thrust to slowly approach the pier.
  22. 22. 10/11/13 Quartermaster 8 - Ground Tackle (Anchoring & Mooring)22 Mediterranean Mooring  Use intermittent forward thrust to maneuver to where you will drop anchor.  Drop anchor.  Use intermittent reverse thrust to slowly approach the pier.  Attach stern lines.
  23. 23. 10/11/13 Quartermaster 8 - Ground Tackle (Anchoring & Mooring)23 Mooring to a Buoy  Using a permanent mooring is best when a boat is mostly at its homeport or when the boat is to be left unattended for long periods of time.  A helix anchor or a mushroom anchor is used for mooring buoys  Concrete blocks can be used but that should be many times heavier (around 2000 pounds) because they do not dig into the seabed and only their weight provides holding power.  Galvanized chain on the mooring should be about 1.5 times the depth.  The upper end of the chain is supported at the surface by a spherical or comical mooring buoy.  Buoys are made of metal, wooden spars or Styrofoam  All strain should be transmitted through this buoy using a chain or rod.
  24. 24. 10/11/13 Quartermaster 8 - Ground Tackle (Anchoring & Mooring)24 Mooring to a Buoy  At the top of the mooring buoy is a line called a pendant made of manila or nylon and the same strength as the chain.  It should be about 2.5 times the height of the bow above the water.  An eye in the end of the pendant is run through the bow check at angles  The pendant should be covered with some type of protection to protect it from chafing.  The pickup buoy should have a ring or handle on top to aid in picking it up.

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