ROOTS:Activity•Root Hunt Lab•Grow a potato•Grow seeds in a bag•Carrot Top growing•Root a cutting in water
ROOTS: •hold the plant in the ground (anchor) •Stop erosion •Take in water & minerals for the plant •Parts of a root:Root cap: thin covering, protects root tipRoot hairs: threadlike parts of cells on surface of rootPhloem: path that food from leaves take down the plant to rootsXylem: path that water & minerals take up the plantCortex: stores food in roots & stems
dandelion foxtail Taproot Fibrous RootGrows straight down Grows more shallow,with a few side ‘hairy’; many fine-branches branching roots
Carrots and BeetrootCarrots and beetroot are thickened taproots which have very few lateral roots.Both are biennials i.e. they only grow for twoyears. In the first year they store foodmanufactured by their leaves in their taproot, and in the second year they use thestored food to produce flowers (calledbolting). We harvest the carrots orbeetroots before they bolt.
GingerGinger is a rhizome - a type of stem whichgrows horizontally just under the surface ofthe ground. Leaves grow from buds at thenodes on the stem. The stem is thick andfleshy and stores reserve food for theplant.
PotatoesThis is likely to trick many people. Potatoesare not roots but underground storagestems which are formed when the growthpoint of an underground stem, a rhizome,almost stops lengthening and increasesgreatly in thickness. This forms anunderground storage organ which storeslarge quantities of starch.
Sweet PotatoesSweet potatoes are the greatlythickened roots of the fibrous rootsystem of the sweet potato plantwhich contain reserves of starch.
Onions and GarlicOnions and garlic are bulbs. A bulbis an underground storage organwhich consists of a very short stemon which fleshy bases of the leavesstore food for the plant.
•Woody stems & soft stems•Carry water & minerals up and food down•Hold the plant up (leaves & flowers)•A tree’s stem is called a trunk•Some grow underground (potato)
TROPISMS: movement of a plantPositive tropism (moving toward the stimulus)Negative tropism (moving away from thestimulus)•Geotropism: all above ground plant parts growaway from gravity (up)•Phototropism- all stems bend towards the sunlight-•thigmotropism: response to physical contact-Vines: special kind of ‘climbing’ stem•Some grow along the ground (runners) likestrawberries VIDEO Creeper vines climb ADVANCE
•Vine:A specialkind of stemthat grows upandsideways; itclimbs RunnerA runner produces anidentical plant to themotherBACK
Header:PLANT LABS:1. Leaves: Identify & graph your collection into journal; view & draw fern spores; Answer questions in Plant Journal.2. Flowers: identify & draw 5 local spring flowers on white paper. Glue into journal. Roots: identify fibrous & taproots; draw 7 label root parts in journal; Answer questions in Plant Journal.3. Seeds: seed dissection: label 3 parts of the seed into journal; observe pine nuts in pinecones-- sketch into journal; Answer questions in Plant Journal.4. Stems: Compare three different types of bark. Notice the color & texture. How do the grains run? Is there a pattern? Create a bark rubbing with a dark crayon (rubbed sideways). Sketch the three specimens.
Header: LAB: ROOTS RULES: BE GENTLE WITH THE ROOTS. They are wilting!• What is the purpose of a root for a plant? ____________________, __________________________________• What part of the root that carries water up the plant? _____________• What part of the root carries water & nutrients down the plant? _____________• Sketch & label the roots you have in your station into your journal. (root hairs, rootcap, fibrous root, taproot)• What is the difference between a fibrous root and a taproot? ________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________• Name some roots that we eat. ________________________ _________________________________________________
Header: LAB: STEM RULES: BE GENTLE WITH THE BARK SPECIMENS.• What is the purpose of a stem for a plant? ______________________________• Compare three different types of bark. Notice the color & texture. How do the grains run? Is there a pattern? Sketch the three specimens.• What is a vine?___________________________________• What is a runner? __________________________________