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Political parties )sam

Political parties )sam

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Political Parties
Political parties are one of the most visible institutions in a
democracy.

Is a group of people who come together to contest elections and
hold power in the
government.
Is a group of people who come together to contest elections and
hold power in the
government.

They seek to implement these policies by winning popular
support through elections.
A political party has three components:
 Leaders
Active members
Followers
Functions
• Parties contest elections.
• Parties have different policies and programmes
  and the voters choose from them.
• A party reduces a vast multitude of opinions into
  a few basic positions which it supports.

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Political parties )sam

  • 2. Political parties are one of the most visible institutions in a democracy. Is a group of people who come together to contest elections and hold power in the government.
  • 3. Is a group of people who come together to contest elections and hold power in the government. They seek to implement these policies by winning popular support through elections.
  • 4. A political party has three components:  Leaders Active members Followers
  • 6. • Parties contest elections. • Parties have different policies and programmes and the voters choose from them. • A party reduces a vast multitude of opinions into a few basic positions which it supports.
  • 7. • Parties play a decisive role in making laws for a country. Laws are debated and passed in the legislature by the members of the various political parties. • Parties form and run governments.
  • 8. • Parties recruit leaders, train them and then make them ministers to run the government in the way they want. • Parties shape public opinion.
  • 9. • Often, opinions in the society are formed on the lines of the party. • Parties provide people access to government machinery and welfare schemes implemented by governments
  • 11. • Political parties are directly linked to the emergence of representative democracies. • Political parties help large scale societies in developing a representative democracy.
  • 12. • They also help in gathering different views on various issues and present these to the government. • They bring various representatives together so that a responsible government could be formed. • They support or restrain the government in the formulation of policies.
  • 14. • Only one party is allowed to control and run the government. E.g., The Communist Party of China. • We cannot consider one-party system as a good option because this is not a democratic option. One Party System
  • 15. • Power usually changes between two main parties. E.g., The United States of America and the United Kingdom. • Only the two main parties have a serious chance of winning majority of seats for forming the government. • Several other parties may exist, contest elections and win a few seats in the national legislatures Two-party system
  • 16. • Several parties compete for power, and more than two parties have a reasonable chance of coming to power either on their own strength or in alliance with others. E.g., India (The National Democratic Alliance, the United Progressive Alliance and the Left Front). • The government is formed by various parties coming together in a coalition. Multi-party system
  • 17. This system allows a variety of interests and opinions to enjoy political representation. A multi-party system may often lead to political instability.
  • 18. Party system evolves over a long time, depending on the nature of society, its social and regional divisions, its history of politics and its system of election
  • 19. • Countrywide parties are called ‘national parties’ and these have their units in various states. • A party that secures at least six per cent of total votes in the Lok Sabha elections or the • Assembly elections in four States and wins at least four seats in the Lok Sabha is recognized as a national party. • There are six national recognised parties in India.
  • 22. • Founded in 1885. • Dominated Indian politics, both at the national and state level, for several decades after India’s Independence. • Ruling party at the centre till 1977 and then from 1980 to 1989. After 1989, its support declined.
  • 23. • A centrist party (neither rightist nor leftist) in its ideological orientation. • The party supports secularism and welfare of weaker sections and minorities. • Supports new economic reforms.Currently leads the ruling United Progressive Alliance coalition government at the Centre.
  • 25. • Founded in 1980 by reviving the erstwhile Bharatiya Jana Sangh. • Cultural nationalism (or ‘Hindutva’) is the party’s ideology that defines its concept of Indian nationhood and politics. • Wants full territorial and political integration of Jammu and Kashmir with India. • A uniform civil code for all people living in the country irrespective of religion and a ban on religious conversions. • Its support base substantially increased in the 1990s.
  • 26. • Earlier limited to North and West and to urban areas, the party expanded its • support in the South, East, and the Northeast and to rural areas. • Came to power in 1998 as the leader of the National Democratic Alliance including • several state and regional parties. • Lost elections in 2004 and is the principal opposition party in the the Lok Sabha
  • 28. • Formed in 1984 under the leadership of Kanshi Ram. • Seeks to represent and secure power for the bahujan samaj which includes the dalits, adivasis, OBCs and religious minorities. • Draws inspiration from the ideas and teachings of Sahu Maharaj, Mahatma Phule, Periyar Ramaswami Naicker and Babasaheb Ambedkar.
  • 29. • It has its main base in the state of Uttar Pradesh and substantial presence in neighbouring states like Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Uttarakhand, Delhi and Punjab. • Formed government in Uttar Pradesh several times by taking the support of different parties at different times.
  • 30. Communist Party of India - Marxist (CPI-M)
  • 31. • Founded in 1964. • Believes in Marxism-Leninism. • Supports socialism, secularism and democracy and opposes imperialism and communalism. • Accepts democratic elections as a useful and helpful means for securing the • objectives of socio-economic justice in India
  • 32. • Enjoys strong support in West Bengal, Kerala and Tripura, especially among the poor, factory workers, farmers, agricultural labourers and the intelligentsia. • Critical of the new economic policies that allow free flow of foreign capital and goods into the country. Has been in power in West Bengal without a break for 30 years. • Currently supports the UPA government from outside, without joining the government.
  • 33. Communist Party of India - Marxist (CPI-M)
  • 34. • Formed in 1925. • Believes in Marxism-Leninism, secularism and democracy. • Opposed to the forces of secessionism and communalism. • Accepts parliamentary democracy as a means of promoting the interests of the • working class, farmers and the poor. • Became weak after the split in the party in 1964 that led to the formation of the • CPI (M).
  • 35. • Significant presence in the states of Kerala, West Bengal, Punjab, Andhra Pradesh • and Tamil Nadu. • Its support base has gradually declined over the years. • Advocates the coming together of all left parties for building a strong left front. • Currently supports UPA government from outside.
  • 37. • Formed in 1999 following a split in the Congress party. • Espouses democracy, Gandhian secularism, equity, social justice and federalism. • Wants that high offices in government be confined to natural born citizens of the country.
  • 38. • A major party in Maharashtra and has a significant presence in Meghalaya, Manipur and Assam. • A coalition partner in the state of Maharashtra in alliance with the Congress. • Since 2004, a member of the United Progressive Alliance.
  • 40. • A party that secures at least 6 per cent of the total votes in an election to the Legislative • Assembly of a State and wins at least two seats is recognised as a State party. • These parties are all India parties that happen to have succeeded only in some states and regions. • National parties are compelled to form alliances with state parties.
  • 43. • Lack of internal democracy • There is a tendency in political parties towards the concentration of power in one or few leaders at the top. • Parties do not keep membership registers, do not hold organisational meetings and do not conduct regular internal elections.
  • 44. • Ordinary members of the party do not get sufficient information on what happens inside the party. • More than loyalty to party principles and policies, personal loyalty to the leader becomes important.
  • 45. Dynastic succession: • Those who happen to be the leaders are in a position of unfair advantage of • favouring people close to them or even their family members. • In many parties, top positions are always controlled by the members of one family. • This is bad for democracy, since people who do not have adequate experience or • popular support come to occupy positions of power.
  • 46. Growing role of money and muscle power: • Parties tend to nominate those candidates who have or can raise lots of money. • Rich people and companies who give funds to the parties tend to have influence on • the policies and decisions of the party. • In some cases, parties support criminals who can win elections
  • 47. • The fourth challenge is that very often parties do not seem to offer a meaningful choice to the voters. • A decline in the ideological differences among parties in most parts of the world has • lessened the choices of voters. • People cannot even elect different leaders either because the same set of leaders • keeps shifting from one party to another
  • 48. Reformation of Political Parties • The Constitution was amended to prevent elected MLAs and MPs from changing parties. • Now, if any MLA or MP changes parties, he or she will lose the seat in the legislature. • MPs and MLAs have to accept the party leader’s decision. • The Supreme Court has ordered to reduce the influence of money and criminals.
  • 49. • Every candidate who contests elections must file an affidavit giving details of his/her • property and criminal cases pending against him. • The Election Commission has ordered the political parties to hold their organisational • elections and file their income tax returns
  • 50. Suggestions to Reform Political Parties • Laws should be made for regulating the internal affairs of political parties. • Political parties must give one-third of the total number of tickets to women • members. • The decision making bodies of the party should provide for a quota for women. • The government should fund the parties in order to support their election expenses.