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Digital competencies for digital citizenship of pre-teen children

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Presentation at LILAC Conference 2019 in Nottingham.

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Digital competencies for digital citizenship of pre-teen children

  1. 1. DIGITAL COMPETENCIES FOR DIGITAL CITIZENSHIP OF PRE- TEEN CHILDREN Some reflections for librarians Dr Konstantina Martzoukou – Teaching Excellence Fellow - Robert Gordon University k.martzoukou@rgu.ac.uk @Dinamartz
  2. 2. PLAN A brief Introduction  What do children do online?  Opportunities and threats Activity (40-45 min)  Introducing Maddie and 6 possible scenarios Choose your scenario individually and tweet your choice + a reason for choosing it to #maddiesonline Choose your scenario as a team and debate.
  3. 3. 2017 CHILDREN’S AND PARENTS’ MEDIA USE AND ATTITUDES REPORT OFCOM’S MEDIA LITERACY RESEARCH PROGRAMME HTTPS://WWW.OFCOM.ORG.UK/__DATA/ASSETS/PDF_FILE/0020/108182/CHIL DREN-PARENTS-MEDIA-USE-ATTITUDES- 2017.PDF
  4. 4. THREAT S Safety (personal information, sexual predators Difficult for parents/children to manage/ awareness or keeping up Screen time Social pressure/identity (e.g. being popular)/ cyberbullying Complex advertising environment Photo by Jason Leung: https://unsplash.com/photos/4PnJV1G UvVU
  5. 5. OPPORTUNITIES WITH DIGITALOPPORTUNITIES https://www.aap.org/en-us/about-the-aap/aap-press-room/news-features-and-safety- tips/Pages/Children-and-Media-Tips.aspx
  6. 6. GOING ONLINE: REAL AND VIRTUAL SELF AND PLAY Roblo x Texting and time being ‘plugged in’ Snapchat Mind craft Social media & messaging / video sharing Online gaming Tik Tok WHAT DO CHILDREN DO ONLINE? POPULAR GAMES AND APPS
  7. 7. ROBLOX
  8. 8. EXAMPLES Learning about the world, self-expression, identity exploration & formation, acquiring technical skills How do you make money? https://youtu.be/JAn0mt0bHt U Inspired to be a park owner https://youtu.be/TpfcKj1TaH M From ‘Roblox Theme Park
  9. 9. ROBLOX JAILBREAK Found a helicopter: a “nice” cop came to pick up prisoners. Are they corrupt? I am a prisoner and need to escape!
  10. 10. This is the military base. You can’t get in! But I managed with the helicopter.On a bike. We bought this one. It is not stolen! I got a gun and changed normal clothes so policy can’t recognise and off to robbing. Shooting. It’s a violent game!
  11. 11. I went to steal a bank and I had to jump but I died because I didn’t manage the lasers! The alarm was going off the whole time. I am training to steal. I got the money, $1,500! Now I can spend it in this game on whatever I want. I used dynamite and exploded the roof of this building. I went in to steal.
  12. 12. ROBLOX: VEHICLE SIMULATOR “Teaches you about cars. You learn to drive. You can go on manual and you can change gears” (8 year old). That’s me driving a Subaru
  13. 13. ROBLOX: ROYALE HIGH You go to school (and have homework), go to lessons (e.g. painting), to parties, to the prom.
  14. 14. Tried to type: “I live in Scotland” and type in my name – It does not allow you
  15. 15. ROBLOX SUPPORT 1. Block and report: Make sure your child knows how to find and use the report and block functions. Use the Roblox how to make a report page to learn how to do this. Safety settings: Set up the parental controls that are right for your family. You can also disable chat, set up the Parent PIN and use the Account Restrictions within Roblox. Settings for under 13s: There are additional safety features for under-13s , so it’s worth checking your child’s account is registered with the correct age. Players under the age of 13 have a <13 symbol next to their username on the game at all times, however this is not displayed to other players. 2. Encourage them to tell you about concerns Remind your child that they should come to you if they ever see something inappropriate, mean comments or if anything worries them within the game. If you know how to report this type of content within Roblox, you will be in the best position to help them if they need it. https://www.saferinternet.org.uk/blog/roblox-guide-parents
  16. 16. Snapchat Photo and video-sharing app with filters (and with a twist): media you send disappear seconds after they are viewed. Messages in group chat disappear after 24 hours. There are ways to capture and recover images – a false sense of “security” (e.g. saving images by tapping them or taking a screenshot). My Eyes Only “If you ever get a Snap that you want to keep extra private, you can always add it to My Eyes Only! That way, you can hand over your phone to friends when sharing Memories, without being worried they might catch an eyeful of something meant just for you 🙈” SNAPCHAT
  17. 17. TIK TOK Challenges  Egg challenge #EggGang  Clothes challenge: https://www.dailymotion.com/video/x6u wk2l  Lip challenge: #kyliejennerchallenge  Kidlipchallenge https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gf05 YGj31SM  #10YearChallenge Privacy Private mode: only the creator can watch the videos Public: anyone within the app can see the videos By default the settings are public unless a user changes them Age inappropriate content  Self-harm  Life threatening challenges
  18. 18. GENDER STEREOTYPES Caution: May include upsetting content Lip challenge going wrong: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Wykr8O3RKFk Lip challenge children: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IBJRRa_bWHM
  19. 19. POSITIVE ASPECTS RISKS • connect with friends • watch videos from others around the world • develop and showcase one’s creativity and talent • build a community around interests • create some great special effects • play and interact with friends • express feelings • can report bad content • Digital Wellbeing feature: control your spent time on TikTok and limit the appearance of content that may not be appropriate for all audiences. • Screen Time Management: Helps you to hold yourself to 2 hours on the app per day (parents set a passcode). • default public account but also options for a private account (approved followers can send you messages) • strangers could directly contact children: people can like or react to a video, follow an account and send messages • risk taking to get more followers/ likes • constant stimulation every single moment • can become addictive • to delete your account you have to request a code from the app using your phone number/email • children make different types of videos including sexually suggestive • no policy to stop young kids to join the
  20. 20. MADDIE: INTRODUCING THE STORY & SCENARIOS
  21. 21. SOCIAL SKILLS (SCENARIO 1 & 6)  Addictive form of screen entertainment.  May replace learning the hard social "work" of dealing face-to-face with peers.  Children are adopting newer social media and games: social pressure.  Parents are not always aware of the social issues:  almost a quarter of 8-11s and three-quarters of 12-15s have a social media profile  Snapchat has increased in popularity, doubled since 2016 (Snapstreaks: children send each other messages every day over consecutive days)  one in ten 12-15s have ‘gone live’ by sharing a video using live streaming services such as Facebook Live, Snapchat’s Live Stories or Instagram Live, while a third have not shared content themselves but have watched live streamsOFCOM’S MEDIA LITERACY RESEARCH PROGRAMME HTTPS://WWW.OFCOM.ORG.UK/__DATA/ASSETS/PDF_FILE/0020/108182/CHIL DREN-PARENTS-MEDIA-USE-ATTITUDES- 2017.PDF Photo by: Charlein Gracia https://unsplash.com/photos/- Ux5mdMJNEA
  22. 22. SCENARIO 2 & 5 Tweens immature for social media? Social media was not designed for preteens (8-12 year olds):  teaching the maturity that social media requires is difficult:  cognitive brain is still forming: can’t manage the distraction nor the temptations that come with social media use.  “more is better” mentality (friends lists, followers, time spent)  parents are not always aware of the minimum age requirements  Losing too much valuable time ? Losing Photo: Brooke Lark @brookelark https://unsplash.com/photos/ywv6
  23. 23. Help children understand the importance of personal information. Make use of the safety features available when setting a profile. Use available guides on social media. Set rules around spending money in games. Moral panic: no need to panic every time you hear a media report about the harmful effects of technology and connectivity. Experiment: Keep up and experiment with new apps & games so that you can understand them (new ones appears all the time). Keep lines of communication open: Mostly about critical thinking, the values and social skills that can be taught. SCENARIO 3
  24. 24. SCENARIO 4 Parents teaching children responsible use (Safety, privacy, reputation, time management), values and social skills at early age -Keeping the lines of communication open: engaged manner  Explore favourite tools/games— genuine interest (through conversation, watching or playing)  Regular conversations: Work together to find what is appropriate More parents are concerned about their children’s media use, and more are taking action:  regularly talking to their children about staying safe online;  using technical tools, e.g. network filters to filter content on all devices connected to the home broadband network has increased;  supervising their child;  using rules. Photo: Tim Gouw @punttim: https://unsplash.com/photos/LmYcS4nwj8
  25. 25. SCREEN TIME SCENARIO 4 MC & Digital Awareness UK (DAUK) Survey 2,750 pupils aged 11-18 • Almost half (45%) of students admit they check their mobile device after going to bed. Of those: • A quarter (23%) check their mobile device more than 10 times a night • A quarter (25%) spend more than an hour on their mobile device after going to bed (just over 11% of the whole) • A third (32%) of these students’ parents are not aware that they check their mobile device after going to bed Other findings show that: • 68% of students say that using their mobile devices at night affects their school work. • A quarter of students (25%) also say they feel tired during the day because of how often they use their mobile device at night • Almost half (42%) of students keep their phone next to their bed at night Photo: Alex Haney @alexhaney: https://unsplash.com/photos/xWkRYoSf8_c
  26. 26. U.K. COUNCIL FOR CHILD INTERNET SAFETY
  27. 27. ‘EDUCATION FOR A CONNECTED WORLD’:U.K. COUNCIL FOR CHILD INTERNET SAFETY
  28. 28. EU KIDS ONLINE 25 COUNTRY SURVEY (PARENTAL WORRIES)  online risks – being contacted by strangers (33% parents) or seeing inappropriate content (32% parents) - rank 5th and 6th.  reporting tools: 13% of children who were upset by an online risk say they have used reporting tools, and two thirds of those who used them found them helpful  age-appropriate privacy settings: 43% of 9-16 year old SNS users keep their profile private, 28% have it partially private and 26% have it public.  sexual images on websites:  14% of 9-16 year olds have seen them and 32% of all 9-16 year olds were upset by them  11-16 year olds: 26% hoped the problem would just go away, 22% tried to fix it, 19% deleted unwelcome messages and 15% blocked the sender. Only 13% reported the problem online  Potentially harmful user-generated content: seen by 21% of 11-16 year olds (hate sites, pro-anorexia sites Photo by Jordan Whitt
  29. 29. E-SAFETY FOR PARENTS Educating children about the creative and safe use of technology http://www.digizen.org/parents/ https://www.thinkuknow.co.uk/parents/ http://www.childnet.com/parents-and- carers https://www.saferinternet.org.uk/advice- centre/parents-and-carers/resources-parents-and- carers
  30. 30. http://www.digizen.org/parents / http://www.digizen.org/resourc es/digizen-game.aspx The Digizen website provides information for educators, parents, carers, and young people…to.. become responsible DIGItal citiZENS…advice and resources on issues such as social networking and cyberbullying and how these relate to and affect their own and other people's online experiences and behaviours.
  31. 31. https://www.childne t.com/ufiles/Family- agreement- template.pdf
  32. 32. DIGITAL CITIZENSHIP EDUCATION A conceptual model of digital citizenship education: 20 Competences for Democratic Culture that are together frequently referred to as the CDC “butterfly”: Values, Attitudes, Skills and Knowledge and Critical Understanding. https://www.coe.int/en/web/digital-citizenship-education/a-conceptual-model
  33. 33. AREAS FOR LIBRARIANS Clearly define your digital citizenship role Make greater efforts to engage families in digital citizenship initiatives/ work (create your own initiatives!) Make a case for creating a Digital Officer post in schools (and be the one!) Design and promote learning opportunities and interesting resources to schools and families Monitor emerging trends and research Conduct your own research within context to better understand values, attitudes, skills. Help add more to these recommendations! Photo by: Alexander Dummer https://unsplash.com/photos/U H-xs-FizTk
  34. 34. RESOURCES  EU Kids Online: a multinational research network, funded by the EC’s Better Internet for Kids programme http://www.lse.ac.uk/media-and- communications/research/research-projects/eu-kids-online  Digital resistance: https://pjp-eu.coe.int/en/web/charter-edc-hre-pilot- projects/digital-resistance “To promote digital citizenship of pupils by supporting the development of digital skills and competences through inquiry-based learning”  Ofcom. Protecting your child in the Digital World: https://www.ofcom.org.uk/__data/assets/pdf_file/0015/7107/managemedi a.pdf Also published a range of guides  ParentPort was jointly developed by the Advertising Standards Authority, the Authority for Television on Demand, the BBC Trust, the British Board of Film Classification, Ofcom, the Press Complaints Commission and the Video Standards Council/Pan-European Game Information.  Get Safe Online, the UK’s national internet security awareness initiative. Ofcom also works closely with UKCCIS - the UK Council for Child Internet
  35. 35. ADDITIONAL REFERENCES Livingstone, Mascheroni, & Staksrud. 2017. European research on children’s internet use: Assessing the past, anticipating the future. New Media & Society, 1-20. doi: 10.1177/1461444816685930 Livingstone, S., Haddon, L., Görzig, A., and Ólafsson, K. 2011. Risks and safety on the internet: The perspective of European children. Full Findings. LSE, London: EU Kids Online. http://eprints.lse.ac.uk/33731 Base, Available from http://www.lse.ac.uk/media@lse/research/EUKidsOnline/EU%20Kids %20III/Reports/EUKidsOnlinereportfortheCEOCoalition.pdf Ofcom, 2017. Children and Parents: Media Use and Attitudes Report . Available from: https://www.ofcom.org.uk/__data/assets/pdf_file/0020/108182/ch ildren-parents-media-use-attitudes-2017.pdf

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