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JavaScript and jQuery Programming Tutorial: HTML Basics Part 2

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Please email hall@coreservlets.com for info on how to arrange customized courses on JavaScript, jQuery, Ext JS, general Java programming (for C++/C#/etc. programmers), Java 8 lambdas and streams (for existing Java programmers), JSF 2.2, PrimeFaces, Android, Hadoop, the Spring Framework, Spring MVC, GWT, and other Java EE topics onsite at YOUR location.

This section gives the second half of a very quick intro to HTML for those who are are new to Web development.

See http://www.coreservlets.com/javascript-jquery-tutorial/java.html for the complete tutorial series and associated code. That site also lets you download PDF files of each lecture for saving or printing, and includes exercises and exercise solutions for each of the topics.

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JavaScript and jQuery Programming Tutorial: HTML Basics Part 2

  1. 1. For additional materials, please see http://www.coreservlets.com/. The JavaScript tutorial section contains complete source code for all examples in the entire tutorial series, plus exercises and exercise solutions for each topic. coreservlets.com – custom onsite training Slides © 2016 Marty Hall, hall@coreservlets.com HTML Basics: Part 2
  2. 2. For additional materials, please see http://www.coreservlets.com/. The JavaScript tutorial section contains complete source code for all examples in the entire tutorial series, plus exercises and exercise solutions for each topic. coreservlets.com – custom onsite training Slides © 2016 Marty Hall, hall@coreservlets.com For customized training related to JavaScript or Java, email hall@coreservlets.com Marty is also available for consulting and development support Taught by lead author of Core Servlets & JSP, co-author of Core JSF (4th Ed), and this tutorial. Available at public venues, or custom versions can be held on-site at your organization. • Courses developed and taught by Marty Hall – JavaScript, jQuery, Ext JS, JSF 2.3, PrimeFaces, Java 8 programming, Spring Framework, Spring MVC, Android, GWT, custom mix of topics – Courses available in any state or country. – Maryland/DC companies can also choose afternoon/evening courses. • Courses developed and taught by coreservlets.com experts (edited by Marty) – Hadoop, Hibernate/JPA, HTML5, RESTful Web Services Contact hall@coreservlets.com for details
  3. 3. 4 Topics in This Section • Tables • Forms • Form input elements • Miscellaneous elements: fieldset, legend, label, br, hr
  4. 4. For additional materials, please see http://www.coreservlets.com/. The JavaScript tutorial section contains complete source code for all examples in the entire tutorial series, plus exercises and exercise solutions for each topic. coreservlets.com – custom onsite training Slides © 2016 Marty Hall, hall@coreservlets.com Tables
  5. 5. 6 Basic Template <table border="1"> <caption>Table Caption</caption> <tr>...</tr> <tr>...</tr> <tr>...</tr> <tr>...</tr> </table> • Rows (<tr> elements) – Can contain <th> (table heading) or <td> (table data) elements – Unless you use colspan or rowspan, each row normally contains the same number of elements
  6. 6. 7 Simple Example <table border="1"> <caption>Table Caption</caption> <tr><th>Heading1</th> <th>Heading2</th></tr> <tr><td>Row1 Col1 Data</td><td>Row1 Col2 Data</td></tr> <tr><td>Row2 Col1 Data</td><td>Row2 Col2 Data</td></tr> <tr><td>Row3 Col1 Data</td><td>Row3 Col2 Data</td></tr> </table>
  7. 7. 8 Notes on Previous Example • Tables with borders – Generally used for real tabular data • Tables without borders – Also frequently used to control alignment and layout of elements in the page – There is trend to use divs and CSS instead, but many layout options are still easier with tables • Table headings – Are not automatically blue (as in screenshot on previous slide) • This was due to the stylesheet attached to the page • Captions – For the table heading, many HTML developers omit <caption> and just put normal HTML above or below the table
  8. 8. 9 table Element Attributes • align – The horizontal alignment of the table as a whole (left, right, center). Default is left. – Text flows around the table for left and right alignments • border – The width in pixels of the border around the table (default: 0) – This is in addition to the border around each cell (the cellspacing). • bgcolor – The background color of the table (e.g., "yellow" or "#rrggbb"). Also legal for tr, td, and th. – Tables are widely used to make colored sidebars or columns of text, but stylesheets are often a better way to specify the colors. • background – The background image for the table. Will be tiled to fit table size. Also legal for td and th (but not tr).
  9. 9. 10 table Element Attributes (Continued) • width, height – This specifies the width or height of the table, either in pixels (<table width="250">) or, for width only, as a percentage of the current browser window width (<table width="75%">) • cellspacing – The space in pixels between adjacent cells. Drawn as a 3D line if border is nonzero, otherwise empty space in the background color is used – The default is usually about 3 • cellpadding – The empty space, in pixels, between the cell’s border and the table element – The default is usually about 1
  10. 10. 11 table Element Attributes (Continued) • rules – Specifies which inner dividing lines are drawn – All are drawn if this attribute is omitted – Legal values are none, rows, cols, and all • frame – Specifies which outer borders are drawn – All four are drawn if this attribute is omitted – Legal values are border or box (all), void (none), above (top), below (bottom), hsides (top and bottom, despite the somewhat confusing name), vsides (left and right), lhs (left), and rhs (right)
  11. 11. 12 tr: Table Row • tr is used to define each row in the table – Each row will then contain th and/or td entries • align – The default horizontal alignment for table cells. • Legal values: left, right, or center • valign – The default vertical alignment for table cells. • Legal values: top, bottom, or middle • bgcolor – The row color. Overrides bgcolor of the table as a whole. – Tables with rows that alternate colors are widely used, but again stylesheets are often used instead
  12. 12. 13 Table Cells: th and td • Where legal – th (table header) and td (table data cell) can be used anywhere in the table (inside tr). In particular, there is no restriction that th is only in the top row. • Difference between th and td – th uses bold font and center alignment by default. td uses normal font and left alignment by default. But this can be changed with CSS. – Otherwise they are the same. • Real headers (and footers) – For real headers, you can enclose one or more of the topmost rows inside thead. This does not change appearance in browsers, but when printed, the header will be repeated if the printout spans multiple pages. Similarly, bottom rows can go inside tfoot.
  13. 13. 14 Table Cells: th and td – Attributes • align – left, right, center, justify and char. – E.g., the following aligns entries on a decimal point • <td align="char" char="."> • valign – top, bottom, middle • width, height – Values in pixels only (no percentages officially allowed) • bgcolor, background – Background color and image (tiled) • nowrap – Disables word wrapping. Use with caution
  14. 14. 15 rowspan and colspan • rowspan – Defines a tall cell that straddles more than one row • colspan – Defines a wide cell that straddles more than one column <table border="1"> <tr><th colspan="2">Col 1&amp;2 Heading</th> <th>Col3 Heading</th></tr> <tr><td>Row1 Col1 Data</td> <td rowspan="2">Row1&amp;2 Col2 Data</td> <td>Row1 Col3 Data</td></tr> <tr><td>Row2 Col1 Data</td> <td>Row2 Col3 Data</td></tr> </table>
  15. 15. For additional materials, please see http://www.coreservlets.com/. The JavaScript tutorial section contains complete source code for all examples in the entire tutorial series, plus exercises and exercise solutions for each topic. coreservlets.com – custom onsite training Slides © 2016 Marty Hall, hall@coreservlets.com Forms
  16. 16. 17 The form Tag <form action="http://localhost:8088/SomeProgram"> First name: <input name="firstName" value="J. Random"/><br/> Last name: <input name="lastName" value="Hacker"/><br/> <input type="submit" value="Submit Form"/> </form>
  17. 17. 18 Notes • Relative URLs – Previous example had an absolute URL for the action. Most apps use a relative URL so that you can move the entire app to another server without editing the HTML. • I used an absolute URL only because I was running a mini test server locally to echo back the data it received • Framework-specific forms – Most Web app frameworks (JSF, .NET, PHP, Ruby on Rails etc.) have special tags that turn into forms that submit data in the format that the framework expects • See the JSF tutorial at coreservlets.com • No forms at all – Some applications use a mixture of Ajax (JavaScript that talks to the server and updates the page) and regular form submissions (which navigate to a new page) – Other apps use Ajax only, so few, if any, pages have forms
  18. 18. 19 GET Form: Initial Result
  19. 19. 20 GET Form: Submission Result
  20. 20. 21 Sending POST Data <form action="http://localhost:8088/SomeProgram" method="post"> First name: <input name="firstName" value="J. Random"/><br/> Last name: <input name="lastName" value="Hacker"/><p/> <input type="submit" value="Submit Form"/> </form> The default method is GET. So, if a form says method="get" or it has no method at all, GET is used.
  21. 21. 22 POST Form: Initial Result
  22. 22. 23 POST Form: Submission Result
  23. 23. For additional materials, please see http://www.coreservlets.com/. The JavaScript tutorial section contains complete source code for all examples in the entire tutorial series, plus exercises and exercise solutions for each topic. coreservlets.com – custom onsite training Slides © 2016 Marty Hall, hall@coreservlets.com Form Input Elements
  24. 24. 25 Form Input Elements: Usage Overview • Standard form submissions – Input elements must go inside <form>, so server knows where to send the data when it is submitted – Elements must have name, which will become the query parameter name when the form is submitted • For use with JavaScript/jQuery and Ajax – No requirement that elements go inside form, although some jQuery functions make it simpler if you wrap the elements in <form> – You often have id to make it easier for JavaScript/jQuery to find the element – Some jQuery functions make use of name to automatically build a query string similar to the one that would be sent in a normal form submission
  25. 25. 26 Text Controls • Textfields – <input …/> or – <input type="text" …/> • value attribute gives “real” initial value • placeholder attribute gives temporary hint that disappears when user clicks in field • Password Fields – <input type="password" …/> • Always use POST • Text Areas – <textarea rows="…" cols="…" …> … </textarea> • Interpretation of regular HTML tags turned off between <textarea…> and </textarea>
  26. 26. 27 Push Buttons • Submit buttons – <input type="submit" …/> • Use value to change button’s label (default is something like “Submit Query”) • Use name if you have multiple buttons in same form (see next slide) • JavaScript buttons – <input type="button" onclick="javaScriptFunction()" …/> • Widely used with Ajax • Reset buttons – <input type="reset" …/> • HTML-styled buttons – <button type="submit" ...> html </button>
  27. 27. 28 Multiple Submit Buttons • Button names – Submit buttons don’t normally need a name attribute, but if you have more than one button and want the server to identify which one was pressed, give them names • Applies to standard form submissions, not to buttons that invoke JavaScript Item: <input type="text" name="Item" value="4 TeraByte iPod"/><br/> <input type="submit" name="Add" value="Add Item to Cart"/> <input type="submit" name="Delete" value="Delete Item from Cart"/>
  28. 28. 29 Check Boxes • Format – <input type="checkbox" …/> • Use checked="checked" to make it initially checked • In normal form submissions, name/value pair sent only if checkbox is checked when form is submitted • Example code <br/> <input type="checkbox" name="noEmail" checked="checked"/> Check here if you do <i>not</i> want to get our email newsletter • Example result
  29. 29. 30 Radio Buttons • Format – <input type="radio" name="…" value="…"…> • All radio buttons in a group should have same name. Used even with JavaScript. • Only one button in a group can be pressed; pressing a different one causes previous one to pop out • Example <dl> <dt>Credit Card:</dt> <dd><input type="radio" name="creditCard" value="visa"/> Visa</dd> <dd>… <dd><input type="radio" name="creditCard" value="java" checked="checked"/> Java Smart Card</dd> … </dl>
  30. 30. 31 Select Boxes (Dropdown Menus) • Format – select gives name for the server – option gives value • Example Favorite language: <select name="language"> <option value="c">C</option> <option value="c++">C++</option> <option value="java" selected="selected">Java</option> <option value="javascript">JavaScript</option> <option value="perl">Perl</option> <option value="ruby">Ruby</option> </select>
  31. 31. 32 Multi-Select List Boxes • Format – Give size if you want to see all entries at once, without scrollbars – Specify multiple for mult-select • Example Languages you know:<br/> <select name="language" multiple="multiple" size="6"> <option value="c">C</option> <option value="c++">C++</option> <option value="java" selected="selected">Java</option> <option value="javascript">JavaScript</option> <option value="perl" selected="selected">Perl</option> <option value="ruby">Ruby</option> </select>
  32. 32. 33 Other Controls and Options • File upload controls – <input type="file" …/> – Lets user select a file and send it to the server • Server-side image maps – User clicks on an image and form gets submitted. – Form data gets sent as name.x=x-pos&name.y=y-pos • Hidden fields – Preset name and value sent with form submission • Used less in Ajax applications because the JavaScript can send any values it wants anyhow • Controlling tab order – Use the tabindex attribute of the input elements
  33. 33. For additional materials, please see http://www.coreservlets.com/. The JavaScript tutorial section contains complete source code for all examples in the entire tutorial series, plus exercises and exercise solutions for each topic. coreservlets.com – custom onsite training Slides © 2016 Marty Hall, hall@coreservlets.com Miscellaneous Elements
  34. 34. 35 Grouping Elements: fieldset and legend • Idea – Grouping all or part of a form inside fieldset draws attention to it and separates it from the rest of the page – Using style sheets for the legend is particularly useful – Not restricted to forms: you can surround arbitrary HTML with fieldset/legend to put the content in an etched box • Syntax <fieldset> <legend>Title of the Etched Border</legend> … (stuff to put inside the box) … </fieldset>
  35. 35. 36 Grouping Form Entries: Example <fieldset> <legend>ajax:updateField</legend> <form ...> <label for="f">Enter temperature in Fahrenheit:</label> <input type="text" id="f"/> <input type="button" id="convertButton" value="Convert"/> <hr width="500" align="left"/> <label for="c">Temperature in Celsius:</label> <input type="text" id="c"/> <label for="k">Temperature in Kelvin:</label> <input type="text" id="k"/> </form> </fieldset>
  36. 36. 37 Grouping Form Entries: label • label: idea – If you use the label tag for prompts associated with fields, clicking on the label transfers focus to the input field – You can either use the "for" attribute or enclose the field within the label • label: syntax <label for="fname">First name:</label> <input name="userFirstName" id="fname"/> <label>First name: <input name="userFirstName" </label>
  37. 37. 38 br • <br/> – line breaks – Forces a line break • You often want to break lines in the middle of paragraphs, or force line breaks after input elements in forms • Multiple consecutive empty <p></p> pairs do not result in multiple blank lines. But, multiple consecutive <br/> elements do. • Use clear="all" to make sure that left or right aligned images or tables above do not hand down into next paragraph • Examples <br/> <br clear="all"/> [skips past hanging images]
  38. 38. 39 hr • <hr/> – horizontal rule – Draws a horizontal etched/shaded line • Examples <hr/> <hr width="50%"/> <hr/>
  39. 39. For additional materials, please see http://www.coreservlets.com/. The JavaScript tutorial section contains complete source code for all examples in the entire tutorial series, plus exercises and exercise solutions for each topic. coreservlets.com – custom onsite training Slides © 2016 Marty Hall, hall@coreservlets.com Wrapup
  40. 40. 41 Summary: Tables <table border="1"> <caption>Table Caption</caption> <tr>...</tr> <tr>...</tr> <tr>...</tr> <tr>...</tr> </table> • Rows (<tr> elements) – Can contain <th> (table heading) or <td> (table data) elements – Unless you use colspan or rowspan, each row normally contains the same number of elements
  41. 41. 42 Summary: Forms • <form> – Not always necessary when using JavaScript to talk to server • Text input – <input/> or <input type="text"/> – regular text fields – <input type="password"/> – password fields (use POST for regular forms) – <textarea> – multi-line text input (HTML tags ignored inside) • Buttons – <input type="button" onclick="…"/> – most common for JavaScript – <input type="submit"/> – most common in regular forms • Choosing among multiple choices – <input type="checkbox"/> – <input type="radio"/> – <select><option>…</option>…</select>
  42. 42. For additional materials, please see http://www.coreservlets.com/. The JavaScript tutorial section contains complete source code for all examples in the entire tutorial series, plus exercises and exercise solutions for each topic. coreservlets.com – custom onsite training Slides © 2016 Marty Hall, hall@coreservlets.com Questions?More info: http://www.coreservlets.com/javascript-jquery-tutorial/ -- Tutorial on JavaScript, jQuery, and jQuery UI http://courses.coreservlets.com/Course-Materials/java.html – General Java programming tutorial http://www.coreservlets.com/java-8-tutorial/ – Java 8 tutorial http://courses.coreservlets.com/java-training.html – Customized Java training courses, at public venues or onsite at your organization http://coreservlets.com/ – JSF 2, PrimeFaces, Java 8, JavaScript, jQuery, Ext JS, Hadoop, RESTful Web Services, Android, HTML5, Spring, Hibernate, Servlets, JSP, GWT, and other Java EE training Many additional free tutorials at coreservlets.com (JSF, Android, Ajax, Hadoop, and lots more)

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