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Intro to instructional design


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Intro to instructional design

  1. 1. Introduction to instructional design Mart Laanpere Head of the Centre for Educational Technology
  2. 2. What is design?
  3. 3. Generic design models• Waterfall model• Input-Process-Output model• Incremental design models• Evolutionary design models• Cyclic design models• Rapid prototyping models
  4. 4. Planning the teaching: didactical view• Herbart’s (1776-1841) 4-phase spiral model of planning the instruction: – Overview: Presentation of new material – Assimilation: Comparison of material with what is already known – Systematization: Integration of old and new into a unified whole – Application: Application of new systematic insight to a concrete example
  5. 5. Herbart’s maxims• Foundation of Teaching Is Psychology . "There is only one correct method for education: its foundation is psychology.”• Information Is Not Learning . "Mere information does not suffice.”• Learning Should Be Enjoyable . "To be wearisome is the cardinal sin of instruction.”• Theory and Practice . "In education, theory and practice go hand in hand.”• Sequencing and Linking Are Keys to Creative Design . "Sequencing, arrangement, and coordination of what is to be learned—these create the real impact in the instructional process."
  6. 6. R.Gagne (1916-2002)• Internal and external conditions of learning• Nine events of instruction: – Gain attention – Inform learners of objectives – Stimulate recall of prior learning – Present the content – Provide “learning guidance” – Elicit performance (practice). – Provide feedback – Assess performance – Enhance retention and transfer to the job
  7. 7. Instructional design• Instructional design (ID): – The process by which instruction is improved through the analysis of learning needs and systematic development of learning materials. Instructional designers often use technology and multimedia as tools to enhance instruction.• Instructional systems design (ISD): – a means for sound decision making in order to determine the who, what, when, where, why, and how of a learning program, based on systemic view of the teaching and learning process.
  8. 8. Brief history of ID• 1940: military training materials, assessment• 1946: instructional media (Dale’s cone)• 1958: programmed instruction (Skinner)• 1960: standardised testing (Bloom’s taxonomy)• 1965: hierarchical analysis (Gagne)• 1970: ISD in military and corporate training• 1990: constructivist movement, paradigm war• 2005: Learning Design
  9. 9. ADDIE model• A – analysis of needs, requirements etc• D – Design of instructional process• D – Development of learning resources• I – Implementation of planned instruction• E – Evaluation
  10. 10. ASSURE model
  11. 11. Dick & Carey ID model
  12. 12. Merrill: Pebble in the Pond model
  13. 13. Merrienboër’s 4C/ID model
  14. 14. Jonassen’s 3C model Authentic Situated learning tasks Case-based problems Context Domain-specific reasoningApprenticeship Multiple perspectives Modeling process Indexed meanings KNOWLEDGE Construction Internal negotiation Invention, Collaboration exploration Articulation Reflection Social negotiation of meaning Intentions, Mental models expectations Coaching
  15. 15. IMS Learning Design: LAMS: Learning Activity Management
  16. 16. Assignment• Define detailed measurable learning objectives for our course and map these objectives to Bloom’s taxonomy!