ICT innovation


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Lecture slides for GLobalEd 09 summerschool, Falun

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ICT innovation

  1. 1. ICT innovation in schools Policy trends, competing agendas, research results
  2. 2. Computers in schools: 50 years <ul><li>1959 B.F.Skinner “Why We Need Teaching Machines”: it is far beyond the capacity of teachers to provide the necessary stimuli and reinforcements to every student with the frequency and subtlety required, but the simple machine will suffice </li></ul>1960 The first school computer in Estonia: Ural (100 op/sec, 4 kb memory), was used only for teaching programming
  3. 3. Computers in school: 50 years <ul><li>1970-90: Computer Assisted Instruction, Computer-Managed Instruction, Integrated Learning Systems ( CCC ) </li></ul><ul><li>1970: emerging alternatives. Seymour Papert : student should have control over computer ( Turtle LOGO , later Lego Mindstorms LOGO) </li></ul><ul><li>1990 Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning: content is not important ( ICONS , Erastothenes ) </li></ul><ul><li>2000: institutional Learning Management Systems (WebCT, Moodle, Fronter, IVA , Krihvel) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Computers in school: what for? <ul><li>Hawkridge (1990): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The social rationale: to de-mystify computers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The vocational rationale: to boost up IT industry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The pedagogic rationale: to introduce new teaching and learning methods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The catalytic rationale: ICT innovation opens doors for other changes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The fifth rationale: economic (to save expenses) is an illusion </li></ul><ul><li>Learning about/from/with computers </li></ul>
  5. 5. Policy discourse <ul><li>Policy-makers are looking for catchy words and simple solutions that could lead to evidence-based impact in short term (4-5 y) </li></ul><ul><li>1995: Information society, information superhighway </li></ul><ul><li>2000: E-learning in e-Europe, e-university </li></ul><ul><li>2005: Technology-enhanced learning </li></ul><ul><li>2009: E-learning 2.0, school 2.0, m-learning </li></ul>
  6. 6. Policy examples <ul><li>Estonia : new national curriculum 1996, Tiger Leap programme 1997-2000, Foundation, supporting local initiative; Tiger Leap Plus 2001-2005, Learning Tiger 2006-2009 </li></ul><ul><li>Latvia : LIIS programme led by University of Latvia 1997-2004, focus on school information system and educational software </li></ul><ul><li>Lithuania : informatics (programming) as a compulsory subject in curriculum, no computers needed, ICT integration into curriculum was prioritised in 2001 </li></ul>
  7. 7. Policy examples <ul><li>Georgia – Deer Leap programme 2005-2008, adaptation of the Estonian Tiger Leap, LeMill </li></ul><ul><li>Moldova – top-down, systemic introduction of AeL learning environment, monitoring </li></ul><ul><li>Northern Ireland – EmPowering Schools , ICT strategy as a credo </li></ul><ul><li>Malta – Smart Learning , ICT policy as a business plan </li></ul><ul><li>Compendium of good practice cases </li></ul>
  8. 8. Competing agendas <ul><li>Policy-makers: measurable impact within 4 y </li></ul><ul><li>Authorities: accountability </li></ul><ul><li>IT industry: market for hard- and software </li></ul><ul><li>Universities: well-prepared students </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers: minimal “overhead work” and change </li></ul><ul><li>Students: private sphere </li></ul><ul><li>Parents: accountability, monitoring, learning about computers </li></ul>
  9. 9. ICT in curriculum <ul><li>Separate subject: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Classical: algorithms, data structures, programming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pragmatic: office software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information society </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ICT as a cross-curricular theme: part of the “learning to learn” skills </li></ul><ul><li>ICT or educational technology competencies? http://cnets.iste.org </li></ul>
  10. 10. Reflection <ul><li>Your best and worst experiences with ICT in school </li></ul>
  11. 11. New trends <ul><li>Interactive whiteboards: minimal change </li></ul><ul><li>Laptops in classroom: radical change </li></ul><ul><li>Poducation: podcasting lectures </li></ul><ul><li>m-learning: mobile devices (PDA, GPS, iPod) </li></ul><ul><li>Game-based learning: role-plays, simulations, strategy games </li></ul><ul><li>e-learning 2.0: the use of social software (Web 2.0) for teaching and learning </li></ul>
  12. 12. Research <ul><li>Comparative studies on educational media: No Significant Difference Phenomenon </li></ul><ul><li>Clark (1983, 1994): Media will never influence learning! Clark-Kozma debate </li></ul><ul><li>From experimental research to participatory design research </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult to generalise and use by policy-makers (evidence-based educational reforms) </li></ul><ul><li>Meta-analysis of online learning research </li></ul>
  13. 13. Discussion <ul><li>What would be an interesting research topic for you in the domain of technology-enhanced learning? </li></ul>