DHL Express Global Head OfficeLicense Plate –The ISO standard for transport package identifiersGlobal Business IT – Martin...
License Plate – The ISO standard for transport package identifiers                                               (I)      ...
License Plate – The ISO standard for transport package identifiersRationaleWhy do we need ISO standards for package identi...
License Plate – The ISO standard for transport package identifiersPackage Identification with ISO License PlatesThe ISO St...
License Plate – The ISO standard for transport package identifiersPiece Identification with ISO License PlatesThe ISO Stan...
License Plate – The ISO standard for transport package identifiersPiece Identification with ISO License PlatesThe ISO Stan...
License Plate – The ISO standard for transport package identifiersPiece Identification with ISO License PlatesThe ISO Stan...
License Plate – The ISO standard for transport package identifiers                                         (II)           ...
License Plate – The ISO standard for transport package identifiersThe Overall ISO Identification ConceptThe Problem: Uniqu...
License Plate – The ISO standard for transport package identifiersThe Overall ISO Identification ConceptISO License Plates...
License Plate – The ISO standard for transport package identifiers                                                 (III)  ...
License Plate – The ISO standard for transport package identifiersPiece Identification with ISO License PlatesWhat do tran...
License Plate – The ISO standard for transport package identifiersFlexible Piece Identification with ISO License PlatesWha...
License Plate – The ISO standard for transport package identifiersFlexible Piece Identification with ISO License PlatesWha...
License Plate – The ISO standard for transport package identifiersFlexible Piece Identification with ISO License PlatesWha...
License Plate – The ISO standard for transport package identifiersFlexible Piece Identification with ISO License PlatesWha...
License Plate – The ISO standard for transport package identifiersFlexible Piece Identification with ISO License PlatesHer...
License Plate – The ISO standard for transport package identifiers Avoiding Ambiguity with ISO License PlatesThe fact that...
License Plate – The ISO standard for transport package identifiers Avoiding Ambiguity with ISO License PlatesNot being awa...
License Plate – The ISO standard for transport package identifiers Track&Trace with ISO License PlatesWhat would a trackin...
License Plate – The ISO standard for transport package identifiers                                                 (IV)   ...
License Plate – The ISO standard for transport package identifiersISO License Plate and RFID?RFID Standards – The Applicat...
License Plate – The ISO standard for transport package identifiers   ISO License Plate and RFID?  Hybrid: Joint RFID and B...
License Plate – The ISO standard for transport package identifiersISO License Plate and RFID?Which RFID Tags for ISO Licen...
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License plate the iso standard for transport package identifiers

  1. 1. DHL Express Global Head OfficeLicense Plate –The ISO standard for transport package identifiersGlobal Business IT – Martin TrederNovember 2012
  2. 2. License Plate – The ISO standard for transport package identifiers (I) THE LICENSE PLATE CONCEPTBonn | November 2008 / September 2012 Page 2
  3. 3. License Plate – The ISO standard for transport package identifiersRationaleWhy do we need ISO standards for package identification and labeling?Are standards really so important for identification and data exchange?  Is it sufficient for a conversation that we can talk to each other?  Not really! 讀音統一會 ‫اللغة العرب‬  We’d rather speak the same language!  A standard in identification and data exchange is like a common language! Numerous ISO standards are available for package identification and labeling: Transport Label (ISO 15394) License Plate (ISO 15459) Code 128 barcodes (15417) with Data Identifiers (ISO 15418) Country Codes (ISO 3166) and calendar date format (8601) Structure of data in 2D codes and RFID tags (ISO 15434) …Note: The Transport Label used by DHL Express has been based on these standards since 2007.Bonn | November 2008 / September 2012 Page 3
  4. 4. License Plate – The ISO standard for transport package identifiersPackage Identification with ISO License PlatesThe ISO Standard for Package Identification: License Plate The development  The License Plate standard has started in 1996 as a European standard EN 1572.  It became an international ISO/IEC standard 15459 in 1999.  Since then the License Plate standard has been the only system to uniquely allocate identifiers to packages around the world. License Plate is supported and used by various companies and industry organisations around the world: ISO Dun & Bradstreet License Unitrans Plate (DHL) ... NATO GS1 SSCC VGL (DHL) Norsk Odette Edipro Siemens UPU IBM TNT Edifice And many others – 40+ organisations (September 2012)Bonn | November 2008 / September 2012 Page 4
  5. 5. License Plate – The ISO standard for transport package identifiersPiece Identification with ISO License PlatesThe ISO Standard: License Plate General structure of a License Plate The structure Data Identifier (ASC MH10 standard) or Application Identifier (GS1 standard)  Each License Plate starts with a unanimous Issuing Agency code (IAC) Issuing Agency Code (ASC MH10) or packaging identifier / number  ISO has appointed the Dutch Standardisation extension (GS1 128 code list) Institute (NEN) as Registration Authority One or more Sub-Issuing Agency Codes* (ASC MH10) or Company Prefix (GS1)  Today, only international non-profit organisations can become Issuing Agency. These organisations Serial number Assigned by the can allocate sub-ranges to other organisations or (Sub-)IAC companies. Data IAC Sub-IAC Serial Data IAC Sub-IAC Serial  The ISO License Plate standard consists of two distinct sub-standards:  ASC MH10: Alphanumeric License Plates, consisting of up to 35 characters  GS1 SSCC: Numeric License Plates, always exactly 18 digits long Example of an ASC MH10 License Plate (issued by DHL Benelux, former VGL)  License Plates are unambiguously marked as * The Sub-IAC number is not mandatory such in bar-coded form, using Data Identifiers or Application Identifiers.Bonn | November 2008 / September 2012 Page 5
  6. 6. License Plate – The ISO standard for transport package identifiersPiece Identification with ISO License PlatesThe ISO Standard: Piece ID versus Shipment ID Shipment ID and Piece ID are logically different  A Shipment ID specifies the transport order (from A to B; one or more packages)  A Piece ID specifies the single package, covering all potential transports Using the same ID for piece and shipment causes issues  Return shipments need a new shipment ID (new origin, new destination etc)  As a consequence, the piece ID would have to be changed as well Think of it in the following way: The License Plate is a package’s PASSPORT The shipment ID is the same package’s TRAVEL TICKET Of course you don’t need a new passport for each trip. You keep the same passport for years, and you get a new ticket whenever you travelBonn | November 2008 / September 2012 Page 6
  7. 7. License Plate – The ISO standard for transport package identifiersPiece Identification with ISO License PlatesThe ISO Standard: How long is a License Plate valid? Duration of License Plate allocation to a package  We need clear definitions: Is the License Plate valid for one single transport process only? For a full transport chain but not beyond? Does it include possible returns? What about storage times? Can the same License Plate be used for a package as long as the content of the package remains untouched?  General definition: A License Plate is the “passport” of a package – independently of who “owns” the package. Consequently, a package should – yet does not have to – keep its License Plate number as long as it remains closed.  To obviate any problem of ambiguity during transport, a clear distinction between a transport process number (Shipment number or Waybill number) and an piece number (License Plate) is necessary. While the License Plate is the “passport”, the shipment number can be considered the “travel ticket”. 5. .. First transport: identifier known to sender 1234 CLOSED CLOSED ?? Return: different identifier? 4567 8. ..Bonn | November 2008 / September 2012 Page 7
  8. 8. License Plate – The ISO standard for transport package identifiers (II) LICENSE PLATE AS PART OF THE OVERALL ISO IDENTIFICATION CONCEPTBonn | November 2008 / September 2012 Page 8
  9. 9. License Plate – The ISO standard for transport package identifiersThe Overall ISO Identification ConceptThe Problem: Unique identificationThe challenge is well-known to everybody who has to determine the right identifiers on a unit:•How do I know which barcode is the right one for my purpose?•More importantly, how does my IT system know that I have scanned the right barcode?This problem occurs when you determine the identity of packages, products, reusablecontainers, production lots etc. It is valid for transport packages, goods packages and the goodsthemselves.Bonn | November 2008 / September 2012 Page 9
  10. 10. License Plate – The ISO standard for transport package identifiersThe Overall ISO Identification ConceptISO License Plates are part of a versatile ISO identification conceptFor unique identification, ISO has developed the concept of Data Identifiers:•Each identifier encoded on a label is preceded by a unique sequence of characters that tells thecapturing application what type of identifier it is.•The Data Identifier always consists of one capital letter (A-Z) which may be preceded by up to threenumerals. Examples of syntactically valid Data Identifiers are A, 1A, 11A and 111A•The identification of License Plates is part of this concept. Valid Data Identifiers for License Plates are J,1J, …, 8J (where the simple J is used predominantly)•In conjunction with the Issuing Agency as it is used for License Plates, it is possible to unambiguouslyallocate identifiers for packages, products, reusable containers, production lots etc.•The following examples show how similarly the same concept applies to different types of identifiers: a) Package Identifier (License Plate) barcoded as J J D00 1234567890: The leading J is the Data Identifier for globally unique License Plates. The following J is the Issuing Agency Code (UPU), D00 is the Sub-Issuing Agency Code granted to Deutsche Post DHL. Global uniqueness of the resulting LP is granted as long as the last part (1234567890) is unique within DP DHL. The License Plate barcode is easily spotted on a package through the heading “J” b) Serial Number barcoded as 25S J D00 1234567890 25S is the Data Identifier for globally unique serial numbers, the following J is the Issuing Agency Code (UPU), D00 is the Sub-Issuing Agency Code granted to Deutsche Post DHL. Again, global uniqueness of the resulting serial number is granted as long as the last part (1234567890) is unique within DP DHL. A Serial number barcode is easily spotted on a package through the heading “25S”•Data Identifiers (and their equivalent Application Identifiers) are standardised in ISO 15418. Themaintenance of Data Identifiers has been delegated to ANSI MH10 1)•The whole concept equally applies to barcodes, 2-dimensional codes and RFID tags 1) MH10, Unit-Loads & Transport-Packages, is an ANSI Accredited Standards CommitteeBonn | November 2008 / September 2012 Secretariat: Material Handling Industry, 8720 Red Oak Blvd., Suite 201, Charlotte, NC 28217-3992 Page 10
  11. 11. License Plate – The ISO standard for transport package identifiers (III) LICENSE PLATE AND DHL EXPRESSBonn | November 2008 / September 2012 Page 11
  12. 12. License Plate – The ISO standard for transport package identifiersPiece Identification with ISO License PlatesWhat do transport companies offer to customers with own LP today?(1) Basic: Usage as Customer Reference Codes.  Link must be created with a certain effort: Either through combined scanning of carrier barcode and sender barcode (error-prone) or through data transfer from sender to carrier (error-prone, as well)  Carrier databases often archive the own identifiers only; reference codes are discarded.(2) Next step: Some carriers support only some License Plates (often GS1 SSCC)  No full support of ISO 15459  Where ASC MH10-LP are used by sender, they have to be added (or replaced!) by GS1 SSCC. This violates the ISO standard and creates ambiguity. Keep off!(3) The approach of DHL Express is a comprehensive one  Full support of ISO 15459: All ASC MH10 and GS1 License Plates are accepted  All customers’ ISO License Plates can be used with all DHL Express products  No additional DHL-specific identifier is required any more! (Customers’ reference codes remain possible, of course)  Label layout follows ISO standard, including sufficient space for customer information  DHL Express offers a plug-in to customers called Global Label Service (GLS). This tool renders DHL labels automatically, including the determination of handling codes required by DHL. Even joint customer/DHL labels are possible.Bonn | November 2008 / September 2012 Page 12
  13. 13. License Plate – The ISO standard for transport package identifiersFlexible Piece Identification with ISO License PlatesWhat does DHL Express offer to its customers?DHL supports the following cases:a) DHL Header turns proprietary company identifiers into globally unique License Plates DHL offers an own DHL License Plate header that turns existing proprietary package identifiers into globally unique License Plates. This works wherever only upper-case chars and digits are used. This results in a 1:1 relationship between a company’s proprietary identifiers and the respective License Plates. No IT system other than printing and scanning of LP barcodes needs to be adapted Example for package identifier of company Y: MUC2 12 412551 MUC2 Production Plant 12 Department 42155 Internal serial number of department 1 Internal check digit Resulting DHL License Plate : JD00 8 1234 MUC2 12 412551 JD00 DHL’s Issuing Agency Code 8 DHL’s code for Key Account customer number ranges 1234 DHL’s number for Key Account customer Y MUC2 12 412551 Original customer Y code The customer just adds “JD0081234” before printing the barcode.Bonn | November 2008 / Septemberwithin LP have been added for readability only! Spaces 2012 IAC = Issuing Agency Code Page 13
  14. 14. License Plate – The ISO standard for transport package identifiersFlexible Piece Identification with ISO License PlatesWhat does DHL Express offer to its customers?DHL supports the following cases:b) A company that uses own ISO License Plates DHL Express processes this company’s ISO License Plate as DHL’s leading piece identifiers. Example of a Siemens AG License Plate that DHL Express can scan and process: SI A1234567 7 1234567 0001 This structure has been defined with the adoption of the UCR (Unique Consignment Reference Number), following the internal Siemens standard SN 18630 (EGP 208-256): IAC OrgID Y Numerator Package No. S I A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Y 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 0 0 1 Source: “EU Customs Code Reform & New EDI Version 7.2006 ”, Siemens GPL IAC = Issuing Agency CodeBonn | November 2008 / September 2012 Page 14
  15. 15. License Plate – The ISO standard for transport package identifiersFlexible Piece Identification with ISO License PlatesWhat does DHL Express offer to its customers?DHL supports the following cases:c) A company that uses ISO License Plates from 3rd party suppliers DHL processes these ISO License Plate as DHL’s leading piece identifiers. All checkpoints will be captured directly against these identifiers. Example Epcos: LE EPC 81863675 001 LE Issuing Agency Code of EDIFICE (Epcos is member) EPC Sub-IAC allocated to Epcos 81278048 Delivery note number, Epcos-Internal 001 Package count Source: EPCOS IAC = Issuing Agency CodeBonn | November 2008 / September 2012 Page 15
  16. 16. License Plate – The ISO standard for transport package identifiersFlexible Piece Identification with ISO License PlatesWhat does DHL Express offer to its customers?DHL supports the following cases:d) License Plate number ranges issued by DHL Whenever none of the previous cases applies, DHL provides the customer with a License Plate range. That range is usually big enough to last longer than one year. As a result, customers can start with the first number after the last one has been used. Example: JD00 029 30001 000456 J Issuing Agency Code of UPU (Universal Postal Union) D00 Sub-IAC allocated to DHL 029 DHL’s country code for Italy 30001 Number for customer X in Italy 000456 sequential number: The 456th package shipped by customer X After package 999999, this customer can re-start with number 000000! There is no need to ever ask DHL for a new number range again! IAC = Issuing Agency CodeBonn | November 2008 / September 2012 Page 16
  17. 17. License Plate – The ISO standard for transport package identifiersFlexible Piece Identification with ISO License PlatesHere’s another example of a global organisation that offers License Plates tohundreds of members: HIBCC(HIBCC is an industry-sponsored nonprofit council which was organized by major healthcare associations in 1983) G1.0 Unique Transport Unit Identifier Shipping containers (Unit Loads and Transport Packages) may be identified by a symbol that carries the Unique Transport Unit Identifier. G1.1 Format Type The Unique Transport Unit Identifier shall be the unique transport unit identifier using the ANSI MH10.8.2 Data Identifier “J”: G1.2 Scope HIBC-LIC labeling may use ANS MH10.8.2 Data Identifier “J”. See section G2.0 for the data structure of the unique transport unit identifier. G2.0 Data Structure The data structure using the ANSI Data Identifier “J” is as follows: JLHH123Z987654321 , where •J = ANS MH10.8.2 Data Identifier “J” – Unique Transport Unit Identifier. •LH = Identifier for the Registration Authority – HIBCC/EHIBCC. •H123 = HIBCC / EHIBCC Labeler Identification Code. •987654321 = Shipper’s assigned number for the transport unit. (maximum 13 alphanumeric characters). Source: THE HEALTH INDUSTRY BAR CODE (HIBC) SUPPLIER LABELING STANDARD 2.3 (2009)Bonn | November 2008 / September 2012 Page 17
  18. 18. License Plate – The ISO standard for transport package identifiers Avoiding Ambiguity with ISO License PlatesThe fact that DHL Express support non-DHL License Plates has an impact on processes Where a customer uses his own LP, DHL Express will not add a DHL LP. The reason is that it would result in two different LPs on the same package. This is not supported by the ISO standard, and it would lead to ambiguity. Automated scanning processes, for instance, would not know which of the two LPs to use The risk is that a company can place its LP anywhere on the package – they are not always easily spotted by DHL. The example on the right side shows such a valid LP. If the customer sends this LP in his EDI message, DHL will make all other LP barcodes on the package unreadable. Even without EDI, DHL staff is advised to use this License Plate, to avoid the allocation of a DHL LP The customer will benefit from this approach. He just needs to send his own LPs in his EDI messages. 18 Bonn | November 2008 / September 2012 Page
  19. 19. License Plate – The ISO standard for transport package identifiers Avoiding Ambiguity with ISO License PlatesNot being aware of customer LPs creates issues The example on the right side (spotted in DHL’s CVG HUB) was extended by a customer barcode, on request of the customer Neither DHL Express nor the customer had realised that the customer’s barcode is a valid ISO License Plate. Impact: 1) The customer cannot track on dhl.com using his own identifier 2) We end up with four barcodes on the package while we only required three of them. This results in compressed information and scanning issues 3) Autosorters will send all shipments of this customer to the hospital area, as there are two different LPs on the same package. The correct approach would have been to print the customer’s License Plate at the bottom of the label, replacing the DHL LP. Bonn | November 2008 / September 2012 Page 19
  20. 20. License Plate – The ISO standard for transport package identifiers Track&Trace with ISO License PlatesWhat would a tracking system show?Example: History of a transport order, a 2nd transport order and a return to sender – all with same License Plate time Event LP Shipment Order JD01234567890 1000000000 • Allocates LP to shipment PU JD01234567890 1000000000 no 1000000000 piece with LP DF JD01234567890 1000000000 sent for 1st AF JD01234567890 1000000000 • Releases LP from time DF JD01234567890 1000000000 shipment no 1000000000 AR JD01234567890 1000000000 OK JD01234567890 1000000000 Network completion: successful delivery LP is now free and can be used again Order JD01234567890 2000000000 • Allocates LP to shipment PU JD01234567890 2000000000 no 2000000000 piece with DF JD01234567890 2000000000 same LP sent AF JD01234567890 2000000000 • Releases LP from 2nd time shipment no 2000000000 DF JD01234567890 2000000000 AR JD01234567890 2000000000 • Triggers creation of the following transport order RD JD01234567890 2000000000 LP is now free and RT JD01234567890 2000000000 Network completion: return to sender is immediately Order JD01234567890 3000000000 • Allocates LP to shipment allocated to the 3rd transport DF JD01234567890 3000000000 return shipment no 3000000000 process: AF JD01234567890 3000000000 return of 2nd DF JD01234567890 3000000000 • Releases LP from process shipment no 3000000000 AR JD01234567890 3000000000 OK JD01234567890 3000000000 Network completion: successful delivery Bonn | November 2008 / September 2012 Page 20
  21. 21. License Plate – The ISO standard for transport package identifiers (IV) LICENSE PLATE AND RFIDBonn | November 2008 / September 2012 Page 21
  22. 22. License Plate – The ISO standard for transport package identifiersISO License Plate and RFID?RFID Standards – The Application Family Identifier (AFI) • The Application Family Identifier specifies the location of the tagged item in the logistical hierarchy. IT is defined in ISO/IEC 15962 Information technology— Automatic identification and data capture techniques ----Radio frequency identification (RFID) for item management. • ISO/IEC 15962 specifies that the application will define the specific AFI. Below is a table of the AFIs assigned for the ISO 1736x series of standards. Piece IDs AFI Assignment ISO Standard(Hex) A1 17367_Non-EPC ISO 17367 – Supply chain applications of RFID – Product tagging A2 17365_Non-EPC ISO 17365 – Supply chain applications of RFID – Transport unit A3 17364_Non-EPC ISO 17364 – Supply chain applications of RFID – Returnable transport item A4 17367_HazMat ISO 17367 – Supply chain applications of RFID – Product tagging (HazMat) A5 17366_Non-EPC ISO 17366 — Supply chain applications of RFID – Product packaging Container IDs A6 17366_HazMat ISO 17366 – Supply chain applications of RFID – Product packaging (HazMat) A7 17365_HazMat ISO 17365 – Supply chain applications of RFID – Transport unit (HazMat) A8 17364_HazMat ISO 17364 – Supply chain applications of RFID – Returnable transport item (HazMat) A9 17363_Non-EPC ISO 17363 – Supply chain applications of RFID – Freight container AA 17363_HazMat ISO 17363 – Supply chain applications of RFID – Freight container (HazMat)Definition of AFI values and applicationBonn | November 2008 / September 2012 Page 22
  23. 23. License Plate – The ISO standard for transport package identifiers ISO License Plate and RFID? Hybrid: Joint RFID and Barcode Label?  Yes! Each of ISO’s barcode standards has an RFID equivalent meanwhile Application & data length requirements for UII’s Transport Unit Product Package Item Returnable Grouping TU Unit RTI LicencePlate and UII ISO/IEC 15459-1 15459-4 15459-5 15459-6Transport Barcode ISO 15394 ISO 22742 Label! RFID ISO 17365 ISO 17366 ISO 17367 ISO 17364 Data length 20, max.35 32 max. 50 20, max.50 20,max.50 (ASCII an) Table 2 Data length for Unique Identifiers according to ISO&IEC AIDC and application standards  That means that a combined approach is already possible today: Combined thermo- printers/RFID coding units can print a standard label while coding a passive transponder that is incorporated in that label. This also indicates a migration approach.  As with 2-dimensional barcodes, the unique piece identifier (License Plate) should in any case be printed on the label in addition – in the traditional way, both in plain text and as barcode.  Here, RFID does not necessarily have to be used by all partners in a logistic chain. It may be a means of communication between sender and the receiver’s assembly line. All partners in- between (warehouse, forwarders, ...) may simply ignore it and work on the basis of the visible part of the label. Bonn | November 2008 / September 2012 Automated Data Capture 1) Page 23
  24. 24. License Plate – The ISO standard for transport package identifiersISO License Plate and RFID?Which RFID Tags for ISO License Plate identification? DHL Express supports all ISO 15459 License Plates, with up to 35 alphanumeric characters. This requires at least 240 bit tags. Attention: EPC usually promotes 96 bit chips. These are sufficient for GS1 SSCCs (a small subgroup of ISO License Plates) but NOT for all ISO License Plates! UII size Applications Availability* 96 bits Low capacity chips for limited applications, typically for numeric highest UII’s 128 bits Medium size for applications where not the max. data length is high required or for numeric data 240 bits Fits to most applications high 352 bits Satisfies every application for SCM lower 496 bits Max. UII size according to ISO/IEC 18000-3.1 M2 and 18000-6C low typical memory sizes for UII’s reserved in a RFID chipBonn | November 2008 / September 2012 Page 24

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