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Gamification and Flow

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Creating the Flow: Gamification of Higher Education Courses

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Gamification and Flow

  1. 1. Doctoral Dissertation Creating The Flow: The Gamification Of Higher Education Courses Martin Sillaots 15.12.2016 Supervisors: Mauri Kaipainen Kai Pata
  2. 2. Content • Introduction: [problem • objectives • questions] • Theory: [gamification • flow dimensions] • Research: [methods • cases] • Results: [game elements • flow • model] • Conclusions: [outcomes • limitations • implications]
  3. 3. Introduction [problem • objectives • research questions]
  4. 4. Problem Learning is perceived as boring activity (Steinberg, Brown, & Dornbusch, 1997) (Admiraal, Huizenga, Akkerman, & Dam, 2011) (Pekrun, Goetz, Daniels, Stupnisky, & Perry, 2010)
  5. 5. Solution Active learning methods e.g. gamification
  6. 6. Gamification The use of game elements in a non-gaming environment Game elements = game design elements (Deterding 2011) + gaming metaphors (Marczewski, 2013)
  7. 7. Purpose of Gamification Involve participants and solve problems (Fitz-Walter, Tjondronegoro, & Wyeth, 2011) (Kapp, 2012)
  8. 8. Involvement The act of participating in something (Brown & Cairns, 2004; IJsselsteijn et al., 2007)
  9. 9. Flow Optimal experience in the level of mind and body where the user becomes absorbed in the activity and senses a deep level of enjoyment (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990)
  10. 10. How to use game elements for involving students? How to measure involvement?
  11. 11. Research Objectives • Gamification of university level courses • Evaluation of the level of involvement • Finding causalities between game end flow elements
  12. 12. Research Questions RQ1: How students value game elements? How do students value the game elements in different type of university courses from the viewpoint of experiencing the flow in learning? RQ2: Was the flow achieved? How does course context influence the successful application of game elements for experiencing the flow in learning? RQ3: How game elements influence flow dimensions? How do different game elements affect the flow components?
  13. 13. Theoretical Background [game elements • flow dimensions • instruments]
  14. 14. Game Elements Any element that can be found in the game (Deterding, 2011)
  15. 15. Flow Dimensions • Clear goals • Clear feedback • Balance between challenges and skills • Control • Concentration • Action-awareness merging • Losing self-consciousness • Time transformation • Autotelic experience (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990)
  16. 16. Flow Dimensions • Clear goals • Clear feedback • Balance between challenges and skills • Control • Concentration • Immersion (Sweetser & Wyeth, 2005)
  17. 17. Instruments for Measuring the Flow • ESM: Experience Sampling Method (Hektner, Schmidt, & Csikszentmihalyi, 2007) • FSS: Flow State Scale (Jackson & Marsh, 1996) • DFS: Dispositional Flow Scale (Jackson, Ford, Kimiecik, & Marsh, 2008) • GameFlow (Sweetser & Wyeth, 2005) • eGameFlow (Fu et al., 2009)
  18. 18. Flow Autotelic Experience Skill-challenge Balance Unambiguous Feedback Clear Goals Control Losing Self-consciousness Time transformation Concentration Merging Action-awareness
  19. 19. Research Methodology [methods • process • game elements • courses] [data collection and analyze methods]
  20. 20. Design Based Research • Mixing existing theory with practice • Improve teaching practice • Focus on learning process
  21. 21. DBR Provide • New theories – RQ3: How game elements affect flow dimensions? • Implementation of existing theories – gamified course designs • Adjust the context – RQ2: How course context influence the application of game elements and experiencing the flow? • Assess the design – RQ1: How students value the game elements in courses design? (Edelson, 2002)
  22. 22. Instructional Design Theory • Domain theory - how to involve students? • Design framework - selection and implementation of game elements in the course design • Design methodology (Edelson, 2002)
  23. 23. Research Process
  24. 24. Game Elements
  25. 25. Achievements Actions Aesthetics Altruism Art Atmosphere Attitudes Autonomy Autotelic_experience Avatar Badges Balance Big_Boss_Fight Challenges Characters Cheating Cognitive_needs Collaboration Communication Community Competences Competition Concentration Control Creativity Culture Curiosity Decision_making Difficulty Dimensions Discovering Emotional_needs Engagement Engrossment Enjoyment Environmental_needs Ethics Events Extrinsic_motivation Extrinsic_rewardFairness Fantasy Feedback Fight Flow Followership Fun Gameplay Goals Identity Immersion Importance Interaction Intrinsic_motivation Intrinsic_reward Involvement Knowledge Levels Loosing self Loyalty Luck Meaningfulness Merging_action-awareness Messages Motivation Narrative NPC Non_essential Opponent Performance Player Points Progress Psychological_needs Recruiting Relatedness Relationship Reputation Resource acquisition Reward Risk Roles Rules Scoreboard Self_Expressions Skills Social_needs Socialization Sound Space Stile Story Support Surprise Teams Teamwork Time Time_Transformation Turns Utility Variety Voluntariness World
  26. 26. Selected Game Elements • Goals • Feedback • Characters (avatars) • Risk (luck) • Extrinsic reward (points, scoreboard, levels) • Collaboration • Competition • Interaction
  27. 27. Case Courses 5 courses x 2
  28. 28. Case Courses • Research Methods – Research Seminar 1 (bachelor) – Research Seminar 2 (bachelor) – Research Methods (masters) • Computer Game Design – Computer Games (bachelor) – Game Design (masters)
  29. 29. Reason for Gamification • Research Methods – Many students experience research methods as dry and boring (Winn, 1995) – Gamification for achieving involvement • Game Design – Game like course design supports content delivery (Sheldon, 2011)
  30. 30. Case Courses
  31. 31. Course Design
  32. 32. Gamified Course Design • Course objectives • Avatar design • Challenges – Debates – Presentations – RND – Quizzes – Big Boss • Collecting points • Scoreboard • Levels • Instant feedback • Game vocabulary
  33. 33. Data Collection
  34. 34. Data Collection Methods • Online Questionnaire • Observation diary • Group interview
  35. 35. Online Questionnaire • Based on model of GameFlow (Sweetser & Wyeth, 2005) • + questions about game elements – Pilot: 17 questions, 4 point scale – 1st iteration: 47 questions, 4 point interval scale – 2nd iteration: 45 questions, 5 point interval scale • 198 answers (75%)
  36. 36. Data Analysis • Data preparation • Descriptive statistics • Validity and reliability evaluation • Compound variables • Correlation analysis • Path analysis
  37. 37. Validity and Reliability • Construct validity: multiple data sources • Internal validity: in and cross case comparison • External validity: referencing to similar case studies • Reliability: triangulation of different researchers • Reliability of the questionnaire: Cronbach’s Alpha • Internal consistency of the data: 2 independent samples T-test • Retention: data accessible in Internet
  38. 38. Compound Variables • Character • Luck • Extrinsic reward • Collaboration • Competition • Interaction • Goals • Feedback • Balance • Control • Concentration • Merging • Time transformation • Losing self
  39. 39. Path Analysis • Find causalities among game and flow elements • Iterative linear regression analysis • No constants • Independent variables with highest impact • Connection Strength: linear regression β weights • Model compatibility: regression R2 values (Garbin, n.d.; Olobatuyi, 2006)
  40. 40. Game Elements, Case Courses and Publications
  41. 41. Results [elements • flow • model]
  42. 42. Feedback to Game Elements RQ1: How do students value the game elements in different types of university courses from the viewpoint of experiencing the flow at learning?
  43. 43. Game Elements in Total NO YESRather No So So 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 YESRather Yes 0.8 1 Total 0.75
  44. 44. Game Elements in Details GD 13 GD 14 CG 13 CG 15 RS1 13 RS1 14 RS2 13 RS2 14 RM 13 RM 14 Total Character 0.49 0.43 0.41 0.46 0.41 0.44 0.40 0.35 0.25 0.41 Luck 0.82 0.71 0.75 0.66 0.78 0.63 0.77 0.44 0.71 0.69 Reward 0.84 0.76 0.79 0.89 0.76 0.73 0.75 0.76 0.63 0.74 0.75 Collaboration 0.79 0.80 0.65 0.82 0.85 0.73 0.83 0.82 0.79 0.82 0.79 Competition 0.33 0.61 0.70 0.73 0.81 0.77 0.86 0.74 0.58 0.72 0.74 Interaction 0.93 0.96 0.89 0.85 0.79 0.83 0.81 0.69 0.82 0.85 Goals 0.90 0.94 0.82 0.94 0.91 0.96 0.92 0.94 0.83 0.92 0.91 Feedback 0.74 0.80 0.86 0.89 0.87 0.85 0.86 0.91 0.79 0.87 0.84 TOTAL 0.72 0.77 0.74 0.79 0.77 0.75 0.76 0.77 0.64 0.73 0.75
  45. 45. Achieving Flow RQ2: How does course context influence the successful application of game elements for experiencing the flow in learning?
  46. 46. Achieving Flow in Total NO YESRather No So So 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 YESRather Yes 0.8 1 Total 0.68
  47. 47. Achieving Flow in Details GD 13 GD 14 CG 13 CG 15 RS1 13 RS2 14 RS2 13 RS2 14 RM 13 RM 14 Total Goals * 0.90 0.94 0.82 0.94 0.91 0.96 0.92 0.94 0.83 0.92 0.91 Feedback * 0.74 0.80 0.86 0.89 0.87 0.85 0.86 0.91 0.79 0.87 0.84 Balance 0.75 0.75 0.80 0.80 0.79 0.80 0.75 0.81 0.70 0.78 0.78 Control 0.75 0.74 0.67 0.87 0.70 0.73 0.65 0.74 0.60 0.77 0.72 Concentration 0.78 0.88 0.75 0.89 0.85 0.88 0.86 0.87 0.78 0.78 0.83 Losing Self 0.54 0.44 0.65 0.51 0.38 0.54 0.36 0.44 0.48 0.48 Merging 0.82 0.80 0.66 0.85 0.73 0.71 0.73 0.73 0.78 0.72 0.75 Time 0.70 0.44 0.77 0.74 0.63 0.83 0.62 0.53 0.66 0.65 TOTAL 0.82 0.72 0.55 0.78 0.64 0.63 0.68 0.63 0.65 0.66 0.68
  48. 48. Model of Game and Flow Elements RQ3: How do different game elements affect the flow components? Path analysis Iterative linear Regression Analysis
  49. 49. Immersion = Merge + Time + Self
  50. 50. Control Immersion = Merge + Time + Self R2 = 0.949 Concentration
  51. 51. Control Immersion = Merge + Time + Self R2 = 0.949 Concentration SPSS: linear regression analysis
  52. 52. Control Immersion = Merge + Time + Self R2 = 0.949 Concentration Estimations of model compatibility: regression analysis R2 values
  53. 53. Control Immersion = Merge + Time + Self R2 = 0.949 Concentration Strength of the connection: beta weights
  54. 54. Control Immersion = Merge + Time + Self R2 = 0.949 Concentration Immersion = 0.5 x Control + 0.5 x Concentration Immersion can not be achieved without concentration and control
  55. 55. Balance GoalsFeedback Control R2 = 0.973 Immersion = Merge + Time + Self R2 = 0.949 Concentration R2 = 0.981
  56. 56. Balance GoalsFeedback Control R2 = 0.973 Immersion = Merge + Time + Self R2 = 0.949 Concentration R2 = 0.981 • For control feedback and clear goals are needed – e.g. setting or accepting the goals, tracking them – e.g. feedback provides control over the process
  57. 57. Balance GoalsFeedback Control R2 = 0.973 Immersion = Merge + Time + Self R2 = 0.949 Concentration R2 = 0.981 • For concentration balance and clear goals are needed – e.g. concentration is highest if the challenges are little bit above the level skills (balance) – e.g. concentration is easier when goals are clear
  58. 58. Balance R2 = 0.984 Goals R2 = 0.980 Feedback R2 = 0.976 Control R2 = 0.973 Immersion = Merge + Time + Self R2 = 0.949 Collaboration R2 = 0.963 Competition Reward R2 = 0.963 Luck Interaction R2 = 0.964 < 0.762 0.426 > 0.231 0.167 < 0.408 0.605 > 0.268 0.206 0.249 0.247 Concentration R2 = 0.981
  59. 59. Discussion … • Feedback depends on balance and interaction – e.g. difficulty (balance) is important feedback information – e.g. interaction provides feedback • Balance depends on feedback, goals and reward – e.g. feedback enables balancing – e.g. it’s challenging (part of balance) to achieve the goals – e.g. balanced scoring system (reward) • Clear goals depend on balance and collaboration – e.g. challenges (part of balance) have goals – e.g. defining joint objectives for group work (collaboration)
  60. 60. • Interaction is created through collaboration, competition and luck – e.g. collaboration and competition are type of interaction – e.g. luck (randomly pointed tasks) can trigger interaction • Extrinsic reward is affected by collaboration, interaction and competition – e.g. social acceptance (extrinsic reward) is a part of collaboration – e.g. scoreboard (competition) is extrinsically rewarding • Collaboration is affected by the reward and interaction – e.g. possibility to earn points (reward) motivated to participate in teamwork – e.g. no collaboration without interaction … Discussion
  61. 61. Conclusions [outcomes • limitations • further studies • implications]
  62. 62. Main Outcomes • Map of game elements • Gamified courses • Achieving moderate level of flow • Refined model of flow • Conceptual model of game elements
  63. 63. Flow Autotelic Experience Skill-challenge Balance Control Losing Self-consciousness Time transformation Concentration Merging Action-awareness Clear Goals Unambiguous Feedback Refined Model of Flow
  64. 64. Limitations • Case study • Limited number of game elements • Focus on involvement
  65. 65. Further Study Needed • Classification of game elements • Implementation of complex game elements • Periodical student feedback (ESM) • Influences on learning results
  66. 66. Implications • Classroom: for instructional designers • Games: game designers – Engineering of Flow – Involvement evaluation
  67. 67. martin.sillaots@tlu.ee Link to the thesis http://tinyurl.com/gamificationflow

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