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271.152 ESSAY WRITING
CENTRE FOR TEACHING AND LEARNING LIBRARY 3RD FLOOR
09 441-8143 slc-alb@massey.ac.nz
1. Analyse the q...
QUESTION ANALYSIS
As a Speech and Language Therapist in Aotearoa/ New
Zealand you will at times need to work in a bi-cultu...
Content
• Definition of cultural aspects
• Application to SLT practice
• Reference to the Treaty of Waitangi
Writing
• Int...
RESEARCH
expert opinions
definitions of
concepts
facts & figures
FROM books
course readings
journal articles
high quality ...
Referencing Queries
1. First consider the credibility of online sources
(e.g. reputable organisation)
2. Then, if you are ...
Orange, C. (2012). The Treaty of Waitangi.
Retrieved from http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/en/treaty-
of-waitangi
Example A: How w...
Archives New Zealand, Te Rua Mahara o te
Kāwanatanga. (2014). Treaty of Waitangi - Te
Tiriti o Waitangi. Retrieved from
ht...
Kingi, K. R. (2006). The Treaty of Waitangi and Maori mental
health. A Paper Presented at the Te Mata o te Tau Lunchtime
L...
Example D: You’d like to use the following extract from the
Kingi article in your essay. How do you go about it?
Additiona...
1. Avoid quoting too much. Generally, only quote
definitions of key concepts. In all other cases,
summarise in your own wo...
Step 1: Highlight key ideas
Additionally, the Tribunal focuses on the “principles” or “spirit”
of the Treaty as opposed to...
Step 3: Close the original document
Step 4: Expand your short notes into sentences
Principles – avoid difficulties arising...
Example E: You’d like to use this explanation of cultural safety
from a Nursing Council publication. How do you go about i...
Step 1: Strip away the ‘leaves’ and ‘twigs’ leaving just the
cherry
The nurse delivering the nursing service will have und...
Which source to cite?
You’ll find Treaty Principles, the Whare Tapa Wha model etc
mentioned in many different books, artic...
PARAGRAPH PLANNING
So for this essay, start off with a rough plan for:
10 - 15 paragraphs
Average words per paragraph: 120...
How do you create a paragraph plan?
Step 1: Set aside one paragraph each for the introduction
and conclusion. You can worr...
Step 4: Allocate paragraphs to each part of the framework
you’ve chosen – for instance
Example Paragraph Plan 1
Introducti...
Example Paragraph Plan 2
Introduction (1 paragraph)
Treaty (1 paragraph)
Treaty Principles (1 paragraph)
Protection (3 par...
Example Paragraph Plan 3
Introduction (1 paragraph)
Treaty (1 paragraph)
Treaty Principles (1 paragraph)
Whare tapa wha (1...
How can you make your
writing flow?
Given the frequency and importance of management decisions, it is unsurprising
that co...
How can you make your
writing flow?
Given the frequency and importance of management decisions, it is unsurprising
that co...
INTRODUCTION
PARAGRAPHS
… put the issue into a context that shows why
it’s both important and problematic
... include a br...
CONCLUSION
PARAGRAPHS
THE CONCLUDING PARAGRAPH typically ...
… rephrases the thesis statement
... summarises and connects ...
STEP 6: REVISE YOUR
DRAFT
ADD?
• More use of topic words?
• More explanation in your own words?
• Clearer ‘looking back’ w...
STEP 6: REVISE YOUR
DRAFT
• Does anything in the introduction deserve
its own paragraph?
• Would my examples etc fit bette...
STEP 7: SUBMIT YOUR
ASSIGNMENT
• Referencing
• Overuse of commas
• Monster or Mini-paragraphs
• Common spelling & grammar ...
KEY POINTS
•Analyse the question and plan your timeline
•Develop a paragraph plan
• Fish for definitions, expert opinions,...
© 2014
This PowerPoint Presentation and the accompanying
handouts are copyrighted by Centre for Teaching and
Learning, Mas...
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Essay Writing Workshop for SLT and the Treaty of Waitangi (271.152)

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This presentation is intended for students taking the SLT and the Treaty of Waitangi paper at Massey University, New Zealand. It focuses on the essay question and deals specifically with researching, referencing, summarising, quoting, planning and paragraph flow.

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Essay Writing Workshop for SLT and the Treaty of Waitangi (271.152)

  1. 1. 271.152 ESSAY WRITING CENTRE FOR TEACHING AND LEARNING LIBRARY 3RD FLOOR 09 441-8143 slc-alb@massey.ac.nz 1. Analyse the question 2. Do the research 3. Organise your essay plan 4. Write the first draft 5. Get feedback 6. Revise your draft 7. Submit your completed essay http://tinyurl.com/271152essay2014
  2. 2. QUESTION ANALYSIS As a Speech and Language Therapist in Aotearoa/ New Zealand you will at times need to work in a bi-cultural setting. The Treaty of Waitangi is a founding document that guides practice as a Speech and Language Therapist. Explain how a speech and language therapist may incorporate the Treaty of Waitangi into practice when working with whanau Maori and what cultural aspects need to be taken into consideration. (2000 words)
  3. 3. Content • Definition of cultural aspects • Application to SLT practice • Reference to the Treaty of Waitangi Writing • Introduction, conclusion, flow of essay • Spelling, grammar and formatting • Referencing Assessment Criteria
  4. 4. RESEARCH expert opinions definitions of concepts facts & figures FROM books course readings journal articles high quality web sites theories & models
  5. 5. Referencing Queries 1. First consider the credibility of online sources (e.g. reputable organisation) 2. Then, if you are going to use an online source, look for the name of the author and date of publication somewhere on the webpage. If there’s no named author, use the institution as the author. If there’s no date, use (n.d.) 3. Even if the website provides ‘how to reference this’ advice, don’t rely on it; it may need to be revised to fit APA 6th style
  6. 6. Orange, C. (2012). The Treaty of Waitangi. Retrieved from http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/en/treaty- of-waitangi Example A: How would you reference a webpage, based on this information given at the bottom of the page: How to cite this page: Claudia Orange. 'Treaty of Waitangi', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, updated 9-Nov-12 URL: http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/en/treaty-of-waitangi
  7. 7. Archives New Zealand, Te Rua Mahara o te Kāwanatanga. (2014). Treaty of Waitangi - Te Tiriti o Waitangi. Retrieved from http://archives.govt.nz/exhibitions/treaty Example B: How would you reference this webpage, based on this information collected from different parts of the page: Treaty of Waitangi - Te Tiriti o Waitangi Archives New Zealand, Te Rua Mahara o te Kāwanatanga Crown Copyright 2014 http://archives.govt.nz/exhibitions/treaty
  8. 8. Kingi, K. R. (2006). The Treaty of Waitangi and Maori mental health. A Paper Presented at the Te Mata o te Tau Lunchtime Lecture Series, Massey University, Wellington, New Zealand. Retrieved from http://www.massey.ac.nz/massey/fms/Te%20Mata%20O%20Te%20Tau/Publi cations%20%-20Te%20Kani/T%20Kingi%20 Treaty_of_Waitangi_Maori_ Health1.pdf Example C: How would you reference this webpage, based on this information on the title page of a document found on the Massey University website? THE TREATY OF WAITAINGI AND MĀORI HEALTH Te K. R. Kingi, Te Pumanawa Hauora, School of Māori Studies, Massey University, WELLINGTON A Paper Presented at the Te Mata o te Tau Lunchtime Lecture Series. March 2 2006
  9. 9. Example D: You’d like to use the following extract from the Kingi article in your essay. How do you go about it? Additionally, the Tribunal focuses on the “principles” or “spirit” of the Treaty as opposed to the actual text. The use of “principles” was designed to avoid the obvious problem of having two different versions of the Treaty, but also provided a more flexible framework for the interpretation of Treaty related concerns and obligations. Whereas in the past the Treaty had been applied to physical resources, such as land, forest, and fisheries, the principles were broader and therefore not as restrictive. Summarising from a source
  10. 10. 1. Avoid quoting too much. Generally, only quote definitions of key concepts. In all other cases, summarise in your own words. 2. Summarise methodically by: 1. selecting key ideas 2. writing short notes in your own words 3. closing the original text 4. expanding notes into sentences – either integrating the authors into the sentence or putting them in brackets at the end
  11. 11. Step 1: Highlight key ideas Additionally, the Tribunal focuses on the “principles” or “spirit” of the Treaty as opposed to the actual text. The use of “principles” was designed to avoid the obvious problem of having two different versions of the Treaty, but also provided a more flexible framework for the interpretation of Treaty related concerns and obligations. Whereas in the past the Treaty had been applied to physical resources, such as land, forest, and fisheries, the principles were broader and therefore not as restrictive. Step 2: Turn these into short notes in your own words Principles – avoid difficulties arising from discrepancies between two versions of the Treaty more flex. broader. not just related to physical resources
  12. 12. Step 3: Close the original document Step 4: Expand your short notes into sentences Principles – avoid difficulties arising from discrepancies between two versions of the Treaty more flex. broader. not just related to physical resources As Kingi (2006) points out, the formulation of Treaty Principles avoided difficulties arising from discrepancies between the different versions of the Treaty and created broad, practical guidelines which can be applied to a wide range of contexts and practices.
  13. 13. Example E: You’d like to use this explanation of cultural safety from a Nursing Council publication. How do you go about it? The nurse delivering the nursing service will have undertaken a process of reflection on his or her own cultural identity and will recognise the impact that his or her personal culture has on his or her professional practice. Unsafe cultural practice comprises any action which diminishes, demeans or disempowers the cultural identity and well being of an individual. Quoting from a source Details of the publication from the website: Guidelines for Cultural Safety, the Treaty of Waitangi and Maori Health in Nursing Education and Practice Nursing Council of New Zealand, PO Box 9644, Wellington 6011 www.nursingcouncil.org.nz First published March 2005 Last amended July 2011 © Nursing Council of New Zealand 2011 ISBN 978-0-908662-38-8
  14. 14. Step 1: Strip away the ‘leaves’ and ‘twigs’ leaving just the cherry The nurse delivering the nursing service will have undertaken a process of reflection on his or her own cultural identity and will recognise the impact that his or her personal culture has on his or her professional practice. Unsafe cultural practice comprises any action which diminishes, demeans or disempowers the cultural identity and well being of an individual. Step 2: Put the cherry in your bowl In order to ensure cultural safety, practitioners need to be aware of how their own culture may affect those in their care, in order to avoid “any action which diminishes, demeans or disempowers the cultural identity and well being of an individual” (Nursing Council of New Zealand, 2011, p. 7).
  15. 15. Which source to cite? You’ll find Treaty Principles, the Whare Tapa Wha model etc mentioned in many different books, articles, websites etc. So which source do you cite when you mention it in your essay? Generally, go for the ‘straight from the horse’s mouth’ approach – i.e. cite the original creator of a model and one of the books or articles it first appeared in. For instance: Durie, M. H. (1994). Whaiora: Māori health development. Auckland, New Zealand: Oxford University Press. When you can’t identify that – for instance, for Treaty Principles – use a ‘gold standard’ source – i.e. a book or article from an academic journal by a respected academic. For instance: Kingi, T. R. (2007). The Treaty of Waitangi: A framework for Māori health development. New Zealand Journal of Occupational Therapy, 54(1), 4-10
  16. 16. PARAGRAPH PLANNING So for this essay, start off with a rough plan for: 10 - 15 paragraphs Average words per paragraph: 120 – 200 (in other words four to eight sentences) Word limit: 2000 words
  17. 17. How do you create a paragraph plan? Step 1: Set aside one paragraph each for the introduction and conclusion. You can worry about those later! Step 2: Identify the parts to the question. • Reference to the Treaty of Waitangi • Definition of cultural aspects • Application to SLT practice Step 3: Decide on a model, made up of different parts, that you can use as an overall framework for most of the body of your essay. For instance: • Treaty Principles • Whare Tapa Wha • SLT Practice
  18. 18. Step 4: Allocate paragraphs to each part of the framework you’ve chosen – for instance Example Paragraph Plan 1 Introduction (1 paragraph) Treaty (1 paragraph) Treaty Principles (1 paragraph) Whare Tapa Wha (1 paragraph) Taha tinana (2 paragraphs) Taha wairua (2 paragraphs) Taha whanau (2 paragraphs) Taha hinengaro (2 paragraphs) Conclusion (1 paragraph) Each of these sections would first explain the concept (and any related Maori concepts) and then apply it to a particular aspect of SLT practice
  19. 19. Example Paragraph Plan 2 Introduction (1 paragraph) Treaty (1 paragraph) Treaty Principles (1 paragraph) Protection (3 paragraphs) Partnership (3 paragraphs) Participation (3 paragraphs) Conclusion (1 paragraph) As with plan 1, each of these sections would first explain the concept (and any related Maori concepts – and then apply it to particular aspects of SLT practice
  20. 20. Example Paragraph Plan 3 Introduction (1 paragraph) Treaty (1 paragraph) Treaty Principles (1 paragraph) Whare tapa wha (1 paragraph) Language (1 paragraph) Speech (1 paragraph) Swallowing (1 paragraph) Voice (1 paragraph) Fluency (1 paragraph) Multimodal Communication (1 paragraph) Conclusion (1 paragraph) Each of these sections would first summarise what an SLT might do in this domain of practice and then highlight one or more relevant Maori cultural concepts
  21. 21. How can you make your writing flow? Given the frequency and importance of management decisions, it is unsurprising that costly errors occur. Recent examples include the disastrous strategy of Lehmann Brothers and the inadequate response to Hurricane Katrina (White, 2009). These errors may be attributed to external factors, such as time-pressures or unpredictable changes in the environment, or internal factors, such as a lack of expertise or tiredness. However, why do managers not identify such factors and address them rationally? The answer appears to be that rationality itself is limited or ‘bounded’ (Simon 1955; Kahnemann, Fredrickson, Schreiber, & Redelmeier, 1993), by a number of psychological constraints which make humans prone to specific ‘cognitive biases’ in their decision-making. These cognitive biases are intuitive (Kahneman, 2003) and essentially automatic tendencies which “shape how human beings select and process information” (Krause, 2008, p. 28). Numerous cognitive biases have been found, but this essay will focus on four particular biases which have been identified as crucial to poor management decision-making: reliance on past experience, self-interest, pre-judgements and attachments (Finkelstein, Whitehead & Campbell, 2009). ..... 1: Repetition and Variation of key topic words Example paragraph from a Management essay
  22. 22. How can you make your writing flow? Given the frequency and importance of management decisions, it is unsurprising that costly errors occur. Recent examples include the disastrous strategy of Lehmann Brothers and the inadequate response to Hurricane Katrina (White, 2009). These errors may be attributed to external factors, such as time-pressures or unpredictable changes in the environment, or internal factors, such as a lack of expertise or tiredness. However, why do managers not identify such factors and address them rationally? The answer appears to be that rationality itself is limited or ‘bounded’ (Simon 1955; Kahnemann, Fredrickson, Schreiber, & Redelmeier, 1993), by a number of psychological constraints which make humans prone to specific ‘cognitive biases’ in their decision-making. These cognitive biases are intuitive (Kahneman, 2003) and essentially automatic tendencies which “shape how human beings select and process information” (Krause, 2008, p. 28). Numerous cognitive biases have been found, but this essay will focus on four particular biases which have been identified as crucial to poor management decision-making: reliance on past experience, self-interest, pre-judgements and attachments (Finkelstein, Whitehead & Campbell, 2009). The nature of these biases will be explored below, .... 2: Start new sentences by referring back to topic in previous sentences / paragraphs
  23. 23. INTRODUCTION PARAGRAPHS … put the issue into a context that shows why it’s both important and problematic ... include a brief definition / explanation of the topic ... briefly preview the structure of the essay ... present the main argument of the essay in a thesis statement
  24. 24. CONCLUSION PARAGRAPHS THE CONCLUDING PARAGRAPH typically ... … rephrases the thesis statement ... summarises and connects the main supporting arguments ... comments briefly on the implications for the present or future (eg for people entering the SLT profession)
  25. 25. STEP 6: REVISE YOUR DRAFT ADD? • More use of topic words? • More explanation in your own words? • Clearer ‘looking back’ with ‘this’ ‘such’ ‘Moreover,..’ etc? • Additional referencing? • Irrelevant points? • Text ‘lifted’ from your source? • Repetition of ideas? • Unoriginal examples? SUBTRACT?
  26. 26. STEP 6: REVISE YOUR DRAFT • Does anything in the introduction deserve its own paragraph? • Would my examples etc fit better with a different point? • Would my paragraphs flow better if they were in a different order? MOVE? • Non-academic language? • Thesis-statement (if it no longer matches the essay) • Do direct claims (‘it is’) need to be hedged (‘it could be argued that ..’ ‘it appears that that ..’)? CHANGE?
  27. 27. STEP 7: SUBMIT YOUR ASSIGNMENT • Referencing • Overuse of commas • Monster or Mini-paragraphs • Common spelling & grammar mistakes PROOF- READ at the last moment Give yourself a big pat on the back! You’ve done it! Check submission details! • Date? • Hard copy or only online? • Only through Stream or on Turnitin?
  28. 28. KEY POINTS •Analyse the question and plan your timeline •Develop a paragraph plan • Fish for definitions, expert opinions, facts & figures from books and articles • Ensure paragraphs and sentences flow •Get feedback and revise your first draft!
  29. 29. © 2014 This PowerPoint Presentation and the accompanying handouts are copyrighted by Centre for Teaching and Learning, Massey University and may not be used, except for personal study, without written permission from the copyright owner. References and arguments are provided for illustration of writing principles only – not for their content! http://tinyurl.com/271152essay2014

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