TETRAD Technologies Group, Inc. I3BAT and Nomad Eyes - Modeling the "Design of Death" and Incorporating Terrorist Thinking into Countermethods of Sensing and Preventive Response Martin Dudziak, PhD Chief Scientist, TETRAD Technologies Group, Inc.AbstractLocalizing, tracking and subverting terrorist plans in advance of their execution canbenefit from techniques drawn from disciplines seemingly far removed from securityand counterterrorism. Among the tools available to countermeasure designers aremodeling methods that may be regarded as unconventional, non-traditional and“asymmetric.” The I3BAT system is designed to complement existing preventivestrategies by using patterns of behavior and concealment that match terrorist tacticsand group dynamics, incorporating these patterns into active data collectionnetworks. The data acquisition is based upon the use of distributed, mobile, wirelesssensing (Nomad Eyes) that incorporates public and private cellular communicationdevices. Back-end analysis and forecasting is based upon both Bayesian andnonlinear statistical methods. I3BAT foundations include findings derived from fieldstudies in terrorist-supportive cognitive, planning and decision-making models.Patterns of terrorist cadre formation and psychological training have been studied indepth through cultural assimilation and familiarization methods in order to developan improved understanding and "expert skill set" with regard to conducting terroristoperations in large population centers such as cities and metropolitan transportnetworks.The analytics include diffusion-attractor and inverse scattering surface imagingmodels drawn from medical imaging and surface/subsurface sensing. These arecoupled with pseudo-random data collection and associative abductive techniques.The expected outcome is a faster production and validation of patterns linkingpersons, objects, transactions and targets. The mathematical basis derives from anintegration of simulated annealing as employed in pattern recognition, Ramsey-theoretic sorting and matching of graphs representing events, players andrelationships, and probabilistic surface fitting.The theoretic development of I3BAT has proceeded in tandem with the design of aninformatics architecture for real-time and near-real-time applications tocounterterrorism. This architecture, Nomad Eyes, is currently in the implementation,simulation and preliminary field testing stages, targeting high-volume metropolitantransportation networks and hubs such as metro and train stations for deployment offield tests in 2005. Key to the future deployment of a system such as Nomad Eyes isthe ability to gain support for both passive and active data collection by largenumbers of the general population and simultaneously the miniaturization ofchemical and radiation sensors into industry standard low-power components thatcan be widely used by both formal agencies and members of the general population.The project has recently engendered the interest and support of a consortium ofpublic sector and private corporate partners including the Commonwealth of Virginia,Office of Emergency Preparedness.11 contact information: email@example.com 1
IntroductionConsider the following series of events. A shipment of 60Co was enroute from Paristo Caracas. Intercepted in the Caracas airport after passing through customs, theshipment’s absence is yet another event in the IAEA NEWS database and hasgenerated alerts among a variety of security and investigation authorities. Theshipment subsequently passed through Columbia, Panama, Costa Rica and upwardson the Pan-American Highway into Mexico and thence into the USA, crossing a seriesof borders without any radiological sensor checkpoints for private vehicles. Ashielded container within the back seat of the vehicle provided ample protection forthe vehicle occupants as well as deterrence from detection by passivegamma/neutron sensors.Once in the USA, this shipment was transferred to a second private automobile andcarried to a private home in the vicinity of Arlington, Virginia, outside Washington,DC. Within a week the containers were transferred to a rented commercial office siteequipped with a primitive but sufficient workspace for handling hazardous materialsand the contents were distributed into eight thin-walled steel cylinders into which barmagnets had been affixed.Four days later, a team of eight individuals carried the cylinders, one each, in theirrucksacks, to six different Washington metro stations and two major shopping malls.The cylinders were placed inside large metal waste disposal bins adjoining escalatorsthat sustain high volumes of traffic, upwards of several thousand persons per day.The magnets on the cylinders provided a strong bond to the interior walls of thewaste bins and thus placed the cylinders were hidden from normal view including atthe times when the plastic waste bins would be replaced by maintenance workers.Three months later, a member of the Union Station cleaning crew, in the process ofcleaning up a liquid waste spillage inside one of the waste bins, noticed the oddcylinder and pulling it free also noticed that it was warm to the touch.Some hours later, the implications of the event were beginning to reach the pressand the public.Reality 101This series of events has not yet (hopefully) occurred in real life. It is a hypotheticalact of radiation terrorism, a scenario presented for illustration. Nonetheless, it couldbe an act in progress, occurring at the very present time. This is a very easy way toconduct a very attractive form of radiation terrorism against a civilian population. Ithas the benefit, moreover (from the terrorist perspective), of being effective againstlarge numbers of people and also producing a potentially large and long-lastingaftershock in public panic and general social-economic-political disruption.Radiation terrorism is a potent terrorist weapon even without any “bang.” Fissionbombs and dirty bombs are not required to do any effective job at deliveringdisruption and fear along with some accessory effects of actual collateral damage toindividuals. From the terrorist perspective it is one of the best tools in the workshop– make an impact upon very large numbers of people with uncertain fear and doubt.Who will not wonder about their possible exposure and the level of exposure? Whowill not see and feel, in a visceral manner, some form of individual and collectivevulnerability?
This form of radiation terrorism may be termed a Passive Radiation Exposure Deviceor PRED, as opposed to the classic “dirty bomb” or Radiation Dispersion Device(RDD) [1,2] that would typically employ a conventional explosion as the medium fordistributing a cloud of radioactive material in a populated area. Building an effectivePRED does not have many requirements and need not involve even the scale ofoperative techniques suggested in the hypothetical example given here. Cadremembers willing to sacrifice their lives or health for the Cause can reduce the needfor complex protective precautions which could raise attention and notice amongoutsiders and draw perchance an investigation by civilian or government securityforces.The execution of a PRED would have a major impact on any major civilian populationregardless of the actual health implications for any individuals, short-term or long-term. It is possible that no one would die or even suffer major long-term adversemedical effects. It is possible that some individuals could have significant harm fromsustained or repeated exposure to the PRED. Therein lies the power of the PREDwithin the terrorist value system; no one among the victim population would knowfor certain about their individual exposure or consequences, and all would know thatif it happened in one instance, at one place, it could happen again, and again, andagain…A terrorist action such as a PRED could also be done with non-radiological means anddifferent effects. The example drawn from the world of radiation terrorism is onlyone possible scenario for a general class of actions that can be among the mosteffective from the standpoint of generating social, economic and political disruptionwithin the target society. Clearly there are chemical and biological agents that couldbe used in similar fashion. However, radioactive substances offer severaladvantages to the terrorist[3,4].First, they may be easier to conceal, given the present limitations of detectabilitywithin the general civilian sector. Second, they may be easier to handle, withoutspecialized technology, especially if the perpetrators are willing to risk long-term anduncertain health effects to their own persons. Third and perhaps most significantly,radiation devices of the PRED variety can have the greatest impact in generatingopen-ended and irresolvable uncertainty and fear within the civilian populationbecause of the impossibility of measuring individual exposure after the fact. There isno definitive test of any sort – no blood test, no antibody reaction, no biometric.There is no prophylactic, no vaccine, no palliative measures that can be dispensed.Only uncertainty and angst of a sort that is particular, in a psychological way, fornuclear radiation.Applying Terrakt-Think as a CountermeasureThe reality of the PRED is presently undefined. It is certainly something that hasbeen identified as being within the learning-space and plans of groups such as AlQaeda and specifically has been among attempted actions by Chechen terroristgroups active inside the Russian Federation. However, a PRED or similar “secretaction” attack is also something that can be countered, in not only its execution butplanning stages, by use of technology and operative techniques that draw upon thesame principles of stealth and pseudo-randomness. If the terrorists are operatingoutside the bounds of the “box” of customary transport, fabrication, delivery andattack with respect to different devices and weapons, so can similar asymmetric“outside the box” techniques be deployed as countermeasures.
This is what Nomad Eyes™ is all about, as a methodology, architecture, and system.Sensors and data collectors that are in the least likely, unexpected, unpredictableplaces and times will be (collectively) a more powerful shield against attacks (andtheir planning operations) that are not in the usual places, not through the usualgateways and paths of transport and shipment, not in the usual and customary style.A simple analogy may be helpful. A twenty-dollar bill is convenient, whereas acollection of pennies, nickels and dimes adding up to $20.00 is quite the opposite.However, $20 is $20 and pays for the same amount of goods as legal tender. Acollection of radioisotopes acquired from a variety of sources, a mix-and-matchassortment of industrial, medical and academic materials lost here, stolen there,disappearing into the “black hole” of being items on an Interpol registry but low inapparent significance, at least in comparison to military-grade 235U or 239Pu, is likethat collection of pennies and nickels. It may be an inconvenient and slow process tobuild up a stockpile, and that stockpile may never be practical for an RDD much lessanything more dramatic for instantaneous destructive power. However, it may bethe easiest, simplest, cheapest and most surreptitious way to build up a stockpile ofPREDs that can be distributed throughout mass transit systems and in other publicplaces.Nomad Eyes is an architecture for collecting information that will signal alerts aboutthe movement of terrorist-style weapons and their components, prior to and duringassembly and preparation of the devices, and also during or after their deployment.With respect to PRED attacks in particular, Nomad Eyes offers the strongestdeterrent to such a terrorist attack since it offers the highest level of probability fordetection of the PRED components in the places and times when the terroriststhemselves least expect or can least defend themselves against countermeasures –in transit, in the home or shop used as the workplace, and in the process of actualdeployment. Nomad Eyes also offers the most probable detection of a PRED after ithas been deployed, all because the sensing and detecting is not something that islimited to the airport or the shipping terminal, nor is it a system that is only in thehands of law enforcement and security forces.Nomad Eyes indeed takes as a literal truth the words attributed to Osama bin Ladenduring a recent October, 2004 videotape circulated as a warning message andoverture to the American public in particular: “Your security is in your own hands.”While the author and speaker of that message obviously had other intents in mind,the fact is that security against PRED and other forms of “quiet” terrorism usingradiation, biological, or chemical ingredients is most effective if the detection andresponse mechanism is in the hands of the general public as much as possible,literally and figuratively.Operating PrinciplesNomad Eyes is based upon the open-ended distribution and movement of manymobile wireless sensors and data collectors that feed asynchronously, based upon animprovisation of a classical MIMD parallel processing paradigm, into a server cluster.The latter in turn provides data management, itself a variant of industry-standardETL2 processing used in commercial database and data warehouse management.2 Extract-Transfer-Load, a mechanism for populating data warehouses real-time from transaction-intensivedatabases where down-time of the latter must be minimized in order to obviate disruption of the businessprocesses of the organization. The ETL application within Nomad Eyes enables the use of agents ortriggers for activating other responses including those in security and first-responder teams
The analytics and forecasting applications are based upon inverse problem methodsoriginally developed for surface and subsurface (including ground-penetrating)sensing. Figure 1 below provides an overview of the architecture in the abstract.Data is collected using sensors of different types (visual, audio, radiation, chemical)that communicate digital output to mobile, wireless communication devices includingpersonal mobile phones. These transmit the data as conventional digital packetsthrough both dedicated and public-access networks to servers which conduct theanalytical processing and distribution of information. No special protocols are used,but only the standards employed for mobile internet and SMS.Sensor types:Sensors are of two types, "plug-in" and "built-in," with respect to the communicationdevices that will receive digital data from the sensor apparatus and transmit it toultimately a server running analysis applications and database management.The following are the sensor types planned for the full Nomad Eyes™ deployment.Generally biological, chemical and radiation sensors will be "plug-in" units whereasthe others will be "built-in" devices. This is due to the nature or the technologiesrequired for the different sensor types and also due to the development anddispersion of visual, audio and text consumer-class mobile wireless devices in theglobal marketplace.Biological - registering the presence, through biochemical or in vitro interactions inthe sensor, of particular substances that indicate the presence in the ambientairborne environment of one or more types of harmful organisms. Output is a digitalpacket, each containing a small set of parameters indicating the results of thesensing operation performed onboard the device. This is received by the mobile,wireless communication unit to which the sensor is electronically coupled.Chemical - registering the presence of substances that indicate the presence in theambient airborne environment of one or more types of chemical weapon orconventional explosive or the substantive components thereof. Note that chemicalsensing is not limited to specific, recognized "chemical weapons" (e.g., organo-phosphates indicative of a sarin-type compound) but also to chemicals that mayindicate the presence of a body-worn or hand-carried conventional explosive device.Output is as described above.Radioactive – gamma and neutron sensors registering the presence of radioactivenuclear materials with a focus on simple detection, not dosimetry. Note that theobject of the radiation sensing is to aid in the collection of data that may indicate anyaspect of the construction, handling or transport of radioactive substances. Output isas described above.Visual - images and video clips. The technology is mature but there are additionaldevelopments in flat-surface (e.g., thin polymer-embedded lens) and extreme-low-power image capture that can enhance Nomad Eyes. The current technology is well-deployed already within consumer-class devices (mobile phones) and otherspecialized units. Output is an image or series of images.Audio - sound clips. The technology is mature and ubiquitous in consumer-class andspecialized units. Output is in both analog and (increasingly, primarily) digital data.
Text - SMS text clips and email. The technology is mature and well-established.General characteristics of "plug-in" sensor units (mainly chem-bio-rad sensing): Compact size and light-weight - no larger or heavier than a contemporary mobile cell phone and optimally a device that can be literally plugged in to a mobile phone without adding significantly to the "human factors" of handling, carrying, and general operation. Low-power and long-life - adaptable to the power supply of a standard mobile phone and not significantly degrading the performance life of the phone before recharging is necessary. Low-cost - the individual unit-cost of a sensor device must fit the constraints of the intended market, whether that cost is absorbed by an individual consumer (this is the less likely route of network dissemination and use) or a local, regional, or national agency. Low accuracy - this is a surprising characteristic but it is believed to be necessary in order to meet the many other extraordinary technical requirements. However, Nomad Eyes™ by first principles is designed to make use of large amounts of spatially and temporally distributed noisy, low-sensitivity, and nonlinear data, where some of the data is simply incomplete and inaccurate. The performance of the analysis is based upon statistical processing and the inverse nonlinear methods employed will be responsible for turning low-accuracy into high- probability results.Note that specialized sensor units designed for interfacing with devices other thanconsumer-class mobile phones can have a much greater latitude and range in termsof size, weight, power consumption, rechargeability, etc. but the emphasis withinNomad Eyes™ is still and always upon sensing units being small, portable, low-cost,and allowing for some sacrifice in accuracy.Data Collection Types:Data is collected from the above types of sensors using mobile, wireless devices.These are of two types: "specialized" units and consumer units.Consumer: a "standard" mobile phone. The "standard" for Nomad Eyes™ purposesis a camera-equipped device of which there are many variants from virtually allphone manufacturers. Consumer-class units will typically be a mobile phone plus thesensor plug-in (for chem-bio-rad) or simply the mobile phone itself, enabled withadditional on-phone software for the human interface as well as the autonomousinterface. This device will be handled and operated by the human user (e.g., owner)of the phone. Through public education, advertising, and general media publicrelations volunteers participate in the deployment and operation of Nomad Eyes™ inhis or her community. Educational games and entertainment as well as commercialofferings are being designed as part of the consumer attraction model in order togain volunteer subscriber-participants. In the case of chem-bio-rad sensing, thesensors will be "background operating" devices not generally requiring any humaninteraction or response. In the case of video, audio and text data collection, this willrequire the conscious activity of the human user.Specialized: units that are functionally equivalent to a standard mobile phone,capable of direct electronic interface with the chem-bio-rad or audio-video sensor,and coupled through either a cellular or wi-fi network. The interface and powerrequirements for such specialized units are more flexible than those of the
consumer-class phones but will be driven and impacted by some of the same basicconstraints. These are also described further below.These specialized units will typically be deployed in ad hoc configurations throughouta geographic region (e.g., building, complex, neighborhood, shipping port, industrialarea) for a limited period of time by different security and maintenance staff.Devices will be either permanently powered (direct power, solar, or remote-rechargeable batteries) or will require battery replacement by maintenance staff.Server-Side Information Processing and Analysis:All data from the Nomad Eyes™ sensors is ultimately received in digital messagepackets through the internet by servers. The data is moved in real-time to a largedatabase (data warehouse) and processed by several applications. One of these isknown as I3BAT (Integrative Inverse Intelligence Behavior Analysis and Tracking).Using a combination of statistical, neural, inverse, abductive and bayesianalgorithms, I3BAT makes probabilistic determinations, on the basis of very largedatasets collected over space and time, of the likelihood that terrorist-like actionsare indicated and meriting further attention by law enforcement and other securityforces. Results from I3BAT processing will be directly transmitted (and its databasesmade accessible in the fullest regard) to the "homeland security" informationprocessing systems and personnel who are charged with the further analysis andtactical response to potential terrorist activities.Feedback to the Sensors and Collectors:Nomad Eyes™ has the capability built into its underlying architecture for feedbackfrom the server-side analytical processing to the sensors in the field. This meansthat sensors, particularly those of the chem-bio-rad variety, could be designed tooperate within servo-controlled devices for repositioning (3-axis rotation, mobilerobots or airborne RPVs). Furthermore, consumer-class devices (sensors built into orplugged into mobile phones) can participate in the feedback network by means ofsimple audio and text alerts, commands and requests made to the human users(e.g., for collecting additional data, particularly images - as an example, a plug-inchem sensor reading received by the server may indicate a positive "hit" on a nitriteor organo-phosphate compound. The user may be alerted and requested (throughhis or her normal phone interface): to press a button for activating higher datacollection rates or sensitivity (perhaps a higher power consumption process), tomove the phone (and sensor) around an area more widely, to take random ordirected-region snapshots, or simply to notify the nearest police or militia authorities.Asymmetry and AsynchronicityNuclear materials and other materials for a dirty bomb may originate from and betrafficked through unpredictable paths. Tracking countermeasures based upondetection of trace radiation alone, even were it possible to measure every shippingcontainer coming into a port or airport, are insufficient because of the precautionsand intelligence that must be attributed as being within the power of the terroristteam to implement. However, the pseudo-random dispersal of mini- and micro-scaleradiation sensors coupled with the integration of such information in a real-timeknowledge discovery and inference environment that includes other classes of data(e.g., known or predicted purchases of materials by potential suspects, presence orabsence of increased data traffic within suspect groups and centers, recorded ordersand requests for building permits, licenses, or construction data that could be used inthe planning of the terrakt campaign) - all of this will amplify the knowledge-value ofwhat may otherwise seem to be insignificant variances and circumstantial evidence.
EVENT ! Class (x) objects received by servers resultsin generation of n graphs representinghypothetical x y… relational maps; themajority are discarded, but events of interesttrigger feedback to both autonomous andhuman-based nodes for additional collectionand reorienting. No node or subset of nodesis reliant and the whole may be considered asa dynamic-geometry cellular automata. EVENT ! Data Post-analysis acquisition/analysis/feed report/advice/cmd into net Average 3G consumer Server smart videophone BCM-equipped phone Mobile PC or desktop (client Specialized BCM analysis Live Talking Book type system with power, location, operator reqmts. Figure 1 - Nomad Eyes asymmetric threat event data flow (first stage)
An illustration of the value of apparent outlier or irrelevant data and the value of theADaM (Active Data Mover) ETL and the Nomad Eyes internal graph-theoretic patternassociation model (I3BAT)3 can be found in the case history of the World TradeCenter attacks of Sept, 2001. If the graph construct within I3BAT (a data structureused to build and test similarities and differences among thousands of potentialgraphs linking known or suspect data such as reported locations of terrorist suspects,purchases or movements of terrakt device ingredients, and some of the types of datareferenced earlier) contains sufficient temporal and geographic logical arcsconnecting nodes that may include: (potential-sec-terror-risk (person)) (anomaly (financial transaction)) (anomaly (public data)) (potential-sec-terror-risk (target)) (anomaly (information req)) (potential-bomb-component (purchase)) etc.there can be agent-driven triggers that simultaneously accomplish two things:(a) data is brought to the attention of authorities responsible for next actions(b) automatic modifications are made to those mobile wireless data collectionelements that are available and relevant for use in the monitoring and defenseagainst terrorist actions including pre-terrakt planning. This moreover consists oftwo types of modification: autonomous modulation of "robot" sensors - devices that are collecting images, audio, chemical or radiological sense-data and transmitting into the Nomad Eyes network, and which may be moveable, rotatable or otherwise tunable under remote control messages to active and accessible participants in the broad general-public community of Nomad Eyes users.Going back to Sept., 2001, a linkage of data concerning the presence of knownforeigners with immigration and documentation problems in the USA outside of theirknown areas of local residence, plus temporally contiguous requests by the same orprobable-same persons for purchase of cell phones, plus data linking the social circleof the same with training at a flight school, plus travel of a number of individualswithin the same general category, could have raised a number of alerts and triggersresulting in a different morning of Sept. 11, 2001.The Role of the Public in Nomad Eyes as a Preventive ForceThe Nomad Eyes model has been compared to the function of the compound eye inan insect visual system. Each data collector is very low quality in performancecompared to the mammalian or avian eye. However, taken together, the resultingarray of sensors yields a spatially and temporally associable set of data points thatactually is not available in the more sophisticated visual systems because of thenumber of orientations possible. This gives certain advantages to the insect eye,notably evident in the avoidance of obstacles by some insects while flying at highspeed. Nomad Eyes aims to have as many collectors distributed throughout acommunity as possible, and to do so with a minimum of cost or maintenance. Bydoing so, the compound-eye effect can be achieved through I3BAT. Furthermore, asa force of deterrence, when the terrorist forces do not know where there may bedata collectors and observations, because it is no longer a matter of discrete and3 Integrated Intelligent Image-Guided Behavior Analysis and Tracking, described below and in other papers
predictable sensors at airports, gates, or in the hands of uniformed police andsecurity guards, but potentially a sensor-equipped mobile phone in the hands of theperson next in line or across the hall or bar, then not only is the potential for earlydetection and disruption increased but also the entire planning system andclandestine operational scheme of the terrorist is disrupted. Their work becomesmore difficult, and that is part of the strategy for weakening their enterprise.How can this be achieved in a practical sense? By employing large numbers ofordinary public users, focusing upon the incorporation of mobile phones that arealready in use, connected and maintained.In order to gather the active participation of thousands and even tens of thousandsof people, there is a different psychology that must be employed, and for this reasonNomad Eyes is engaged in developing a method to make participation interestingthrough games, advertising, and in general entertainment. Work by Klopfer, Jenkinsand others at MIT has already demonstrated the feasibility of using cell phones in avariety of educational and socially-meaningful games[5,6]. Nomad Eyes for thepublic sector is based upon the premise that increasing numbers of consumers arepurchasing and using high-end mobile devices for entertainment, gaming, internetaccess and non-traditional phone communications, primarily visual in nature. Gamessuch as those being developed in academia and industry plus commercial advertisingcan be used to engage a sufficient number of the public to participate productively inNomad Eyes without the large number of such participants feeling like it is a dull orboring task, and with the use of plug-in sensors such as radiation monitors that canbe "piggybacked" onto the mobile phone, the active engagement of the human useris minimized.Nomad Eyes for First Responders and the Public in Post-Terrakt RecoveryNomad Eyes is designed to assist also in having an improved response system fordealing with a PRED or other form of terrakt. Given a network that extends into thegeneral public for data collection in the broad community, coupled with GPS locatorfunctions enabled in many cellular networks (even without such the availability ofclear and legible maps through current mobile phone high-res graphics) largenumbers of people can be more easily notified and routed to safety. Going back toFigure 1 above, the basic capability is illustrated. Sensors and data collectorsincluding radiation monitors are assumed to be dispersed pseudo-randomlythroughout a location of a terrakt incidence, and with additional resources availablefrom the actual first-responder teams.This data, routed into the Nomad Eyes servers, then is processed to generatebroadcasts to the users of mobile phones in the public (commercial) networks, andto the mobile autonomous devices that are deployed in the area of concern. Thesimple fact is that more people can be notified faster and with more intelligent andtimely information than by any other means. Those without mobile devices willgather information from those around them who are thus equipped. The end resultis more people moving in better directions and means away from the area ofradiation (or other substance) hazard, and a continuous stream of additionalmonitoring and sensing data coming from those people as they move and egressfrom the danger zones.There are obvious dependencies for the success of the public elements of NomadEyes. The objective is to minimize requirements upon the general user to do anyaction other than to carry their mobile wireless device; the goal is to make
operations as seamless, hassle-free, and ubiquitous as possible. Critical, emergencyevents are high-stress and not the time for complex interactions.Current StatusCurrently the Nomad Eyes project has progressed to the stage of detailed design andprototyping using a methodology of rapid application prototype derived from XP4 andOOD5 practices in the semiconductor and software industries. There are four stagesto the work at present:Sensor ConfigurationsRefinement of MIPI-compliant low-power compact-size plug-ins adaptable to a wideclass of consumer mobile phones and also for specialized non-consumer devices.Consumer Human Factors and EngagementDesign of educational and entertaining games for use on mobile and internet-accessible PDAs that cultivate the awareness, observation, and communication ofcounterterrorist-useful information through SMS, image, and voice to the NomadEyes acquisition servers.I3BATModeling of terrorist planning and behavior for the construction of dynamiccomputing models that can be used alongside other models for identifying potentialterrakt campaigns and neutralizing the threats.Nomad Eyes Network and DatabaseSoftware development for the ADaM (Active Data Mover) ETL processing and thebi-directional communications with large arrays of mobile units, including thebroadcast of appropriate evacuation map and route information to mobile phoneusers directly in the Nomad eyes network and also those in the general commercialnetworks as well through their providers.References Zimmerman, Peter and Loeb, Cheryl, "Dirty Bombs: The Threat Revisited,"National Defense University, Defense, vol. 38, Jan. 2004, available online athttp://www.ndu.edu/ctnsp/DH38.pdf Singer, Fred (Emeritus Professor, Univ. of Virginia and Visiting Fellow, HooverInstitute (Stanford Univ.), available online athttp://www.againstbombing.com/singer.htm cf proceedings and reports from the conference Dirty Bombs II: Current Conceptsin Radiation terror Preparedness and Response, Johns Hopkins School of PublicHealth, Baltimore, MD, April 2004 Department of Homeland Security Working Group on Radiological DispersalDevice (RDD) Preparedness, Medical Preparedness and Response Sub-Grouphttp://www.productstewardship.us/supportingdocs/RadMat_BkgrdRpt.doc MIT Comparative Media Studies Program (Henry Jenkins III,http://web.mit.edu/cms) and MIT Teacher Education Program (Eric Klopfer,http://education.mit.edu) O’Driscoll, Alice, Tan, Philip, Targum, Elliot, Squire, Kurt and Miller, Heather,"On the Border of Life,", MIT Comparative Media Studies Dept, 11/024 eXtreme Programming, a system for flexible, adaptive small-team design of intensive time-constrainedtasks5 Object Oriented Design (more widely known as OOP - Object Oriented Programming)