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Horticultural Research & Practice forImproved Nutritional & Food Security          in Southern Africa        Stephanie Mid...
Structure1.       Dimensions and drivers of food & nutritional insecurity2.       Fruit consumption and food insecurity in...
Food % Nutritional Security and Undernourishment     Food security exists when all people, at all times, have     physical...
Dimensions of Food Security• Availability             The availability of sufficient quantities of food of appropriate qu...
Drivers of Food Insecurity in Southern Africa• Lack of own production• Erratic local food prices• Weak integration of food...
Drivers of Food Insecurity at different scales           • Food supply (production, reserves, import)National   • Nutritio...
Dietary and nutritional transitions• Global shifts in dietary and nutritional patterns• Drivers: population growth, urbani...
Dietary deficiencies…8
Fruit intake requirements Fruits and vegetables: > 400 g/person/day                                                       ...
Fruit consumption patterns (g/person/day)500                                                                   North Ameri...
Vegetable, fruit and pulse consumption patterns        Sub-Saharan Africa (g/person/day)180160                            ...
Where in Southern Africa are the most food            insecure populations?• Around 95 million people (40%) across SADC ar...
Relationships between undernourishment and            food system indicatorsData:            FAO, 14 SADC countries, 1990-...
Change in food consumption per food category in relation to undernourishment                             (1990-2 to 2003-5...
Vitamin A and Iron available for human consumption 2003-5  Country        Vit A        Vit A categories:                 (...
Food production has stagnated, fruit production is declining                               g/person/day (excl. South Afric...
Results                         (excl. South Africa)• Insufficient per person carbohydrate and protein intake, but  propor...
Fruit supply quantity per SADC country                                                       (g/person/day) – top 4300250 ...
Fruit supply quantity per SADC country                                          (g/person/day) – bottom 6300250200150100  ...
Summary of factors that influence fruit consumption         patterns in Sub-Saharan Africa1. Income: consumption rises wit...
The role of food markets in Southern Africa1. National food production may be rising in some cases, but it is not resultin...
22
Situation in South Africa• Access to food: 24% of households have inadequate or severely  inadequate access to food ; most...
South Africa: children     Stunting: median height for age     Underweight: median weight for age      Combating Malnutrit...
Fruit/vegetable consumption by South African children                    aged 1-9 years• Celeste Naude, MSc (Nutrition) th...
Mean daily intake per capita of fruit in children                                             Naude, 200726
Mean percentages of children consuming fruit                                         Naude, 200727
Urban food insecurity – the invisible crisis•   Rapid urbanization – rising numbers of urban poor – as vulnerable to food ...
Levels of household food insecurity in SADC cities     Frayne et al 2010 The State of Urban Food Insecurity in Southern Af...
A flawed food system• On a per calorie basis, fruits and vegetables are significantly more  expensive than cereals, fats a...
Opportunities for HortSci (1)            (in addition to commercial/export focus)• Supply   – Post-harvest technology for ...
Opportunities for HortSci (2)• Local consumer preferences and choices   – Understand the needs and market   – Adapt breedi...
Opportunities for HortSci (3)• Education       – Child and parent (especially women) nutritional and agricultural         ...
A multi- and trans-disciplinary systems approach  • Work within a larger CONTEXT  • Work with consumer, food security, nut...
The challenge: to support economic     growth while driving human and social         development and ecological           ...
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Combined Congress Horticulture 2012 Keynote presentation

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Combined Congress Horticulture 2012 Keynote presentation

  1. 1. Horticultural Research & Practice forImproved Nutritional & Food Security in Southern Africa Stephanie Midgley & Martin de Wit Combined Congress 22 January 2013 Durban
  2. 2. Structure1. Dimensions and drivers of food & nutritional insecurity2. Fruit consumption and food insecurity in Southern Africa3. Growing cities – hungry cities4. A flawed food system5. Opportunities for horticultural science research & practice6. Finding solutions: an integrated systems approach 2
  3. 3. Food % Nutritional Security and Undernourishment Food security exists when all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life World Food Summit, 1996 Undernourishment exists when caloric intake is below the minimum dietary energy requirement. FAO/World Food Programme, 2009 Nutritional security refers to adequate nutritional status in terms of protein, energy, vitamins, and minerals for all household members at all times. Int Food Policy Res Inst, 1995 3
  4. 4. Dimensions of Food Security• Availability  The availability of sufficient quantities of food of appropriate quality, supplied through domestic production or imports.• Access  Access by individuals to adequate resources for acquiring appropriate food for a nutritious diet. (Covers legal, political, economic and social arrangements of a community)• Utilization  Utilization of food through adequate diet, clean water, sanitation and health care to reach a state of nutritional well-being where all physiological needs are met. (NB non-food inputs)• Stability  To be food secure, a population, household or individual must have access to adequate food at all times. They should not risk losing access to food as a consequence of sudden shocks or cyclical events. 4
  5. 5. Drivers of Food Insecurity in Southern Africa• Lack of own production• Erratic local food prices• Weak integration of food markets• Poverty: national income growth does not benefit the poor• Climatic hazards• Competing land use• Social instability: diseases incl. HIV/AIDS, population changes• Political instability• Deteriorating land resources and water quality• Lack of investment and failure of agricultural policies 5
  6. 6. Drivers of Food Insecurity at different scales • Food supply (production, reserves, import)National • Nutritious food supply • Climate, land degradation, land policy, oil price • Location: access to food • Culture/social norms: knowledge, attitude, practice Community • Food preferences • Income and education level • Location & household size • Stability: access at all times Household • Food quality and variety • Care practices • Energy intake Individual • Nutrient intake • Health status 6
  7. 7. Dietary and nutritional transitions• Global shifts in dietary and nutritional patterns• Drivers: population growth, urbanization, women in employment, changing food preferences, food industry (production and marketing), agricultural & trade policies• Quantity: “Expansion phase”: increased calories from cheaper foods• Quality: “Substitution phase”: shift from cereals, pulses, roots & tubers to vegetable oils, meat, dairy, sugar, salt• Worldwide, fruit consumption per person is increasing, but not in Southern Africa – WHY?• Considerable health consequences: child development, obesity, diabetes, non-communicable diseases, etc• Considerable environmental consequences: carbon, water, etc• Failure to identify and act on linkages between agriculture, human health (and other social factors) and the environment 7
  8. 8. Dietary deficiencies…8
  9. 9. Fruit intake requirements Fruits and vegetables: > 400 g/person/day WHO Expert Committee, Fruits: >200 g/person/day WHO/FAO 2003Fruit defined as: plantains, bananas, orange, lemons and limes, grapefruit and pomelos, tangerines,mandarins, clementines, satsumas, other citrus fruit, melons, watermelons, apples, apricots, avocados,cherries, figs, grapes, mangoes, papaya, peaches, pears, persimmons, pineapples, plums, quinces,blueberries, cranberries, gooseberries, raspberries, strawberries, kiwi, other fruits (fresh), dates, figs(dried), prunes, currants, raisins, other dried fruit. (excl. tree nuts) 9
  10. 10. Fruit consumption patterns (g/person/day)500 North America450400 Oceania350 Latin America & Caribbean300 Europe250200 Asia Africa150100 50 0 1963 1973 1983 1993 2003 2025 2050 Adapted from: Kearney J Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 2010;365:2793-2807 10
  11. 11. Vegetable, fruit and pulse consumption patterns Sub-Saharan Africa (g/person/day)180160 Vegetables140 Fruits120 Roots and Tubers100806040 Sweet potatoes20 Pulses Potatoes 0 1963 1973 1983 1993 2003 2025 2050 Adapted from: Kearney J Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 2010;365:2793-2807 11
  12. 12. Where in Southern Africa are the most food insecure populations?• Around 95 million people (40%) across SADC are undernourished• Of these, almost 84% are found in only five countries (2004-2006): – DRC (43.9 million) – Tanzania (13.6 million) – Mozambique (7.5 million) – Angola (7.1 million) – Madagascar (6.6 million)• A further 15% are found in Zambia, Zimbabwe and Malawi• 1.5% in the rest of SADC• BUT: The rate of increase has slowed significantly from 46% to 10% between 1990-1997 and 2000-2006 De Wit and Midgley, 2009 12
  13. 13. Relationships between undernourishment and food system indicatorsData: FAO, 14 SADC countries, 1990-2006Variables: food consumption food production food imports food exports food aid regional supply and demand value of trade prices income expenditure relative size of agric sectorStatistical analysis: Correlation, covariance, price and income elasticities of undernourishment De Wit and Midgley, 2009 13
  14. 14. Change in food consumption per food category in relation to undernourishment (1990-2 to 2003-5)Country Food Cereal Starchy Protein Fruit Undernou- %change %change roots %change %change rishment %change %changeAngola +140 +36 +10 +20 -31 -1Botswana -132 +4 +15 -6 -94 +67DRC -543 -9 -47 -28 -166 +285Lesotho -12 +6 +29 +2 -67 +50Madagascar -162 +9 -19 -6 -25 +69Malawi +460 -8 +80 +6 +28 -12Mauritius +254 +3 -13 +11 +45 0Mozambique +75 +35 -2 +28 -26 -9Namibia +251 +8 +13 +10 -8 0Swaziland +58 -26 -5 +10 -1 +100Tanzania -313 +8 -50 -6 -37 +84Zambia -54 -8 +8 -4 -7 +58Zimbabwe -26 -9 +29 -2 -3 +19SADC avg +1 +3 -2 -19 +85
  15. 15. Vitamin A and Iron available for human consumption 2003-5 Country Vit A Vit A categories: (category) Namibia 3 Angola 3 1: <300 2: 300-600 3: >600 South Africa 2 Retinol Activity Equivalents per Mauritius 2 person per day Swaziland 2 Botswana 2 RDA: 300-600 under-13 Madagascar 2 Tanzania 2 700-900 over-13 Zimbabwe 1 Lesotho 1 Mozambique 1 Zambia 1 DRC 1 Malawi 15 1
  16. 16. Food production has stagnated, fruit production is declining g/person/day (excl. South Africa) 1990-2 1995-7 2003-5 % change 1990-2 to 2003-5 Alcoholic beverages 24 29 34 42% Eggs 1 1 2 35% Fish, Seafood 25 29 29 16% Starchy roots 152 141 174 15% Pulses 7 8 8 7% Meat 17 16 16 -5% Vegetables 22 22 20 -7% Cereals - excl Beer) 81 95 75 -8% Sugar & Sweeteners 97 83 85 -12% Offals 2 2 1 -18% Milk – excl Butter 26 21 21 -20% Fruits – excl Wine 41 32 33 -22% Vegetable oils 3 2 2 -26% Oilcrops 14 13 10 -27% Animal fats 1 1 1 -44% 16
  17. 17. Results (excl. South Africa)• Insufficient per person carbohydrate and protein intake, but proportionally too much carbohydrate• National per person food production has stagnated with declining production since the early 1990s (with some exceptions)• Insufficient per person intake of essential micronutrientsA decrease in undernourishment is most strongly related to an increasein the consumption of fruits and starchy roots De Wit and Midgley, 2009 17
  18. 18. Fruit supply quantity per SADC country (g/person/day) – top 4300250 Tanzania200 Swaziland Malawi150 Mauritius10050 0 1997 2004 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Data source: FAO (faostat.fao.org) 2012 18
  19. 19. Fruit supply quantity per SADC country (g/person/day) – bottom 6300250200150100 South Africa50 Namibia Lesotho Mozambique Zimbabwe 0 Zambia 19… 19… 19… 19… 19… 19… 19… 19… 19… 19… 20… 20… 20… 20… 20… 20… 20… 20… 20… 20… Data source: FAO (faostat.fao.org) 2012 19
  20. 20. Summary of factors that influence fruit consumption patterns in Sub-Saharan Africa1. Income: consumption rises with income, although at a slower rate than income; explains higher consumption among wealthier urban households2. Price and availability: consumption rises with lower prices and across- season availability3. Consumer preferences: demand for calories/fat, cultural, household- specific, individual-specific (awareness and knowledge)4. Education: mixed trends; often related to women’s work outside the home5. Home production: can increase consumption but needs to be complemented with behaviour change6. Intra-household decision-making: link between status of women (relative to men) and child nutritional and health outcomes; female-headed households spend more on fruit/vegetables Adapted from: Ruel et al. 2005 Patterns and determinants of fruit and vegetable consumption in Sub-Saharan Africa: a multi-country comparison. WHO. 20
  21. 21. The role of food markets in Southern Africa1. National food production may be rising in some cases, but it is not resulting in broad-based income growth or poverty reduction2. On a national level, rising average income is dissipating to other goals rather than addressing undernourishment3. An average household spends approx half its income on food; volatile and rising food prices make them vulnerable; less spent on healthy foods4. Approx 70% of rural populations are not participating meaningfully in food markets5. Rapid urbanization and changing food preferences are raising food import demand6. Consumer demand for supermarket services rising, but not as fast as previously imagined7. How are we going to meet the unmet need for fruit? Jayne 2011 Forces shaping food markets in East and Southern Africa. BFAP Agricultural Baseline 2011 De Wit and Midgley 2009 Hunger in SADC with specific reference to climate change: A longer-term regional analysis. OneWorld. 21
  22. 22. 22
  23. 23. Situation in South Africa• Access to food: 24% of households have inadequate or severely inadequate access to food ; most serious in the North-West (35.7%), also serious in Northern Cape, Kwazulu-Natal and Free State• Own production: 87.6% of households cultivate backyard gardens, of these 30.1% cultivate fruit/vegetables• Consumption expenditure on fruit/vegetables on average 14%; good growth from 2011-2012 (6.3%) but not nearly as high as for oils/fats (34.8%), meat (12%), bread/grain products (16.4%), sugar (16.5%)South Africa General Household Survey 2010Economic Review of South African Agriculture 2011/12 23
  24. 24. South Africa: children Stunting: median height for age Underweight: median weight for age Combating Malnutrition in South Africa. Input paper for health roadmap, 200824
  25. 25. Fruit/vegetable consumption by South African children aged 1-9 years• Celeste Naude, MSc (Nutrition) thesis, US 2007• Data: 1999 National Food Consumption Survey (NFCS)• Mean daily fruit/veg consumption per capita 110.1 grams• Underweight and wasted children ate significantly less fruit and vegetables• Procured by purchase (90% of households)• Low dietary diversity, poor nutrient intake• Differences between provinces: socio-economic, climatic, access to water, cultural 25
  26. 26. Mean daily intake per capita of fruit in children Naude, 200726
  27. 27. Mean percentages of children consuming fruit Naude, 200727
  28. 28. Urban food insecurity – the invisible crisis• Rapid urbanization – rising numbers of urban poor – as vulnerable to food insecurity as rural people, if not more (77%)• By 2025 half of southern African population will be urbanized• But cities also offer opportunities for a better life and better food security and nutrition, huge market• Complex urban food supply chains• Rural and smallholder bias in food policies and public research support• Focus on rural agricultural growth and production rather than on “ensuring food security for all” including the urban population• Increasing proportion of the rural poor depend on social grants and remittances – purchase their food• Production is important, but the biggest challenge lies in getting healthy affordable food to everyone We must re-think our production and distribution systems and policies Resource: AFSUN (African Food Security Urban Network), Cape Town 28
  29. 29. Levels of household food insecurity in SADC cities Frayne et al 2010 The State of Urban Food Insecurity in Southern Africa. AFSUN.29
  30. 30. A flawed food system• On a per calorie basis, fruits and vegetables are significantly more expensive than cereals, fats and sweets• Sufficient food is often available, in the face of chronic and acute hunger – gross failure of food flow• Emphasis on production needs to be extended to access, safety and nutrition, and especially affordability• Insufficient data and analysis of food systems and food flows• High risks: climate change, oil and food price spikes, population growth• Creating a better food system: – Health-based agriculture – Dealing with both undernutrition and overnutrition – Environmental sustainability – Price stability Where does Horticultural Science see its role in this crisis? 30
  31. 31. Opportunities for HortSci (1) (in addition to commercial/export focus)• Supply – Post-harvest technology for multiple complex agri-food systems and supply chains – Household fresh produce storage and preservation technologies – Reduce losses/waste across all systems – Rainfed production technologies for water-scarce/poor areas – School orchards/gardens – Affordable and accessible plant material and fertiliser 31
  32. 32. Opportunities for HortSci (2)• Local consumer preferences and choices – Understand the needs and market – Adapt breeding programmes and planting decisions – Breed and grow for nutritional value• Access, distribution and price – Support for smaller markets (rural, farmers’, urban) – Reduce cost of distribution and “shelf” 32
  33. 33. Opportunities for HortSci (3)• Education – Child and parent (especially women) nutritional and agricultural education – Industry-wide lobbying for healthy food choices – Knowledge transfer to consultants, extension officers, farmer organisations, students• Data and analysis – Generate and analyse reliable system-wide data for all agri-food systems in the region – Apply GIS for systems analysis of food flows – Study linkages with human and environmental health factors 33
  34. 34. A multi- and trans-disciplinary systems approach • Work within a larger CONTEXT • Work with consumer, food security, nutritional and health scientists to identify needs and strategies • Work with agricultural economists and environmental scientists to develop a more efficient and sustainable agri-food system • Big funding: emphasisemultiple benefits of horticultural research in this context, and how this addresses national development goals • Set up contextualised longer-term research programmes within which students/researchers can work towards a larger goal and achieve combined impact • Link with other programmes (e.g. food security at US, UKZN, UP) • Harness science for the benefit of all • Opportunity to attract students to agricultural science – interesting and highly rewarding work with a strong “people component”See: Hammond and Dube2011 A systems science perspective andtransdisciplinary models for food and nutrition security. PNAS 109(31). 34
  35. 35. The challenge: to support economic growth while driving human and social development and ecological sustainabilityTHANK YOU35

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