Play begins with social affective play, where in infants take pleasure in relationships with people. As the adults talk, touch, nuzzle etc.. to get response from the infant the child soon learns to provoke personal emotions / responses with such behaviours smiling , cooing, or initiating games
A non social stimulating experience. Objects in the environment like light & color, taste & odors , textures and consistencies attract children’s attention stimulates their senses & give pleasure Pleasurable experiences are derived from handling raw materials ( water , sand & food…), from body motions (swinging, bouncing , rocking… ) & from other uses of senses and abilities (smelling , humming..)
After infants develops the ability to grasp and manipulates, they demonstrate & exercise their newly acquired abilities through skill play. Determination to practice a skill may be evident Pain and frustration may be felt. ( e.g. bicycle riding)
Talking to her doll or a ny toy before going to bed.
She supervised children between two and five years old for intense one-minute periods. In these time frames, she could see the different children's behavior and documented them accordingly. She noted that most of the play is by themselves, in the first four stages. The latter two are more extensive sets of play, and occur in older age groups which involve more interaction between children.
Referring mostly to newborns and infants, the term unoccupied play refers to activity when a child actually isn't playing at all. He may be engaged in seemingly random movements, with no objective. Despite appearances, this is definitely play and setting the stage for future play exploration. Here children are not playful but focuses their attention on anything that strikes their interest. Children may daydream, fiddle with cloths(touch things with no particular purpose) / other objects or walks aimlessly. This is different from onlooker play (who actively observes others activity.)
Children spend most of their time watching others; may make comments but do not interact Also common in younger children who are working on their developing vocabulary , onlooker play is when a child simply observes other children playing and doesn't partake in the action. Don't worry if your little one is behaving this way -- it could be that the child feels shy or needs to learn the rules or maybe is the youngest and wants to just take a step back for a while.
Children play alone with toys; make no attempt to interact Just what it sounds like -- when your child plays alone. This type of play is important because it teaches a child how to keep himself entertained, eventually setting the path for being self sufficient. Any child can play independently, but this type of play is the most common in younger children ages two or three. Part of it has to do because they are still pretty self-centered, but a lack of good communication skills also plays a role. If a child is on the shy side and doesn't know the person who he is playing with well, he may prefer this type of play.
Children play beside but not really with other children Put two three year olds in a room together and this is what you are likely to see: the two children having fun, playing side by side in their own little world. It doesn't mean that they don't like one another, they are just engaging in parallel play. Despite having little social contact with her playmate, children who parallel play actually learn quite a bit from one another like taking turns and other social niceties, because even though it appears they aren't paying attention to each other, they truly are and often mimic the other one's behavior. As such, this type of play is viewed as an important bridge to the later stages of play.
Children engage in rather disorganized play with other children Slightly different than parallel play, associative play also features children playing separately from one another, but in this mode of play they are involved with what the others are doing -- think children making a city with blocks. As they build their individual buildings, they are talking to one another, and engaging each other. This is an important stage of play because it helps little ones develop a whole host of skills -- socialization (what should we build now?) and problem solving (how can we make this city bigger?), cooperation (if we work together we can make our city even better!) and language development (learning what to say to get their messages across to one another). Through associative play is how children begin to make real friendships.
Children engage in an organized form of play Where all the stages come together and children truly start playing together. Common in older preschoolers (or in younger preschoolers who have older siblings or have been around a lot of children), cooperative play brings together all of the social skills your child has been working on and puts them into action. Whether they are building a puzzle together, playing a board game , "house" or an outdoor game with a group, cooperative play really sets the stage for future interactions as your child matures into an adult.
Also known as symbolic / pretend play Begins in late infancy (11- 13 months) to preschool age. By acting out events of daily life children learn and practice the role and identities , modeled by members of their family & society
Many children who choose this type of medical play later progress to using medical equipment. No specialized materials are required for this type of medical play.
CHRISTIAN D. EVANGELISTA
MARIANNE T. EVANGELISTA, MSHRM
• Range of voluntary,
associated with pleasure
• Also known as “Work of the
Children” / Daily work of a
• Act as a tool for assessing
• Internally Motivated
• Unique to each child
• Active with Motion and Cognition
CONTENT OF PLAY
• This involves physical, mental, emotional,
and spiritual aspects of the play along
with the social relationships.
• It follows a directional trend of simple to
THE CHARACTERISTICS OF PLAY
• Play is child-chosen.
• Play is child-invented.
• Play is pretend but done as if the activity were real.
• Play focuses on the doing (process, not product).
• Play is done by the players (children), not the adults
(caregivers, teachers, or parents).
• Play requires active involvement.
• Play is pleasurable
• It is marked by flexibility
VALUES OF PLAY
• PHYSICAL VALUE
• INTELLECTUAL VALUE
• MORAL VALUE
• CREATIVE VALUE
• THERAPEUTIC VALUE
• Muscular & sensory abilities are
developed . Infants & young children
develop their sensory abilities
through the tactile, visual and
auditory sensations derived from
playing with rattles balls & other toys
• Toddlers & preschool children enjoy
large muscle activity such as running,
climbing & exploring the
environment . School age children
organize their movements into more
complex forms like bicycle riding,
• Children learn the differences
in sizes, shape, colours,
textures, numbers, & names
of the objects.
• They learn to understand
special relationships, to do
abstract thinking ,& to
engage in problem solving
• Distinguished what is real &
what is unreal/ fantasy.
• Cultural values like
honesty , integrity,
compassion are learned.
• They assumes responsibility
for their own actions.
should adhere to the group
values & can be expelled if
• Playing with materials
like clay , paper & finger
• Children are most
creative when they are
• They carry their new
discoveries to the outside
world of play.
• Play provides the release of stress and
tension. Children express their emotions
and test out frightening situations in a
way that peers and adults can accept.
They reveal themselves through play.
• Nurses can carefully observe the play of
children & determine needs , concerns &
feelings that cannot be put in to words.
Children should be protected if they
become aggressive & should be guided
into less aggressive type of play
• Social & emotional
enhanced through play.
• When they play with
adults , parents and
peers they develop
• Mildred Parten (1902–after 1932) was an
American sociologist, a researcher at University of
Minnesota's Institute of Child Development.
• She completed her doctoral dissertation in 1929. She
developed the theory of SIX stages of child's play
• Parten was one of the first to conduct extensive studies
on children for the case of play.
• The child is not
playing or watching
anyone or anything
• They might stand or
sit and just do
• The child spends most
of their time
watching others play.
• They might look or
talk to the players,
but will not engage
in the actual play
• The child plays
• No connection or
made with anyone
• The child plays alone
but with toys that
are shared with
• The child plays
beside other children
might be limited or
none at all.
• The child plays with
• The play is not
may talk and share
toys but they are
• Children come
together and play.
• A group of children
with a common goal
or similar interests,
acting out adult
situations or playing
OTHER TYPES OF PLAY
THAT CONTRIBUTES TO A
• While these stages are important and
necessary for a child's social development,
there are other types of play that also
contribute to a child's maturity.
• These types of play usually develop as a child
begins to engage in cooperative play and
DRAMATIC / FANTASY PLAY
• Got a kid who loves to play dress up?
How about pretending to be an
“Artist" or “Lawyer?" That's dramatic,
or fantasy play.
• Through this type of play, not only
does your child's imagination get a
workout, but they learn how to take
turns, cooperate, share and work on
• Through role play, kids are also able to
learn about functioning in the greater
• Whether she's beating her brother
at raceway and Ladders or playing
on a local soccer team, your child is
engaging in competitive play.
• Rules and turn taking are the big
lessons taken from this type of play,
but so are taking turns and
functioning as part of a team (if
that is the type of play involved).
• This can be a very fun type of play
if your child wins, but be prepared
to talk your child through it if she
• This type of play is less about
being social (although it certainly
involves that) and more about
being physical. Gross and fine
motor skills really come into play
here, whether your child
is throwing a ball or riding a bike.
• Physical play is important because
it encourages kids to be active,
something they are likely to do as
they get older.
• Building with blocks. Making a road
for some toy cars. Constructing a fort
out of couch pillows. All forms of
• Constructive play teaches kids about
manipulation, building and fitting
things together. Cognitive skills are
important here too as a child learns
to figure out how to make
something work best, whether it is a
block tower that won't stand up or a
sand castle that keeps collapsing.
• It is a type of play
on events in health
care settings such as
PLAY IN ILLNESS
• PLAY THERAPY – it is a form of psychotherapy since 1900.
Play therapy is generally employed with children aged 3
through 11 and provides a way for them to express their
experiences and feelings through a natural, self-guided, self-
healing process. As children’s experiences and knowledge
are often communicated through play, it becomes an
important vehicle for them to know and accept themselves
• THERAPEUTIC PLAY – It is the use of play specially as a
language for sick children to communicate their thoughts
CHARACTERISTICS OF MEDICAL
1. Part of its content medically themed and / or it includes the use of
2. Play may be offered or initiated by an adult/parent, but is voluntarily
maintained by the child.
3. Medical play is usually enjoyable for the child and is accompanied by
laughter and relaxation. However, the process of play can be intense
4. Medical play and preparation are not the same. They are not
interchangeable. When an adult attempts to prepare a child for a
medical event by demonstrating a procedure or familiarizing a
child with equipment, education may occur, but not necessarily play.
Play may follow familiarization if play opportunities are made
PURPOSE OF MEDICAL PLAY
• Provides diversion and brings interaction
• Helps to feel more secure in strange environment
• Lessens stress of a sick child
• Release of tension and expression of feeling
• Encourage interaction and development of positive
• An expressive outlet for creative ideas
• Means for accomplishing therapeutic goal
• Provide the child an active role
ROLE REHEARSAL / ROLE
• This is the most traditional medical play.
Children take on the roles of health care
professionals, acting out medical
procedures and events on dolls, puppets,
stuffed animals or other people (children
• Real medical materials and equipment
is used, as well as specially made toys
created for medical play, such as toy
doctor kits, a patient puppet, a doll
sized MRI or hospital bed. Children often
use this type of medical play to re-enact
events they have experienced.
• This also involves role playing
medical themes. However,
traditional play materials, blocks,
doll houses, cars, trucks and
stuffed animals are used to
create roles and stories for
medical play, instead of actual
• In medical fantasy play, children
avoid contact with feared
objects, but can still play out
topics of concern.
MEDICAL FANTASY PLAY
• Hospital themed activities
such as puzzles, games and
and education relating to
• This type of play also uses
medical materials in non-
traditional ways, such as
using syringes to squirt
water, and using IV tubing
as drinking straws.
INDIRECT MEDICAL PLAY
Indirect Medical Play
• This offers many different ways for a
child to express themselves, their
understanding of and reactions to their
medical experience. Art activities can
vary greatly, including painting,
drawing, collage and 3D sculptures.
• Basic art materials are appropriate:
paint, paper, markers and glue offer a
wide range of choices. Including some
medical materials, such as band aids,
plasters, gauze and tongue depressors
can enhance the medical theme.
MEDICAL ARTS PLAY
• The word “Toy” comes from an old English term that
• Toys are TOOLS for a child.
• With these tools, children are allowed to use their
senses, fine and gross motor skills, and their
• Cognitive and social skills are also increased as a child
plays with toys.
• Toys are valuable TEACHING tools.
TYPES of TOYS
• Soft & Cuddling Toys
– Dolls, stuffed animals, etc.
• Manipulation/Small Motor Skill Toys
– Blocks, puzzles, snap, gears, games, etc.
• Large Motor Skill Toys
– Tricycles/bikes, balls, jump ropes, scooters, etc.
• Dramatic Play
– Dress-up clothes, furniture and accessories, etc.
SELECTION OF TOYS
• Make sure the toy is DAP
Toys for age-appropriate development of the child
• SIZE of toy and pieces
• Larger than the child’s two fists
• No SHARP edges or points
• Broken toys should be fixed or thrown away
• NON-TOXIC materials
• Avoid all painted toys for babies & toddlers
• DURABLE, WASHABLE and CLEAN
• Toy’s that won’t break easily
• Toys that can be cleaned easily
• TEACH a Skill or Concept
– Aide in one of the 5 areas of Child Development
• Regularly check toys for damage that may have
created sharp edges or loose small parts. Damaged or
dangerous toys should be repaired or thrown away
• Keep toys intended for older children away from
younger children – such toys may injure younger
• Store toys safely. Teach children to put toys away so
they are not tripping hazards.
• Safe toys for young children are:
– well-made (with no shared parts or splinters
and do not pinch)
– painted with nontoxic, lead-free paint
– easily cleaned
TOYS FOR DIFFERENT
AGE TOYS GENERAL
INFANCY SOFT STUFFED
BALLS, BATH TOYS,
•BABY LIKES TO HUG TOYS
•IT SHOULD BE BRIGHT COLOURED
•IT SHOULD BE LARGE AND HAVE
AGE TOYS GENERAL
TODDLER POTS AND
PULL TOYS, DOLLS
ROCKING HORSE OR
•THEY WILL HAVE A
•THEY LIKE TO PLACE
TAKE THEM OUT
•THEY MAY INJUR
OTHERS WITH TOYS
SO IT SHOULD BE
TOYS FOR DIFFERENT
AGE TOYS GENERAL
LARGE BRUSH, FINGER
PAINT, DOLLS, DISHES,
HORNS, DRUMS, SIMPLE
•THEY ENJOY PARALLEL AND
•THEY WILL EXCHANGE IDEAS
•THEY WILL ENGAGE IN
ACTIVITIES , INITIATIVE,
•INTERESTED IN CREATIVE AND
TOYS FOR DIFFERENT
AGE TOYS GENERAL
SCHOOLER DOLLS,DOLL HOUSE,
HANDI CRAFTS, TABLE
GAMES, JUMP ROPE,
BICYCLE, DRESS UP
•PLAY IS MORE
•INTERESTED IN HOBBIES
TOYS FOR DIFFERENT
AGE TOYS GENERAL
ADOLOSCENT BALLS. TELEPHONE,
RADIOS, EASY PUZZLES,
•REQUIRES A GREAT
•PAY ATTENTION TO
TOYS FOR DIFFERENT
THE MOST IMPORTANT THINGS
THAT PARENTS CAN PROVIDE ARE:
• Caring Adults
Ways to support play:
PROVIDE OPEN-ENDED PLAY TIME
• Allow your child the time that he/she needs to explore,
discover and control the environment. They need long,
uninterrupted periods for spontaneous free play. The
period should be at least 45 minutes to one hour
• Parents can involve themselves in play but should mentor
of coach rather than interfere
• Children should be the prime architects of play
• Create a playful atmosphere. It is important for the adults
to provide materials which children can explore and
adapt in play and to reach their full potential.