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  1. 1.  Is defined as the effect of uncertainty on objectives (whether positive or negative)
  2. 2.  The identification, assessment , and prioritization of risks followed by coordinated and economical application of resources to minimize, monitor, and control the probability and/or impact of unfortunate events or to maximize the realization of opportunities.
  3. 3.  Whenever people are brought together (e.g. parties, inaugurations, occasions, or celebrations), there is an element of risk  Causes of Event’s Risk 1. Event’s Guest Behavior and Thinking 2. Alcohol and Events 3. Emergencies 4. Crowd Control 5. Critical Issues for Events Safety
  4. 4. ALLOCENTRIC EVENT GUEST BEHAVIOR PSYCHOCENTRIC EVENT GUEST BEHAVIOR Wants excitement, will tend to ignore security personnel’s warnings Wants fun without danger, maybe overly cautious Free with money Is frugal with money, may worry about being overcharged Bores easily, will not complain to security until after an accident has happened Tends to complain about everything from people watching him or her to atmospheric conditions Person will climb onto stage and seek crowds Person wants to enjoy show and avoid crowds Troublemaker-wants to challenge Does not want to stir the pot or make trouble Single Family oriented ALLOCENTRIC  the tendency to accept risk while travelling or attending an event. PSYCHOCENTRIC  the tendency to avoid risk at all cost while travelling or attending an event
  5. 5.  Event organizers and planners accept the use of alcohol at special events.  Nevertheless, alcohol consumption can be a major risk to the success of an event and to the lives of those attending the event and those with whom the event’s participants may come in contact
  6. 6. ILLEGAL DRUGS ALCOHOL Always Illegal Not Illegal for people over age 21 High Probability of a Jail Sentence Probability of a Jail Sentence greatly reduced and only for specific reasons such as ―Drinking and Driving‖. Socially unacceptable in most circles Socially acceptable in most circles Many people believe that its usage produces unexpected outcome Many people believe that they can use the alcohol in moderation w/o major consequences. Unacceptable to all major religions Many religions do not reject use of alcohol if kept in moderation Does not prove ―Maturity‖ Often seen as a sign of adulthood or sophistication Is a danger to people on the road. Is a danger to people on the road.
  7. 7.  Among these concerns are the following: 1. Driving while intoxicated 2. Date rape and ―Rape Drugs‖ dropped into drinks 3. Mixing of alcohol and drugs 4. Tendency to brawl or fight after drinking 5. Illegal Hazing 6. Sexual Harassment 7. Physical Sexual Abuse
  8. 8. Uninvited comments / jokes about a gender trait Unwanted Whistling
  9. 9. Sexual statements about another person’s private sex life Sexually suggestive sounds
  10. 10. Requests or demands for sexual favors, especially if accompanied by overt or covert threats to the person
  11. 11.  Obscene gestures  Example: ―Dirty Finger Sign‖
  12. 12.  Staring at another person’s private parts  Example: ―Staring at a woman’s breast‖ or other private parts
  13. 13.  Inappropriate touching, pinching, or patting  Acts of Lasciviousness
  14. 14.  Moves to coerce sexual relations  Example: ―Masturbation‖ and ―Rape‖
  15. 15.  Assault or Attack
  16. 16.  Conduct the event at a location where there are people trained to serve alcohol. Use only trained and certified bartenders and servers of alcohol. Display their certification on the top of the bar.  Understand and Implement effective crowd control.  Make sure that monitoring is in place so that underage people are not involved.  Do not have an open bar. Open bars encourage drinking; cash bars allow for greater control and often limit a person’s ability to consume more than he or she should.  Price the alcoholic drinks expensively so that guest drink less.  Make certain there are designated drivers at the event.  Maintain a list of who is and who is not 21 years of age.
  17. 17.  Crowds can turn from peaceful assemblies to riotous mobs.  Which is why understanding different types of crowd, crowd situations and crowd control system is indeed important to events management to avoid future crowd problems.
  18. 18.  Elias Canetti an event risk manager presents a sophisticated view of crowds, dividing the crowd into such groupings 1. The Invisible Crowd 2. The Bating Crowd 3. The Fleeing Crowd 4. The Prohibition Crowd 5. The Reversal Crowd 6. The Feast Crowd
  19. 19.  The crowd that forms to represent a dead person and soon turns into a riot
  20. 20.  The crowd that forms for a specific goal, which is clearly marked and easily obtainable.  Example: The ―Black Nazarene Feast‖ at Quiapo Manila, Philippines
  21. 21.  The crowd that perceives a threat and flees from it, often in panic.  Risk managers should seek to avoid this type of crowd at all cost.  Example: ―Jail-outbreak‖ and ―Fraternity / Gang Wars‖
  22. 22.  The crowd that refuses to do what is asked, instead obeying a self- proposed prohibition.  Example: ―Rally and Protest‖
  23. 23.  The crowd that seeks to overturn the political status quo.  These crowds are defenseless but, due to their numbers, they gain strength and often gain control.  Example: ―The Edsa People Power I, II, and III‖ in the Philippines
  24. 24.  These are people, who only wanted to celebrate.  They have no purpose other than to have a good time and entertainment  Example: ―Attendees of Feast and Parties‖.
  25. 25.  Crowd control is the controlling of a crowd, to prevent the outbreak of disorder and prevention of possible riot.
  26. 26. Crowd control barriers act as a physical and psychological barrier, used to demarcate "no access" zones, and to designate space for lines. They are also used by riot police to control large gatherings, and stop them from escalating out of control.
  27. 27. An upright bar, beam, or post used as a support to control the crowd to enter the venue or facilities.
  28. 28. A structure set up across a route of access to obstruct the passage of an enemy.
  29. 29. A temporary barrier made of stainless steel and net to control crowd entry.
  30. 30. Industrial clearance bar can withstand multiple hits and reduces maintenance. Available in fixed or swinging, this product is flexible to many applications
  31. 31. Decorative Bollard Covers are an inexpensive alternative to cast iron and concrete bollards.
  32. 32.  Serious physical situation, often acute illness or injury involved, needing medical assistance immediately, and may result in a serious disfigurement without immediate care.  Serious mental situation, where without certain medical assistance, can result in this patient's or a third person's injury or danger in life.
  33. 33.  Man-made Cause – Emergency situations caused by man itself.  Natural Calamity Cause – Emergency situations caused by natural catastrophe
  34. 34.  While there is a minimal probability that most event participants may be confronted with an act of terrorism, almost every attendee will have to deal with different issues such as: 1. Pedestrian Safety 2. Bites and Stings 3. Drinking Water Quality 4. Lighting 5. Parking Lot Safety 6. Electrical Storms and Lightning 7. Electrical and Gas Safety
  35. 35. • Food safety is one of the critical issues in events. • Risk is high because of food poisoning which may lead to death.
  36. 36.  Event risk managers should train cooks and servers for events using the following guidelines  Allow the people to return the food  Make certain that hot dishes are served hot and cold dishes are served cold.  Make certain that all food is cooked to the proper temperature.  Make certain that utensils, tool and equipment are carefully washed and sanitized between food preparations.  Make certain that all food handlers applied personal hygiene and sanitation before cooking.  Make certain that the ingredients are of high quality and passed the product specification and control
  37. 37.  Closely aligned with issues of food safety is drinking water safety.  Water makes up over 70% of our bodies’ and it regulates almost every part of our system matter, we begin to understand just how important it is.
  38. 38.  Event risk managers need carefully to examine such issues as: The quality of drinking water, including the ice used in drinks. The quality of water used in preparing food and cleaning utensils. The quality of water used for bathing / showering. The quality of water used for leisure, such as; swimming. Make certain about the sources of water and its purity.
  39. 39. Proper lighting is important and should take in to consideration. It may cause risk that may lead to accident not only by the attendees but also the staff on that event
  40. 40. Event risk manager should also consider:  Working with an expert in crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED) that can advise the risk manager on where extra lighting is needed, where shadows present a risk, and the proper landscape and distance.  Mapping the event site. The risk manager should e aware of holes, danger points, and places where can easily fall.  Ensuring that the parking lots and paths leading to parking lots are well lit.  Inspecting light bulbs on a regular basis. Light bulbs burnout easily.  Having a back up plan incase there is a blackout. People may scattered all over the events grounds or buildings.
  41. 41.  Electrical Safety should always be a major concern to risk managers. Electricity is a very powerful form of energy that should always be used with great deal of caution.  Event risk manager should know the people on the electrical staff well
  42. 42.  Electrical Safety Checklist. Make sure that all electrical appliance manuals are read and kept in a place where they can be found if needed. Make certain that all light bulbs are the correct wattage. Make certain that all fuses are the right size for circuits. Check electrical outlets on a regular basis. Maintain electrical cords in good working condition and do not over load them. Make certain that all appliances are unplugged when not in use.
  43. 43. Gas is available in many forms, it can be gas (propane) which is dangerous for it can create fire or an explosion.
  44. 44.  Events risk managers cannot be experts on every form of gas heaters. Yet, then can make sure that the owners can prove that the premises have had a gas safety inspection. Familiarize all personnel handling any compressed gases with proper procedures. Provide proper instruction and training for all personnel. Make sure that you have the proper gas detection apparatus. Make certain that you are thoroughly familiar with all emergency procedures and devices. Make sure that you have an evacuation plan in case of accident or fire.
  45. 45. An area that unites security and safety issues is the parking lot. Both indoor and outdoor lots presents safety and security hazards and risks
  46. 46.  Parking lots are dangerous for the following reasons: People tend to drive in the parking lot as if there were no rules. Pedestrian assume that parking lots are safe and that drivers will see them. Event-goers often forget where their cars are parked and some people have tendency to panic when their car cannot be found. Sudden storms can create danger for people who have parked outdoor lots. Poorly lit and inadequate space can be high security risk especially at night and odd hours. Children can run-off while parents are loading cars and easily be injured.
  47. 47. Pedestrian safety is a major problem and requires careful attention. People (attendees) walking on a wrong path or trail usually facing a risk that may lead to accident or even worse is death.
  48. 48.  When it comes to pedestrian safety issues, people at events may: 1. Be in a party and thus distracted while walking 2. Walk in groups and tend to talk while walking. 3. Consume alcohol and thus their facilities may be impaired. 4. Need special help while crossing the street or dealing with internal pathways. 5. Stay in multiple hotels, may suffer from issues of anomie, and may not be familiar with local signage, pedestrian laws, and driver responsibilities or lack or responsibilities.
  49. 49.  When possible, have people walk on sidewalks. Risk manager may want to create walking paths along the side of the road. Make sure that pedestrians walk facing traffic, so they can see on-coming vehicles or an out-of-control vehicle.  Encourage bright colored clothing. Bright colors are easier to spot during day and night. Do not also permit the participants to walk with headphones as they can mask the sound of an oncoming vehicle.  Review where people cross the street, if possible have crossing guards and crossing lights to avoid accidents.  Discourage running at street crossings. Running can lead to falling or pushing another person over which may cause accidents.  Have a plan for a visually and hearing impaired people to cross the streets and walk and walk along path roads. Be careful with uneven grounds.  Develop adjacent walking paths so that bicycle and pedestrian traffic do not interact.  Use universal signage
  50. 50.  Another safety issue that is often overlooked and yet can have serious consequences, especially for an outdoor event are insect and snake bites and sting.  Bites and Sting can be so painful and can cause allergic reactions, outdoor events such as concerts and sports events must take into account fire ants as part or good rick management plan.  When mitigating insects, you should consider the ff: 1. The local Conditions 2. The Weather or Climate 3. The type of people who are attending 4. The type of Ground Covering 5. The types of pesticides that can or cannot be used
  51. 51. For the Event risk manager you should do the following in case of snake bite: Know the first aid to snake bite Know the best route to a local trauma hospital. Know how to deal with traffic snarl. Know how to quickly contact a snake bite specialist. Conduct a review of the event venue with snake bite experts.
  52. 52.  umber=44651  ^ G. Bankoff, G. Frerks, D. Hilhorst (eds.) (2003). Mapping Vulnerability: Disasters, Development and People. ISBN ISBN 1-85383-964-7  ^B. Wisner, P. Blaikie, T. Cannon, and I. Davis (2004). At Risk - Natural hazards, people's vulnerability and disasters. Wiltshire: Routledge. ISBN ISBN 0-415-25216-4.  ^ abDouglas Hubbard "The Failure of Risk Management: Why It's Broken and How to Fix It" pg. 46, John Wiley & Sons, 2009  ^ aISO/IEC Guide 73:2009 (2009). Risk management — Vocabulary. International Organization for Standardization. umber=44651.  ^ a ISO/DIS 31000 (2009). Risk management — Principles and guidelines on implementation. International Organization for Standardization. r=43170