Is defined as the effect
of uncertainty on
positive or negative)
, and prioritization of
risks followed by
economical application of
minimize, monitor, and
control the probability
and/or impact of
unfortunate events or to
maximize the realization
Whenever people are brought together (e.g.
parties, inaugurations, occasions, or celebrations), there is
an element of risk
Causes of Event’s Risk
1. Event’s Guest Behavior and Thinking
2. Alcohol and Events
4. Crowd Control
5. Critical Issues for Events Safety
ALLOCENTRIC EVENT GUEST BEHAVIOR PSYCHOCENTRIC EVENT GUEST BEHAVIOR
Wants excitement, will tend to ignore security
Wants fun without danger, maybe overly cautious
Free with money Is frugal with money, may worry about being
Bores easily, will not complain to security until after
an accident has happened
Tends to complain about everything from people
watching him or her to atmospheric conditions
Person will climb onto stage and seek crowds Person wants to enjoy show and avoid crowds
Troublemaker-wants to challenge Does not want to stir the pot or make trouble
Single Family oriented
the tendency to accept risk while
travelling or attending an event.
the tendency to avoid risk at all cost
while travelling or attending an event
Event organizers and
planners accept the use of
alcohol at special events.
consumption can be a
major risk to the success of
an event and to the lives of
those attending the event
and those with whom the
event’s participants may
come in contact
ILLEGAL DRUGS ALCOHOL
Always Illegal Not Illegal for people over age 21
High Probability of a Jail Sentence Probability of a Jail Sentence greatly reduced
and only for specific reasons such as ―Drinking
Socially unacceptable in most circles Socially acceptable in most circles
Many people believe that its usage produces
Many people believe that they can use the
alcohol in moderation w/o major
Unacceptable to all major religions Many religions do not reject use of alcohol if
kept in moderation
Does not prove ―Maturity‖ Often seen as a sign of adulthood or
Is a danger to people on the road. Is a danger to people on the road.
Among these concerns are the following:
1. Driving while intoxicated
2. Date rape and ―Rape Drugs‖ dropped into drinks
3. Mixing of alcohol and drugs
4. Tendency to brawl or fight after drinking
5. Illegal Hazing
6. Sexual Harassment
7. Physical Sexual Abuse
Uninvited comments / jokes about a
Sexual statements about another
person’s private sex life
Sexually suggestive sounds
Requests or demands
favors, especially if
overt or covert
threats to the person
Conduct the event at a location where there are people trained to
serve alcohol. Use only trained and certified bartenders and servers
of alcohol. Display their certification on the top of the bar.
Understand and Implement effective crowd control.
Make sure that monitoring is in place so that underage people are
Do not have an open bar. Open bars encourage drinking; cash bars
allow for greater control and often limit a person’s ability to
consume more than he or she should.
Price the alcoholic drinks expensively so that guest drink less.
Make certain there are designated drivers at the event.
Maintain a list of who is and who is not 21 years of age.
Crowds can turn from
peaceful assemblies to
Which is why understanding
different types of
crowd, crowd situations and
crowd control system is
indeed important to events
management to avoid future
Elias Canetti an event risk manager presents a sophisticated
view of crowds, dividing the crowd into such groupings
1. The Invisible Crowd
2. The Bating Crowd
3. The Fleeing Crowd
4. The Prohibition Crowd
5. The Reversal Crowd
6. The Feast Crowd
The crowd that forms
to represent a dead
person and soon
turns into a riot
The crowd that forms
for a specific
goal, which is clearly
marked and easily
The ―Black Nazarene
Feast‖ at Quiapo
The crowd that perceives
a threat and flees from
it, often in panic.
Risk managers should
seek to avoid this type of
crowd at all cost.
―Fraternity / Gang Wars‖
The crowd that refuses
to do what is
obeying a self-
―Rally and Protest‖
The crowd that seeks to
overturn the political
These crowds are
defenseless but, due to
their numbers, they gain
strength and often gain
―The Edsa People Power
I, II, and III‖ in the
These are people, who
only wanted to celebrate.
They have no purpose other
than to have a good time
Example: ―Attendees of Feast
Crowd control is the
controlling of a crowd, to
prevent the outbreak of
disorder and prevention of
Crowd control barriers
act as a physical and
barrier, used to
demarcate "no access"
zones, and to designate
space for lines.
They are also used by
riot police to control
large gatherings, and
stop them from
escalating out of control.
An upright bar,
beam, or post used as
a support to control
the crowd to enter
the venue or
A structure set up
across a route of
access to obstruct the
passage of an enemy.
A temporary barrier
made of stainless
steel and net to
control crowd entry.
bar can withstand
multiple hits and
Available in fixed or
swinging, this product
is flexible to many
Covers are an
alternative to cast
iron and concrete
Serious physical situation,
often acute illness or
injury involved, needing
immediately, and may
result in a serious
Serious mental situation,
where without certain
medical assistance, can
result in this patient's or a
third person's injury or
danger in life.
Man-made Cause – Emergency
situations caused by man itself.
Natural Calamity Cause – Emergency
situations caused by natural
While there is a minimal probability that most event
participants may be confronted with an act of terrorism, almost
every attendee will have to deal with different issues such as:
1. Pedestrian Safety
2. Bites and Stings
3. Drinking Water Quality
5. Parking Lot Safety
6. Electrical Storms and Lightning
7. Electrical and Gas Safety
• Food safety is one
of the critical issues
• Risk is high because
of food poisoning
which may lead to
Event risk managers should train cooks and servers for
events using the following guidelines
Allow the people to return the food
Make certain that hot dishes are served hot and cold dishes are
Make certain that all food is cooked to the proper temperature.
Make certain that utensils, tool and equipment are carefully
washed and sanitized between food preparations.
Make certain that all food handlers applied personal hygiene and
sanitation before cooking.
Make certain that the ingredients are of high quality and passed
the product specification and control
Closely aligned with
issues of food safety is
drinking water safety.
Water makes up over
70% of our bodies’ and
it regulates almost
every part of our system
matter, we begin to
understand just how
important it is.
Event risk managers need carefully to examine such
The quality of drinking water, including the ice used
The quality of water used in preparing food and
The quality of water used for bathing / showering.
The quality of water used for leisure, such as;
Make certain about the sources of water and its purity.
Proper lighting is
should take in to
It may cause risk
that may lead to
accident not only by
the attendees but
also the staff on that
Event risk manager should also consider:
Working with an expert in crime prevention through
environmental design (CPTED) that can advise the risk manager on
where extra lighting is needed, where shadows present a risk, and
the proper landscape and distance.
Mapping the event site. The risk manager should e aware of
holes, danger points, and places where can easily fall.
Ensuring that the parking lots and paths leading to parking lots
are well lit.
Inspecting light bulbs on a regular basis. Light bulbs burnout
Having a back up plan incase there is a blackout. People may
scattered all over the events grounds or buildings.
Electrical Safety should
always be a major
concern to risk
managers. Electricity is a
very powerful form of
energy that should
always be used with
great deal of caution.
Event risk manager
should know the people
on the electrical staff
Electrical Safety Checklist.
Make sure that all electrical appliance manuals are read
and kept in a place where they can be found if needed.
Make certain that all light bulbs are the correct wattage.
Make certain that all fuses are the right size for circuits.
Check electrical outlets on a regular basis.
Maintain electrical cords in good working condition and
do not over load them.
Make certain that all appliances are unplugged when not
Gas is available in
many forms, it can
be gas (propane)
which is dangerous
for it can create
fire or an
Events risk managers cannot be experts on every form of gas
heaters. Yet, then can make sure that the owners can prove
that the premises have had a gas safety inspection.
Familiarize all personnel handling any compressed gases
with proper procedures.
Provide proper instruction and training for all personnel.
Make sure that you have the proper gas detection
Make certain that you are thoroughly familiar with all
emergency procedures and devices.
Make sure that you have an evacuation plan in case of
accident or fire.
An area that unites
security and safety
issues is the parking
Both indoor and
outdoor lots presents
safety and security
hazards and risks
Parking lots are dangerous for the following reasons:
People tend to drive in the parking lot as if there were no
Pedestrian assume that parking lots are safe and that drivers
will see them.
Event-goers often forget where their cars are parked and
some people have tendency to panic when their car cannot
Sudden storms can create danger for people who have
parked outdoor lots.
Poorly lit and inadequate space can be high security risk
especially at night and odd hours.
Children can run-off while parents are loading cars and
easily be injured.
Pedestrian safety is a
major problem and
walking on a wrong
path or trail usually
facing a risk that may
lead to accident or
even worse is death.
When it comes to pedestrian safety issues, people at events may:
1. Be in a party and thus distracted while walking
2. Walk in groups and tend to talk while walking.
3. Consume alcohol and thus their facilities may be impaired.
4. Need special help while crossing the street or dealing with
5. Stay in multiple hotels, may suffer from issues of anomie, and
may not be familiar with local signage, pedestrian laws, and
driver responsibilities or lack or responsibilities.
When possible, have people walk on sidewalks. Risk manager may want to
create walking paths along the side of the road. Make sure that pedestrians
walk facing traffic, so they can see on-coming vehicles or an out-of-control
Encourage bright colored clothing. Bright colors are easier to spot during day
and night. Do not also permit the participants to walk with headphones as
they can mask the sound of an oncoming vehicle.
Review where people cross the street, if possible have crossing guards and
crossing lights to avoid accidents.
Discourage running at street crossings. Running can lead to falling or pushing
another person over which may cause accidents.
Have a plan for a visually and hearing impaired people to cross the streets and
walk and walk along path roads. Be careful with uneven grounds.
Develop adjacent walking paths so that bicycle and pedestrian traffic do not
Use universal signage
Another safety issue that is often overlooked and yet can have
serious consequences, especially for an outdoor event are insect
and snake bites and sting.
Bites and Sting can be so painful and can cause allergic
reactions, outdoor events such as concerts and sports events must
take into account fire ants as part or good rick management plan.
When mitigating insects, you should consider the ff:
1. The local Conditions
2. The Weather or Climate
3. The type of people who are attending
4. The type of Ground Covering
5. The types of pesticides that can or cannot be used
For the Event risk manager you should do the
following in case of snake bite:
Know the first aid to snake bite
Know the best route to a local trauma hospital.
Know how to deal with traffic snarl.
Know how to quickly contact a snake bite
Conduct a review of the event venue with snake
^ G. Bankoff, G. Frerks, D. Hilhorst (eds.) (2003). Mapping Vulnerability: Disasters,
Development and People. ISBN ISBN 1-85383-964-7
^B. Wisner, P. Blaikie, T. Cannon, and I. Davis (2004). At Risk - Natural hazards,
people's vulnerability and disasters. Wiltshire: Routledge. ISBN ISBN 0-415-25216-4.
^ abDouglas Hubbard "The Failure of Risk Management: Why It's Broken and How to
Fix It" pg. 46, John Wiley & Sons, 2009
^ aISO/IEC Guide 73:2009 (2009). Risk management — Vocabulary. International
Organization for Standardization.
^ a ISO/DIS 31000 (2009). Risk management — Principles and guidelines on
implementation. International Organization for Standardization.