TOURISM IS EVERYONE’S BUSINESS
• Everyone gains from properly managed tourism.
• These benefits can be especially significant in
regional areas by diversifying the area’s economic
base and expanding the employment market.
• In its broadest sense, the tourism industry is the
total of all businesses that directly provide goods
or services to facilitate business, pleasure and
leisure activities away from the home
• Consumers - In the tourism system the consumer is the
most important element as the consumer is the reason
tourism products and services exist. Everyone working in
tourism must ensure that the consumer is fundamental to
all business and planning decisions.
• The Travel Experience - relates to how the consumer
travels to the destination and the experience they have
along the way.
• The Holiday Experience - When consumers decide to
take a particular type of holiday they have expectations of
the experience they will have.
• Marketing - refers to a multi-faceted, on-going process
that any successful business is continually working
through to raise awareness of your product and generate
CONSUMER DECISION MAKING
• Needs – Going on a holiday allows people to take a
break from their normal life, whether it’s restful
idleness in scenic spots or extreme sports in
challenging terrain, on their own, with a partner or
friends, or in a large group.
• Awareness – Consumers may have a recognized or
unrecognized need for a holiday. Promoting a
holiday destination, product or service can help
consumers recognize they need a holiday, then
raise their awareness of the choices available.
• Motivation – If the consumer is positively aware of
a destination, product or service they are more
likely to be motivated to visit.
• Planning/Decision – Promotional information helps
the consumer decide how to get there, and what
they want to do.
• Satisfaction – If a product delivers what has been
promoted, the consumer is likely to be satisfied and
have a quality holiday experience, and vice versa.
• Word of Mouth – Consumers share their holiday
experiences with friends, family and colleagues.
Their word of mouth raises awareness of the
destination, products) and services) with potential
STEPS TO SUCCESS
• To be successful in today’s
highly competitive tourism
industry you must develop
skills in each of the following
• The market leaders in
tourism take the time
• Planning enables you
to determine your
vision for your
business, to anticipate
react quickly to
• Prepare a detailed
that includes all
areas of your
Before buying or starting a business,
and for each year you operate, you
• prepare a
plan that covers
the areas of
• monitor your
and adapt it as
required to meet
• Planning also involves
skills and identifying
who is best suited to
perform the different
tasks involved in
running your business.
• Don’t waste time and
energy (or lose
potential income) on
tasks that would be
• Research enables
you to understand
YOU NEED TO
HOW TO DETERMINE YOUR
– Who will be your customers?
– How will your customers hear about you?
– What will their needs be?
– Where will they come from?
– When will they come?
– Why will they come to your business?
– Why will (or won’t) they come back?
3. CUSTOMER SERVICE
• Customer service is a
key factor in achieving
• It can either make or
break your business.
• This is for the reason
that the entire business
strategies, sales and
profits will solely
depend on its impact
on the customers.
• To succeed, you must ensure your business
is recognized for its excellent customer
service. You will need to:
1. understand key customer service concepts
2. plan and implement a customer service
3. become a totally customer driven business
4. use qualified customer service trainers to
assist in developing your service skills
5. consider gaining accreditation in customer
service skills through industry training
4. FINDING YOUR
• Be a tourism
stands out from the
rest by finding the
that gives you the
edge over your
• Experienced operators continually seek to improve
their competitive edge.
• You can do this in two ways:
1. Differentiation – Making sure your product or
service is different from similar operations in
your area. Seek to add value. Be unique.
2. Value – It is not always a good idea to be the
cheapest as many customers buy on experience
and image. They are often prepared to pay more
for a better service or product. However, if you
can maintain service standards and be cost
competitive then your ‘competitive edge’ could
be the value for money your customers receive.
• The need for timely
performance is of
• Due to the highly competitive nature of the
tourism industry it is absolutely essential for
business survival that tourism operators have
excellent financial management systems in place.
You should ensure:
1. All financial and business plans are prepared
(or at least finalized) in consultation with your
2. Weekly and monthly monitoring as well as
detailed quarterly reviews are completed.
3. Yearly business review
4. You balance your debt and equity ratio
5. You closely monitor your cash flow.
6. UNDERSTAND THE TOURISM’S
SEASONS HIGHS AND LOWS
• The high and low seasons experienced by the
tourism industry are a result of many factors.
Tourism operators must understand the flow of their
• You must be ready to cope with the demands of the
high season and have conservative strategies in place
for the low season. Again, this comes back to careful
planning and understanding of your tourism
• Some operators choose to value-add during off-peak
seasons (e.g. developing packages for slow months)
while others accept seasonality as an industry reality
and develop other activities (e.g. maintenance,
promotion or business planning).
PEAK SEASONS INCLUDE
2. New Year
3. Vacation and
• Special Occasions
2. Concerts and
LEAN SEASONS INCLUDE
• Terrorist Attack
• Bomb Scare /
• Poor Economy
• Due to climate
• Networking is
meeting and greeting
industry partners and
keeping a finger on
• It involves attending
and events, seminars,
• Networking is about talking to people and
learning more about the environment your
business operates within, eg your local
area, region, market segment, industry
• Successful tourism operators know the
benefits of networking far exceed just
working with others to achieve common
goals or greater bargaining power.
Networking ensures a tourism business is
market led. In the tourism industry you
have to be prepared to network
• To be successful in the
marketplace, a product
must be priced accurately
and competitively for the
markets you are
• This requires a clear
understanding of the
individual costs of all
product components and
their impact on total
9. DISTRIBUTION AND
• Tourism is a product that
people buy. Tourism is also
a product that can be
offered in a worldwide
market. Tourism operators
can be confused as to
where their product best
fits into the tourism
• With the assistance of the
detailed in this guide you
will develop knowledge of
how and where your
tourism product could be
• The highly competitive nature of the tourism
industry demands that tourism operators have
excellent marketing skills.
• Most tourism operators work with three distinct
2. trade e.g. travel agents, wholesalers,
government tourism agencies and
3. other industry and sector associations or
professionals, e.g. similar tourism
operators, media, public relations and
tourism consultants, industry suppliers, etc.
As a tourism operator you must ensure that you:
• Know your market (s) by understanding and analyzing all
available research data
• Develop a marketing plan that is achievable and includes:
– Details of your product, especially ‘brand’ differentiation.
– Your key selling points.
– Your promotional mix – advertising, public relations and
other promotional activities.
– Your distribution channels – wholesalers ,other operators,
direct mail, Internet, consumer shows etc.
– A competitive pricing policy developed to consider costs
of production, distribution and commission. Are you
seeking a competitive pricing policy or quality product
– Regular analysis and monitoring of marketing activities.
10. PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT
• Through the on-going
research of your business
you will be able to determine
which of your products and
services are the most
successful as well as
understand various market
trends as your customers’
• Over a period of time even
the best products can
become stale and may need
to be updated.
• Observe, consult and research your consumers,
colleagues and industry professionals to
determine the best way to develop your product
to maintain and increase your customer base.
• You may decide to modify your existing product
range to maintain or increase market share (e.g.
refurbish your accommodation). You may add to
your existing range through new products (e.g.
add another style of accommodation to attract a
different market sector). Or you may delete
products from your range if they are not meeting
your targets or objectives
• Training is an essential
component of the tourism
and hospitality industry.
• There are a number of quality
including universities, and
private providers offering a
variety of tourism, hospitality
and management courses.
• In some instances training is
a legal requirement (eg
responsible service of alcohol,
It is vital that you:
1. Understand the training requirements for your
2. Implement a staff training program;
3. Allocate resources specifically for training;
4. Attend industry seminars and other learning
5. Nurture a training environment within your
tourism business; and
6. Ensure you gain all the qualifications you require
for your type of tourism business.
• The tourism industry relies
on a range of technological
systems including the
Internet, banking and credit
accommodation booking and
• There are programs available
to assist you in developing
business proposals, manage
your finances and monitor
• It is best to seek professional
advice on what are the best
technological solutions for
your tourism business.
Make sure you contact the organizations and
professionals that are mentioned throughout
this guide. They can assist you to:
• develop your tourism business concept or product
• determine if your business is viable
• develop your business plan
• ensure you are financially able to operate your
• establish valuable contacts in your local area for on-
• establish and maintain good working relationships to
• ensure the future of your business.