R O MA N  R E P U B L I C  &  E M P I R E<br />5.3: ROME UNITES <br />A VAST EMPIRE<br />
Augustus Caesar<br />
CHAP 3: ROME UNITES A VAST EMPIRE<br /><ul><li>Octavian becomes emperor
Triumph over Marc Antony ended a century of political murder and civil war
All over the Mediterranean, people hoped for peace and an orderly government
Rome needed a strong ruler to unify them, the people realized that the Republican system no longer worked.</li></li></ul><...
27 BC, the Senate grants Octavian a new name--Augustus Caesar—August meaning “honored, majestic” and Caesar an honorary ti...
CHAP 2: THE REPUBLIC COMES TO AN END<br /><ul><li>Augustus restores order by:</li></ul>Giving benefits to old, retired or ...
CHAP 2: THE REPUBLIC COMES TO AN END<br /><ul><li>Augustus restores order by:</li></ul>Incentives to those who marry and r...
CHAP 2: THE REPUBLIC COMES TO AN END<br /><ul><li>The PaxRomana
means “the Roman Peace”
period in Roman history known for peace, stability & a just and orderly government.
lasted for 200 years, from 27 BC – 180 AD
Augustus died in 14 AD</li></li></ul><li>CHAP 2: THE REPUBLIC COMES TO AN END<br /><ul><li>Augustus’ successors
the Empire had no law of succession, most rulers just pick their heirs from members of their family
1st 4 emperors after Augustus were related to him or to his second wife Livia—Julio-Claudian dynasty.  All 4 lacked Aug’s ...
<ul><li>Augustus’ successors </li></ul>Caligula – Tiberius’ stepson (AD 37-41), assassinated by the Praetorian Guard due t...
Tiberius Claudius Nero Tiberius Julius Caesar Tiberius Julius Caesar Augustus<br />Gaius Julius Caesar GermanicusGaius Jul...
Tiberius Claudius DrususTiberius Claudius Nero GermanicusTiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus<br />LuciusDomitiusA...
CHAP 2: THE REPUBLIC COMES TO AN END<br /><ul><li>Military leaders become emperors</li></ul>After Nero’s death, lawlessnes...
<ul><li>The “Good Emperors” bring stable rule</li></ul>Titus – son of Vespasian, went to war against rebels of Judaea.  Ca...
CHAP 2: THE REPUBLIC COMES TO AN END<br /><ul><li>The “Good Emperors” bring stable rule</li></ul>Trajan – (AD 98-117) Nerv...
<ul><li>The PaxRomana Ends
Marcus Aurelius – last of the emperors chosen by the adoptive system; scholarly man who followed Stoic principle of life
Commodus – son of M.A. and heir, he was not a fit ruler and his succession to the throne ended PaxRomana
Feats of engineering – Colosseum, Pantheon, arch, Basilica, aqueduct, Appian Way, Forum/plaza</li></li></ul><li>
CHAP 4: ROMAN SOCIETY CHANGES<br /><ul><li>Roman cities are centers of culture – urbane and cosmopolitan connected to othe...
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Rome unites a vast empire

  1. 1. R O MA N R E P U B L I C & E M P I R E<br />5.3: ROME UNITES <br />A VAST EMPIRE<br />
  2. 2. Augustus Caesar<br />
  3. 3. CHAP 3: ROME UNITES A VAST EMPIRE<br /><ul><li>Octavian becomes emperor
  4. 4. Triumph over Marc Antony ended a century of political murder and civil war
  5. 5. All over the Mediterranean, people hoped for peace and an orderly government
  6. 6. Rome needed a strong ruler to unify them, the people realized that the Republican system no longer worked.</li></li></ul><li>CHAP 2: THE REPUBLIC COMES TO AN END<br /><ul><li>Octavian won the support of the Senate by allowing it to keep its powers and encouraging the senate to give him advice, some powers over the provinces and its own treasury
  7. 7. 27 BC, the Senate grants Octavian a new name--Augustus Caesar—August meaning “honored, majestic” and Caesar an honorary title w/c was became title of honor in other countries; kaiser (Germany) and czar (Russia)</li></li></ul><li>CHAP 2: THE REPUBLIC COMES TO AN END<br /><ul><li>Augustus restores order by:</li></ul>Dismantled private armies of the generals and took control of the army<br />Improved gov’t in the provinces by making governors accountable and the Senate to oversee the provinces that might cause trouble<br />Granted citizenship to outsiders earning their loyalty<br />
  8. 8. CHAP 2: THE REPUBLIC COMES TO AN END<br /><ul><li>Augustus restores order by:</li></ul>Giving benefits to old, retired or former soldiers & their families<br />Restored—tried—to restore the qualities that made the Roman people great: devotion to Roman state, close family ties, hard work, simple living, discipline.<br />Infrastructure projects<br />
  9. 9. CHAP 2: THE REPUBLIC COMES TO AN END<br /><ul><li>Augustus restores order by:</li></ul>Incentives to those who marry and raise families<br />Free or low-cost grain to the poor to alleviate hunger for the poor & unemployed<br />
  10. 10. CHAP 2: THE REPUBLIC COMES TO AN END<br /><ul><li>The PaxRomana
  11. 11. means “the Roman Peace”
  12. 12. period in Roman history known for peace, stability & a just and orderly government.
  13. 13. lasted for 200 years, from 27 BC – 180 AD
  14. 14. Augustus died in 14 AD</li></li></ul><li>CHAP 2: THE REPUBLIC COMES TO AN END<br /><ul><li>Augustus’ successors
  15. 15. the Empire had no law of succession, most rulers just pick their heirs from members of their family
  16. 16. 1st 4 emperors after Augustus were related to him or to his second wife Livia—Julio-Claudian dynasty. All 4 lacked Aug’s statesman skills</li></ul>Tiberius – Augustus’ stepson (AD 14-37), during his reign plot & violence again became the norm<br />
  17. 17. <ul><li>Augustus’ successors </li></ul>Caligula – Tiberius’ stepson (AD 37-41), assassinated by the Praetorian Guard due to maniacal and perverted behavior<br />Claudius– Caligula’s uncle, last adult male in the family, made Emperor at the insistence of the Praetorian Guard (AD 41-54)<br />Nero– Claudius’ stepson (AD 54-68) noted for his tyranny and extravagance. Said to have “fiddled while Rome burned” in AD 64. Blamed fire on the Christians and began to persecute them. Committed suicide 4 years later after the army rebelled<br />
  18. 18. Tiberius Claudius Nero Tiberius Julius Caesar Tiberius Julius Caesar Augustus<br />Gaius Julius Caesar GermanicusGaius Julius Caesar Augustus Germanicus<br />
  19. 19. Tiberius Claudius DrususTiberius Claudius Nero GermanicusTiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus<br />LuciusDomitiusAhenobarbusNero Claudius Caesar Drusus GermanicusNero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus<br />
  20. 20.
  21. 21. CHAP 2: THE REPUBLIC COMES TO AN END<br /><ul><li>Military leaders become emperors</li></ul>After Nero’s death, lawlessness shook Rome and military officers competed for the throne. After 3 more dead emperors—2 by execution, 1 by suicide—Vespasian took the throne (AD 69-79)<br />Restored discipline in the army and the administration of the Empire.<br />
  22. 22. <ul><li>The “Good Emperors” bring stable rule</li></ul>Titus – son of Vespasian, went to war against rebels of Judaea. Captured Jerusalem and burned the Temple<br />Domitian – brother of Titus, assassinated in AD 96<br />Nerva – a respected senator, introduced the “adopt-a-son-and-make-him-heir” policy and named a successor that had a proven ability to lead. This practice was later adapted by future rulers to avoid conflict, succession of competent rulers and power vacuums<br />
  23. 23. CHAP 2: THE REPUBLIC COMES TO AN END<br /><ul><li>The “Good Emperors” bring stable rule</li></ul>Trajan – (AD 98-117) Nerva’s adopted son, Spanish born governor of the northern region of Italy.<br />Hadrian – (AD 117-138) devoted reign to making Empire more secure instead of adding more provinces. Built Hadrian’s Wall, a defensive barrier on the frontlines of Britain.<br />
  24. 24.
  25. 25. <ul><li>The PaxRomana Ends
  26. 26. Marcus Aurelius – last of the emperors chosen by the adoptive system; scholarly man who followed Stoic principle of life
  27. 27. Commodus – son of M.A. and heir, he was not a fit ruler and his succession to the throne ended PaxRomana
  28. 28. Feats of engineering – Colosseum, Pantheon, arch, Basilica, aqueduct, Appian Way, Forum/plaza</li></li></ul><li>
  29. 29.
  30. 30. CHAP 4: ROMAN SOCIETY CHANGES<br /><ul><li>Roman cities are centers of culture – urbane and cosmopolitan connected to other cities with a network of roads. Public amenities include: schools, libraries, theaters, & public baths
  31. 31. Class divisions now based mainly on wealth – most distinguished families were from the old senatorial families; poor people were unemployed & depended on free food from gov’t and lived in slums</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Roman societies include slaves
  32. 32. Republic era slaves were poorly treated
  33. 33. Empire era slaves had some form of protection/rights due to laws passed by some Emperors
  34. 34. Some slaves became respected teachers, some were skilled artisans. Others still suffered harsh/brutal treatment in Roman navy, latifundas and stone quarries</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Paterfamilias – the father, head of the household; had absolute authority over every person in the family
  35. 35. By 2nd c. AD, family discipline was much laxer, resulting in spoilt and less disciplined children. Also more freedom for Roman women
  36. 36. Could no longer be forced into marriage
  37. 37. Could own property and keep money if divorced</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Could make business dealls and wills w/o consulting husband
  38. 38. Could no longer be forced into marriage
  39. 39. Could own property and keep money if divorced
  40. 40. Could make business dealls and wills w/o consulting husband
  41. 41. Could go out shopping or visiting
  42. 42. Had more opportunities for education</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Prominent Senatorial Wives, Mothers, Daughters</li></ul>Cornelia – Gracchus Bros’ mother, influenced Roman politics<br />Livia - dynamic wife of Augustus, advised him on decisions<br />Julia Domna– mother of Emperor Caracalla, in charge of govt while son was at war<br />Julia Mamaea– neice to #3 & mother to Emperor Alexander Severus, also made decisions during son’s reign<br />
  43. 43. <ul><li>Litterator– teacher who taught young boys to read and write
  44. 44. Calculator – teacher who taught young boys arithmetic
  45. 45. Roman values and attitudes were taught at home
  46. 46. Older boys went to grammar school to learn music, geometry, astronomy, literature and oratory
  47. 47. Circus Maximus and Colosseums provide entertainment
  48. 48. Chariot races, gladiator fights and animals pitted against one another or against slaves</li></li></ul><li>CHAP 5: ROMANS BUILD ON GREEK CULTURE<br /><ul><li>Greco-Roman Culture – blended Greek and Roman influences</li></ul>Virgil – Augustus’s propagandist & pastoral writer<br /> - glorified the Roman talent for governing by writing the Aeneid (Carthage also destroyed in epic)<br />Horace – son of a freed slave, another great poet during Augustus’ time, also a pastoral writer<br />Ovid – writer, contrast to previous 2 was a city-dweller; spoke for the upperclass<br />
  49. 49. - wrote of fashion, wealth, romance, Metamorphoses is a retelling of R & G myths<br />Juvenal – last great Roman writer<br /><ul><li>Roman architecture and engineering is practical
  50. 50. Roman’s take practical approach to science</li></ul>Galen – a Greek whose theories dominated the world of Roman medicine<br />Ptolemy - a mathematician, geographer and astronomer who worked in Alexandria, he wrote Amalgest<br />
  51. 51. <ul><li>Roman thinkers follow Stoic tradition
  52. 52. Marcus Aurelius – wrote the book Meditations in which he expressed the Stoic belief that Romans should live simple lives
  53. 53. Romans have a knack for law making
  54. 54. Cicero – writer and orator, said, “law should not be bent by influence or broken by power or spoiled by money”</li></li></ul><li>SEATWORK<br />What was Greco-Roman culture? How did it develop? <br />According to Virgil, what quality set the Romans apart from other people?<br />On what did Horace blame the fall of the Republic?<br />

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