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Interactionandcoordination

INTERACTION IN LIVING THINGS

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Interactionandcoordination

  1. 1. INTERACTIONINTERACTION ANDAND COORDINATIOCOORDINATIO NN http://www.edistribucion.es/anayaeducacion/8430050/UNIDAD%203/unit_03_video_01.html
  2. 2. What do you remember?What do you remember?  1. What senses does a predatory animal use when it1. What senses does a predatory animal use when it hunts?hunts?  2. What body part does the chameleon use to catch its2. What body part does the chameleon use to catch its prey?prey?  3.What type of living being moves more quickly: a plant3.What type of living being moves more quickly: a plant or an animal?or an animal?  4. Which of the following are involved in interaction?4. Which of the following are involved in interaction? heart – roots – runners – brain - kidneys - bonesheart – roots – runners – brain - kidneys - bones Autora: Marta García T.Autora: Marta García T.
  3. 3. The interaction function processes 1: Light makes a bird visible to the cat. The bird also emits sound vibrations (chirping). 2: The visual and acoustic signals reach the cat’s sensory organs. 3: The sensory organs send the information they receive to the central nervous system. • First, the receptor organs of living things capture information and send signals to the processing centres. Dibujos en la página 23 del libro.
  4. 4. The central nervous system processes the information received and produces a suitable response (there is a bird there and I’m going to try to catch it). • Then, the coordination centres process the signals from the receptors and prepare a response.
  5. 5. The cat’s muscles, part of its locomotor system, receive the order to respond and carry out movements in order to try to catch the prey. • Finally, the effectors receive the signals from the coordination centres and carry out the response.
  6. 6. What is interaction?What is interaction? Interaction enables living beings to receive andInteraction enables living beings to receive and respond to a stimulus. It involves differentrespond to a stimulus. It involves different elements:elements: 1. Stimuli.1. Stimuli. 2. Receptors.2. Receptors. 3. Coordination Systems.3. Coordination Systems. 4. Effectors.4. Effectors. Autora: Marta García T.Autora: Marta García T.
  7. 7.  StimuliStimuli → Detectable changes in the internal or external→ Detectable changes in the internal or external environment, which provoke responses. Stimuli can beenvironment, which provoke responses. Stimuli can be Physical, Chemical or Biotic.Physical, Chemical or Biotic.  ReceptorsReceptors →→ SensorySensory structures which detect external andstructures which detect external and internal stimuli.internal stimuli. In Animals, receptors are the sense organs.In Animals, receptors are the sense organs.  In Plants, repectors are found in cells.In Plants, repectors are found in cells.  Coordination SystemsCoordination Systems →→ Organs which processOrgans which process information received by the receptors and produce a response.information received by the receptors and produce a response.  EffectorsEffectors →→ Structures which produce responses, such asStructures which produce responses, such as muscles and glands in animals.muscles and glands in animals. Autora: Marta García T.Autora: Marta García T.
  8. 8. How do receptors work?How do receptors work? SENSESENSE SENSE ORGANSENSE ORGAN WHAT STIMULI DO THEYWHAT STIMULI DO THEY DETECT?DETECT? HOW DO THEY WORK?HOW DO THEY WORK? SIGHTSIGHT EyesEyes They detect light.They detect light. SMELLSMELL Vertebrates: noseVertebrates: nose Arthropods: appendageArthropods: appendage They detect chemical substancesThey detect chemical substances dissolved in air or water.dissolved in air or water. TASTETASTE TongueTongue It detects chemical substancesIt detects chemical substances dissolved in water.dissolved in water. HEARINGHEARING EarsEars They detect sound, from very loudThey detect sound, from very loud noises to soft musical notes.noises to soft musical notes. TOUCHTOUCH Fish: lateral lineFish: lateral line Arthropods: appendageArthropods: appendage Most animals: skinMost animals: skin They detect pressure, touch, pain andThey detect pressure, touch, pain and temperature changestemperature changes Autora: Marta García T.Autora: Marta García T.
  9. 9. Autora: Marta García T.Autora: Marta García T.
  10. 10. Coordination System: TheCoordination System: The Nervous SystemNervous System The nervous system receives information, interprets it,The nervous system receives information, interprets it, and transmits a response to the effectors.and transmits a response to the effectors. It is different for invertebrates and vertebrates.It is different for invertebrates and vertebrates. Autora: Marta García T.Autora: Marta García T. http://www.edistribucion.es/anayaeducacion/8430050/UNIDAD%203/unit_03_video_04.html
  11. 11.  In vertebrates, the nervous system includes:In vertebrates, the nervous system includes: The Central Nervous System (The Central Nervous System (CNSCNS)) → The Brain→ The Brain and the Spinal Cord.and the Spinal Cord. The Peripheral Nervous System (The Peripheral Nervous System (PNSPNS))→ Nerves→ Nerves originated in the brain and in the spinal cord. Nervesoriginated in the brain and in the spinal cord. Nerves can be:can be: Sensory: go from the receptorsSensory: go from the receptors to the CNS, carrying information.to the CNS, carrying information. Motor: go from the CNS to theMotor: go from the CNS to the effectors, carrying a response.effectors, carrying a response. Autora: Marta García T.Autora: Marta García T.
  12. 12. Autora: Marta García T.Autora: Marta García T.
  13. 13.  Invertebrates have simpler nervous systems, for example: Ganglia system (nerve cells are joined by the nerveGanglia system (nerve cells are joined by the nerve cord).cord). Nerve Net system (nerve cells form a nerve netNerve Net system (nerve cells form a nerve net extending throughout the animal).extending throughout the animal). Autora: Marta García T.Autora: Marta García T.
  14. 14. • Found in cnidarians (polyps and jellyfish). • They do not have a central nervous system. They just have a network of interconnected neurons running along the walls of their bodies. Network of neurons Network of neurons A network of neurons in a polyp
  15. 15. • Found in most animals: • In a central nervous system, neurons are grouped together to form: • Nerve centres, which are normally found in the head. They process information: • Ganglia: in molluscs and arthropods • Brain and spinal cord: in vertebrates • Nerves, which connect the sense organs to the nerve centres and these centres to the effectors. Central nervous system Ganglia Brain Spinal cord Nerves The nervous systems of a mollusc and a mammal Types of nervous systems
  16. 16. EffectorsEffectors They are organs which produce a response. There are two types of responses to stimuli:  MOTOR RESPONSES →The response is movement. They are controlled by the motor system  ENDOCRINE RESPONSES→ The response is the release of hormones into the blood. Hormones control and coordinate activities throughout the body. They are controlled by glands. Autora: Marta García T.Autora: Marta García T.
  17. 17. Autora: Marta García T.Autora: Marta García T.
  18. 18. Coordination In PlantsCoordination In Plants  Plants do not have a nervous or an endocrine system.Plants do not have a nervous or an endocrine system. Responses to stimuli in plants are coordinated byResponses to stimuli in plants are coordinated by HORMONESHORMONES, which act as chemical messengers to, which act as chemical messengers to respond to factors such as light, gravity, water andrespond to factors such as light, gravity, water and temperature.temperature.  Cells inside the organism detect stimuliCells inside the organism detect stimuli Autora: Marta García T.Autora: Marta García T.
  19. 19.  There are two types of responses to externalThere are two types of responses to external stimuli:stimuli: 1) Tropism →→ Permanent responses which producePermanent responses which produce changes in the direction of the plant’s growth.changes in the direction of the plant’s growth. Types:Types: Geotropism:Geotropism: The responseThe response is caused by gravity.is caused by gravity. Phototropism: The response is caused by light. Autora: Marta García T.Autora: Marta García T.
  20. 20. Hydrotropism:Hydrotropism: The response is caused byThe response is caused by water.water. Thigmotropism:Thigmotropism: The response is causedThe response is caused by contact.by contact. Autora: Marta García T.Autora: Marta García T.
  21. 21. 2) Nastic Movements: are temporary responses2) Nastic Movements: are temporary responses of particular parts of a plant to external stimuli.of particular parts of a plant to external stimuli. Autora: Marta García T.Autora: Marta García T.

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