Chapter 3 slides


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Chapter 3 slides

  1. 1. Community Ecology 1
  2. 2.  Adaptation= genetic trait that improves an organism’s chance at survival and reproduction Nota realadaptation  2
  3. 3.  Twobutterfly species – one tastes bad and the other doesn’t (but looks like it does) 3
  4. 4.  Darwin’s Galapagos Island Finches 4
  5. 5.  Iffemales prefer large elaborate tails, then those are the males that pass their genes on get bigger and more elaborate with each generation 5
  6. 6. 6
  7. 7.  Species that are best adapted to their environment have a better chance at survival and reproduction “environment” includes habitat, climate, presence of predators or competitors, availability of resources, natural disasters These factors can change Species that do not adapt do not survive DIVERSITY is required for adaptation! 7
  8. 8.  Peppered mothexample It’simportantto rememberthat no mothchanged itscolour The number of moths of each colour changed 8
  9. 9.  Niche = an organisms role in an ecosystem  Examples: top predator, pollinator, decomposer, mussel consumer, cave dweller, etc. Iftwo species occupy the same niche AND resources are limited  COMPETITION Limits the size and health of an individual and/or population 9
  10. 10.  Luongo’s niche? Goalie His competition? Schneider (same niche) If Luongo’s playing well, Luongo plays more. If Schneider doesn’t perform well, Luongo plays more. How well the Sedins play has no effect on how much ice time Luongo gets (DIFFERENT NICHE) 10
  11. 11.  What effect would each of the following have on the competition level for Luongo? If the canucks were allowed 5 backup goalies  competition would increase (more individuals occupying same niche) Ifthe canucks were allowed to play two goalies at once  competition would decrease (more resources = less competition) Ifthe canucks were only allowed to dress one goalie instead of two  competition would increase (fewer resources = more competition) 11
  12. 12.  Foreign species (Introduced species) = species that are not native to an ecosystem Invasive species = species which harms its new ecosystem How? It out-competes native species Have an advantage because they have no predators/consumers Humans cause introduction of species to new ecosystems worldwide 12
  13. 13.  Process by which plants in an ecosystem change gradually over time 13
  14. 14.  PRIMARY – ecosystem begins as bare rock (no soil) First settlers (pioneer species) create soil Eventually climax community including all types/sizes of plants and consumers Pioneer species growing in lava rock SECONDARY – same as primary but soil is already present Occurs after events such as forest fires 14