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Towards	the	Prediction	of	Dyslexia	by	a	
Web-based	Game	with	Musical	Elements
Maria Rauschenberger1
Luz Rello2
Ricardo Bae...
Contributions
• New	indicators	for	predicting	dyslexia while	playing	a	Game	
called	DysMusic.
• Usability	improvements to	...
Outline
1. Motivation
2. Why	Musical	Elements?
3. Content	Design
4. User	Study	&	Results
5. Conclusions	&	Future	Work
3
@R...
Motivation
4
Motivation - Dyslexia
• What	is	dyslexia?
• How	many	are	affected?
5
@Rauschii | www.mariarauschenberger.com
Motivation - Dyslexia
• Who	is	affected?
• How	does	dyslexia	affect	
your	life?
6
@Rauschii | www.mariarauschenberger.com
Examples of Digital Detection: Pre-Readers
• DYSL-X	/	DIESEL-X	(Geurts et al. 2015, Audenaeren 2013)
• Bielefelder Screeni...
Dyslexia	is	normally	detected	using	linguistic	elements.
That	can	only	be	possible	when	children	have	already	developed	
r...
9
Why Musical Elements?
Indicators
• Short-term	memory	difficulties	
• Phonological	memory	/	awareness
• Working	memory
⇒ For	Readers	and	Pre-Read...
Goals
• Finding	dyslexia	pre-readers	indicators	related	to	music
• Integration	of	successful	items	in	a	game	to	predict an...
12
“What do you hear?”
Content Design
Tasks Related to Indicators
• Finding	the	same	sound	
• Distinguishing	between	sounds
• Short	time	interval	perception,	e....
Example of One Musical Element (Rhythm)
14
@Rauschii | www.mariarauschenberger.com
Game DysMusic
DysMusic
15
Fig. DysMusic
@Rauschii | www.mariarauschenberger.com
Video-Demo on the next page
Link to the Vi...
16
Example
• 4	tasks,	each	with	2	subtasks
• One	subtask	with	4	cards,								
the	other	with	6	cards	
• 4	different	acoustic...
18
User Study & Results
Usability Study
• 5	users	study	
• five	children	(user)	and	five	parents
• within-subject	design,	counter-balanced
19
@Rau...
Results
• Interaction:
• After	first	task,	they	go	faster,	independent	of	the	musical	
element
• Musical	Elements
• Listen...
Conclusions & Future Work
21
• Language	independent
• Could	be	for	pre-readers
• Visual	Elements
• Large-scale	study	in	
E...
Prediction of Dyslexia with
Musical Elements
while playing a Serious Game
Thank you!
Any Questions?
22
@Rauschii | www.mar...
Backup
23
Musical
Elements
DysMusic
24
@Rauschii | www.mariarauschenberger.com
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Paper Presented at the Web for All Conference in Perth, Australia

M. Rauschenberger, L. Rello, R. Baeza-yates, E. Gomez, and J. P. Bigham, “Towards the Prediction of Dyslexia by a Web-based Game with Musical Elements,” w4a, pp. 4–7, 2017.

The generated musical elements are available at http://bit.ly/2jeejmC

The demo of the prototype DysMusic is available at http://bit.ly/DysMus

More Project can be found on www.mariarauschenberger.com

Abstract:
Current tools for screening dyslexia use linguistic elements,since most dyslexia manifestations are related to difficulties in reading and writing. These tools can only be used with children that have already acquired some reading skills and; sometimes, this detection comes too late to apply proper re-mediation. In this paper, we propose a method and present DysMusic, a prototype which aims to predict risk of having dyslexia before acquiring reading skills. The prototype was designed with the help of five children and five parents who tested the game using the think aloud protocol and being observed while playing. The advantages of DysMusicare that the approach is language independent and could be used with younger children,i.e., pre-readers.

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Towards the Prediction of Dyslexia by a Web-based Game with Musical Elements.

  1. 1. Towards the Prediction of Dyslexia by a Web-based Game with Musical Elements Maria Rauschenberger1 Luz Rello2 Ricardo Baeza-Yates1 Emilia Gomez1 Jeffrey P. Bigham2 1Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona, Spain 2Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburg, USA
  2. 2. Contributions • New indicators for predicting dyslexia while playing a Game called DysMusic. • Usability improvements to the first version of the game. 2 @Rauschii | www.mariarauschenberger.com
  3. 3. Outline 1. Motivation 2. Why Musical Elements? 3. Content Design 4. User Study & Results 5. Conclusions & Future Work 3 @Rauschii | www.mariarauschenberger.com
  4. 4. Motivation 4
  5. 5. Motivation - Dyslexia • What is dyslexia? • How many are affected? 5 @Rauschii | www.mariarauschenberger.com
  6. 6. Motivation - Dyslexia • Who is affected? • How does dyslexia affect your life? 6 @Rauschii | www.mariarauschenberger.com
  7. 7. Examples of Digital Detection: Pre-Readers • DYSL-X / DIESEL-X (Geurts et al. 2015, Audenaeren 2013) • Bielefelder Screening(Steinbrink and Lachmann 2014) • AGTB 5–12 (Steinbrink and Lachmann 2014) 7 Fig. DYSL-X game (Audenaeren 2013)
  8. 8. Dyslexia is normally detected using linguistic elements. That can only be possible when children have already developed reading skills. Is it possible to predict that a child may have dyslexia before s/he develops reading skills? 8 @Rauschii | www.mariarauschenberger.com
  9. 9. 9 Why Musical Elements?
  10. 10. Indicators • Short-term memory difficulties • Phonological memory / awareness • Working memory ⇒ For Readers and Pre-Readers DysMusic 10 @Rauschii | www.mariarauschenberger.com K. Overy. Dyslexia, Temporal Processing and Music: The Potential of Music as an Early Learning Aid for Dyslexic Children. Psychology of Music, 28(2):218–229, oct 2000. R. F. Port, “Meter and speech,” J. Phon., vol. 31, pp. 599–611, 2003.
  11. 11. Goals • Finding dyslexia pre-readers indicators related to music • Integration of successful items in a game to predict and intervene dyslexia 11 @Rauschii | www.mariarauschenberger.com
  12. 12. 12 “What do you hear?” Content Design
  13. 13. Tasks Related to Indicators • Finding the same sound • Distinguishing between sounds • Short time interval perception, e.g. short-time intervals 13 @Rauschii | www.mariarauschenberger.com Huss, M., Verney, J. P., Fosker, T., Mead, N., & Goswami, U. (2011). Music, rhythm, rise time perception and developmental dyslexia: Perception of musical meter predicts reading and phonology. Cortex, 47(6), 674–689.
  14. 14. Example of One Musical Element (Rhythm) 14 @Rauschii | www.mariarauschenberger.com
  15. 15. Game DysMusic DysMusic 15 Fig. DysMusic @Rauschii | www.mariarauschenberger.com Video-Demo on the next page Link to the Video Link to the Demo
  16. 16. 16
  17. 17. Example • 4 tasks, each with 2 subtasks • One subtask with 4 cards, the other with 6 cards • 4 different acoustic parameters • Frequency • Length • Rise Time • Rhythm 17 @Rauschii | www.mariarauschenberger.com Huss, M., Verney, J. P., Fosker, T., Mead, N., & Goswami, U. (2011). Music, rhythm, rise time perception and developmental dyslexia: Perception of musical meter predicts reading and phonology. Cortex, 47(6), 674–689. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2010.07.010
  18. 18. 18 User Study & Results
  19. 19. Usability Study • 5 users study • five children (user) and five parents • within-subject design, counter-balanced 19 @Rauschii | www.mariarauschenberger.com J. Nielsen. Why You Only Need to Test with 5 Users. Jakob Nielsens Alertbox, 19 (September 23):1–4, 2000.
  20. 20. Results • Interaction: • After first task, they go faster, independent of the musical element • Musical Elements • Listen and concentrate carefully • Difficult level difference perception • Functionality • Video player ( HTML 5: video-tag to YouTube: Iframe-tag) 20 @Rauschii | www.mariarauschenberger.com
  21. 21. Conclusions & Future Work 21 • Language independent • Could be for pre-readers • Visual Elements • Large-scale study in English, German & Spanish
  22. 22. Prediction of Dyslexia with Musical Elements while playing a Serious Game Thank you! Any Questions? 22 @Rauschii | www.mariarauschenberger.com
  23. 23. Backup 23
  24. 24. Musical Elements DysMusic 24 @Rauschii | www.mariarauschenberger.com

Paper Presented at the Web for All Conference in Perth, Australia M. Rauschenberger, L. Rello, R. Baeza-yates, E. Gomez, and J. P. Bigham, “Towards the Prediction of Dyslexia by a Web-based Game with Musical Elements,” w4a, pp. 4–7, 2017. The generated musical elements are available at http://bit.ly/2jeejmC The demo of the prototype DysMusic is available at http://bit.ly/DysMus More Project can be found on www.mariarauschenberger.com Abstract: Current tools for screening dyslexia use linguistic elements,since most dyslexia manifestations are related to difficulties in reading and writing. These tools can only be used with children that have already acquired some reading skills and; sometimes, this detection comes too late to apply proper re-mediation. In this paper, we propose a method and present DysMusic, a prototype which aims to predict risk of having dyslexia before acquiring reading skills. The prototype was designed with the help of five children and five parents who tested the game using the think aloud protocol and being observed while playing. The advantages of DysMusicare that the approach is language independent and could be used with younger children,i.e., pre-readers.

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