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Misconceptions, Neuromyths and Dyslexia

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Maria Rauschenberger was invited to the DAAD Project - COMIC "Teach the Teacher" in Cairo, Egypt and presented "Misconceptions, Neuromyths and Dyslexia" to teaching assistants.

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Misconceptions, Neuromyths and Dyslexia

  1. 1. Maria Rauschenberger Universitat Pompeu Fabra Maria.Rauschenberger@upf.edu Misconceptions, Neuromyths and Dyslexia
  2. 2. About me 2 Computer Scientist #London #Oldenburg #BCN #Emden #Eckernförde http://www.ueq-online.org/ #Dyslexia #Language #SeriousGames #Auditory #Visual Ph.D. Ph.D. Dyseggxia App #HCI https://changedyslexia.org/ #Accessibility #Pittsburg, USA
  3. 3. Set the stage 3
  4. 4. How can we help people to learn in an effective, efficient, attractive and accessible way? 4 (Koper & Tattersall, 2005a)
  5. 5. Teaching depends on … right? 5 ● Specific situation? ● Learning Design ? ● Learning types? ● Material ? ⇒ Is that correct? (Koper & Tattersall, 2005b)
  6. 6. Research Findings and Misconceptions 6 ● 49% teachers believed 49% of the neuromyths statements. ● 70% of the general knowledge statements were answered correctly. ● Possessing greater general knowledge about the brain does not appear to protect teachers from believing in neuromyths. ⇒ This demonstrates the need for enhanced interdisciplinary communication to reduce such misunderstandings in the future and establish a successful collaboration between neuroscience and education. (Dekker et al., 2012)
  7. 7. Problem with Neuromyths? 7 Misconceptions and myths may have adverse effects on educational practice. (Dekker et al., 2012)
  8. 8. “Preferred Learning Styles / Learning types” 8 ● It is the belief that individuals can benefit from receiving information in their preferred format. (Dekker et al., 2012)
  9. 9. “Preferred Learning Styles / Learning types” 9 ● It is the belief that individuals can benefit from receiving information in their preferred format. Problem: ● No coherent framework of preferred learning styles ○ auditory, visual or kinesthetic learners based on self-reports. ○ 70 different models, e.g. “left vs. right brain,” “verbalisers vs. visualisers” ● No or only weak evidence on the effectiveness could be found. While appropriated combining of material is more effective. (Dekker et al., 2012)
  10. 10. Common Misconception 2017 10 The two most commonly endorsed neuromyths across all groups were related to learning styles and dyslexia. (∼50% endorsement or higher) (Macdonald, 2017)
  11. 11. Suggestion 11 ● Read popular science magazines not popular media. ● Explicit education for teachers about neuromyths ● Enhanced interdisciplinary communication to reduce such misunderstandings. (Dekker et al., 2012)
  12. 12. Agenda ● Introduction ● The power of errors ● How you can support a person with dyslexia 12
  13. 13. What is dyslexia? 13 (American Psychiatric Association,2013)
  14. 14. ● a specific learning disorder ● affects around 10% of the population @Rauschii | www.mariarauschenberger.com Dyslexia is not connected to how intelligent a person is! Dyslexia is ...
  15. 15. @Rauschii | www.mariarauschenberger.com Question: What do you think is a common indicator of dyslexia?
  16. 16. School failure @Rauschii | www.mariarauschenberger.com Question: What do you think is a common indicator of dyslexia?
  17. 17. ● a specific learning disorder ● affects around 10% of the population @Rauschii | www.mariarauschenberger.com Dyslexia is ...
  18. 18. Agenda Introduction ● The power of errors ● How you can support a person with dyslexia 18
  19. 19. 19 The power of errors & language ● Amount of spelling and reading mistakes ● Dyslexia exists in different languages ● Second language & Dyslexia @Rauschii | www.mariarauschenberger.com
  20. 20. Misspelling of words or The power of spelling mistakes 20
  21. 21. A. Collect Texts from Children B. Do Error Classification C. Do Error Annotation 1. Visual Features 2. Phonetic Features 21 How to ... http://goo.gl/LRaUDA @Rauschii | www.mariarauschenberger.com
  22. 22. 22 A. German Texts from Children ● 47 texts from students ○ homework exercises, dictations, and school essays ● Over 1,000 written errors ● 8-17 years old @Rauschii | www.mariarauschenberger.com
  23. 23. 23 ... @Rauschii | www.mariarauschenberger.com
  24. 24. 24 B. Error Classification – Substitution – Capital Letter – Insertion – Omission – Transposition – Word boundary errors @Rauschii | www.mariarauschenberger.com – Multi-errors German specific: Beginning of the word should be written or should not be written with a capital letter
  25. 25. 25 B. Error Classification - Specific for German Mistake Correct Translation Capital Letter geschichten Geschichten stories Wrong Capital Letter Glücklich glücklich happy @Rauschii | www.mariarauschenberger.com
  26. 26. 26 C1. Error Annotation - Visual Features Example – Mirror letter <d> <b> – Rotation <d> <p> – Fuzzy letters <s> <z> @Rauschii | www.mariarauschenberger.com
  27. 27. 27 C2. Error Annotation - Phonetic Features – Sound distinction – Sound sequence – Combination of consonants – Words with <v> – Umlaut – Double consonant / false double consonant – Lengthening – Derivation – Words with <s/ß> @Rauschii | www.mariarauschenberger.com
  28. 28. 28 http://rauschii.github.io/DysListGerman/ “Having a resource of errors from people with dyslexia helps to understand the difficulties and challenges people with dyslexia have with the language.” @Rauschii | www.mariarauschenberger.com
  29. 29. 29 @Rauschii | www.mariarauschenberger.com (Rello et al., 2016a) (Rello et al. 2018)
  30. 30. https://changedyslexia.org 30
  31. 31. Example Dytective website Find the letter “e”! 31
  32. 32. 32 ● 17 stages ● Spanish and English ● 83 % accuracy for predicting dyslexia Details (Rello et al., 2016c) (Rello et al., 2018)
  33. 33. Examples of Digital Detection ● Lernserver(Höinghaus and Schönweiss 2010) ● Lexercise Screener (Lexercise 2016) ● Legascreen (http://legascreen.de/) 33 Fig. Lexercise Screener (Lexercise 2016)
  34. 34. Examples of Digital Detection: Pre-Readers DysMusic ● DYSL-X / DIESEL-X (Geurts et al. 2015, Audenaeren 2013) ● Detect Pre-Readers (Gaggi et al. 2012, Facoetti et al. 2007) ● Bielefelder Screening(Steinbrink and Lachmann 2014) ● AGTB 5–12 (Steinbrink and Lachmann 2014) 34 Fig. Fence letters game (Gaggi et al. 2012) Fig. DYSL-X game (Audenaeren 2013)
  35. 35. 35
  36. 36. To sum up... All reading and spelling tests need a minimum knowledge of phonological awareness, grammar, and vocabulary of the child to predict risk of dyslexia 36 @Rauschii | www.mariarauschenberger.com
  37. 37. Dyslexia is normally detected using linguistic elements. That can only be possible when children have already developed reading skills. Is it possible to predict that a child may have dyslexia before s/he develops reading skills? 37 @Rauschii | www.mariarauschenberger.com
  38. 38. Detection for Pre-Readers 38 (Rauschenberger et al., 2017)
  39. 39. Other approaches ● With brain recordings for newborns (Guttorm et al., 2003) ● With rapid auditory cues for infants (Benasich, 2002) ● With the perception of visual-spatial attention for kindergarten children (Franceschini, 2012) ⇒ Expensive approaches to predict future language acquisition of pre-readers. 39 @Rauschii | www.mariarauschenberger.com
  40. 40. ⇒ research on gameful and easy detection for Pre-Readers 40 @Rauschii | www.mariarauschenberger.com (Rauschenberger et al. 2018) (Rauschenberger et al. 2017)
  41. 41. Other indicators? 41
  42. 42. (Auditory) Indicators Literatur-Matrix 42 @Rauschii | www.mariarauschenberger.com
  43. 43. Indicators ● Short-term memory difficulties ● Phonological memory / awareness ● Working memory ⇒ For Readers and Pre-Readers DysMusic 43 @Rauschii | www.mariarauschenberger.com K. Overy. Dyslexia, Temporal Processing and Music: The Potential of Music as an Early Learning Aid for Dyslexic Children. Psychology of Music, 28(2):218–229, oct 2000. R. F. Port, “Meter and speech,” J. Phon., vol. 31, pp. 599–611, 2003.
  44. 44. Indicators 44 @Rauschii | www.mariarauschenberger.com ● Elements with similar features that represent horizontal and vertical symmetries which are known to be difficult for a person with dyslexia. Example: b, d, p, q (Rello et. al 2016c)
  45. 45. Goals ● Finding dyslexia pre-readers indicators related to music ● Integration of successful items in a game to predict and intervene dyslexia 45 @Rauschii | www.mariarauschenberger.com M. Rauschenberger, L. Rello, R. Baeza-yates, E. Gomez, and J. P. Bigham, “Towards the Prediction of Dyslexia by a Web-based Game with Musical Elements,” in W4A’17, 2017, pp. 4–7.
  46. 46. Content Design 46
  47. 47. Musical part 47 @Rauschii | www.mariarauschenberger.com (Rauschenberger et. al 2017)
  48. 48. Tasks Related to Indicators ● Finding the same sound ● Distinguishing between sounds ● Short time interval perception, e.g. short-time intervals 48 @Rauschii | www.mariarauschenberger.com Huss, M., Verney, J. P., Fosker, T., Mead, N., & Goswami, U. (2011). Music, rhythm, rise time perception and developmental dyslexia: Perception of musical meter predicts reading and phonology. Cortex, 47(6), 674–689. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2010.07.010
  49. 49. Example ● 4 tasks, each with 2 subtasks ● One subtask with 4 cards, the other with 6 cards ● 4 different acoustic parameters ○ Frequency ○ Length ○ Rise Time ○ Rhythm 49 @Rauschii | www.mariarauschenberger.com Huss, M., Verney, J. P., Fosker, T., Mead, N., & Goswami, U. (2011). Music, rhythm, rise time perception and developmental dyslexia: Perception of musical meter predicts reading and phonology. Cortex, 47(6), 674–689. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2010.07.010
  50. 50. Visual part 50 @Rauschii | www.mariarauschenberger.com
  51. 51. Study ● Within-subject design, counter-balanced ● Web-Application ● 178 participants in total ● 4 languages (Spanish,German, English & Catalan) ● Age range from 7 to 12 years ● 16 game rounds 51 @Rauschii | www.mariarauschenberger.com
  52. 52. Participants ● 178 participants, all languages ○ 67 diagnosed of dyslexia (33f, 34m) ○ 111 in control group (67f, 44m) ○ Including: English (n= 6), Catalan (n= 7) ● 108 participants, Spanish ○ 41 diagnosed of dyslexia (23f, 18m) ○ 67 control group (42f, 25m) ● 57 participants, German ○ 17 diagnosed of dyslexia (5f, 12m) ○ 40 control group (21f, 19m) 52 @Rauschii | www.mariarauschenberger.com
  53. 53. Results & Discussion 53
  54. 54. Significant Indicators for Spanish ● Musical ○ Total clicks ○ 4th click interval ○ 6th click interval ○ Duration ○ Average click time ☇ yet none for German 54 @Rauschii | www.mariarauschenberger.com ● Visual ○ Total clicks ○ Time of first click ○ Hits ○ Misses ○ Accuracy ○ Efficiency
  55. 55. Significant Indicators for all languages ● Musical ○ Yet, none for music 55 @Rauschii | www.mariarauschenberger.com ● Visual ○ Total clicks ○ Time of first click ○ Hits ○ Efficiency With the same tendency
  56. 56. Visual Game Part Spanish and German participants with dyslexia ... ● Click less time ● Take more time before they make the first click ● Have less hits ● Take more time for a hit … compared to each language control group 56 @Rauschii | www.mariarauschenberger.com
  57. 57. But ... Spelling errors Game errors 57 @Rauschii | www.mariarauschenberger.com
  58. 58. Agenda Introduction The power of errors ● How you can support a person with dyslexia 58
  59. 59. How you can support a person with dyslexia 59 (Rauschenberger et al., 2019)
  60. 60. 60 Suggestions for your students ● Use different spell checkers, e.g. Drive, Grammarly and Word Office. ● Use spell checkers specifically designed for a person with dyslexia e.g. Babel, PoliSpell or RealCheck (Rauschenberger et al., 2019). ● Ask for proof reading. ● Organisational support, e.g. student contact/disability services, more time in an examen ● British Dyslexia Assocation: https://www.bdadyslexia.org.uk/ @Rauschii | www.mariarauschenberger.com
  61. 61. Text Customization 61 (Rauschenberger et al., 2019)
  62. 62. Font suggestions 62 @Rauschii | www.mariarauschenberger.com Fonts like ● Arial ● Courier ● (Rauschenberger et al., 2019) (Wery & Diliberto, 2017) (Rello & Baeza-Yates, 2016b) Font families like ● roman ● sans serif ● monospace ⇒ are suggested to increase readability. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monospaced_font
  63. 63. Fonts features 63 @Rauschii | www.mariarauschenberger.com features like ● italics ● serfi (Rauschenberger et al., 2019) (British Dyslexia Association, 2018) (Rello & Baeza-Yates, 2017) (Rello & Baeza-Yates, 2016b) ⇒ are suggested to be avoided. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Serif
  64. 64. Background Color 64 @Rauschii | www.mariarauschenberger.com ● Have an impact on the readability (Rauschenberger et al., 2019) (Rello & Bigham, 2017) ● warm background colors are beneficial for the reading performance. ● Cool background colors decrease the readability.
  65. 65. Font Size ... 65 @Rauschii | www.mariarauschenberger.com ● … has a significant effect on the readability and the understandability of a text ⇒ Recommendation: 18-point font size (Rello et al., 2013)
  66. 66. Various Guidelines 66 @Rauschii | www.mariarauschenberger.com ● Dyslexia Style Guide 2018 (British Dyslexia Association, 2018) ● Making the Web Accessible (Web accessibility initiative (WAI), 2018) ● Web accessibility (de Santana et al., 2012) ● Design Guidelines (Miniukovich et al., 2017) (Rauschenberger et al., 2019) ⇒ mainly with recommendations for readability on the Web and digital devices.
  67. 67. Text Simplification 67 (Rauschenberger et al., 2019)
  68. 68. Simplification on ... 68 @Rauschii | www.mariarauschenberger.com ...typographical errors and not on the complexity of the content. ⇒ specific difficulties with phonetically or orthographically similar words or letters (Rauschenberger et al., 2019) (Rello et al., 2016c). (Rauschenberger et a., 2016) (Ellis, 1984)
  69. 69. Dictionary function 69 @Rauschii | www.mariarauschenberger.com ● Look up words with a similar spelling e.g ● quiet vs. quit ● You have to send the later now vs. You have to send the letter not. (Rauschenberger et al., 2019)
  70. 70. Spelling Correction 70 (Rauschenberger et al., 2019)
  71. 71. Real world errors... 71 @Rauschii | www.mariarauschenberger.com ● are wrong in the context but are very similar to another word from that language ● e.g. German Schal (’scarf’) — Schall (’sound’) Spanish pala (’shovel’) — palabra (’word’) English from and form. (Rauschenberger et al., 2019)
  72. 72. Agenda Introduction The power of errors ● How you can support a person with dyslexia ● Summary 72
  73. 73. Summary ● Dyslexia is a specific learning disability. ● A person with dyslexia has difficulties in learning how to read and write. ● Dyslexia is intelligence. ● A text written in Arial, 18 point font size and with a warm background color increases the readability and comprehension. 73
  74. 74. Contact Details — Participate? Researchgate/Rauschenberger GoogleScholar/Rauschenberger 74
  75. 75. American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Arlington. London,England: American Psychiatric Association. http://doi.org/10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596.744053 Van Den Audenaeren, L., Celis, V., Abeele, V. Vanden, Geurts, L., Husson, J., Ghesquière, P.,Wouters, J., Loyez, L.,Goeleven, A. (2013). DYSL-X: Design of a tablet game for early risk detection of dyslexia in preschoolers. In Games for Health (pp. 257–266). Wiesbaden: Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden. http://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-658-02897-8_20 Benasich, A. A., & Tallal, P. (2002). Infant discrimination of rapid auditory cues predicts later language impairment. Behavioural Brain Research, 136(1), 31–49. http://doi.org/10.1016/S0166-4328(02)00098-0 British Dyslexia Association. Dyslexia Style Guide 2018, 2018. Dekker, S., Lee, N. C., Howard-Jones, P., & Jolles, J. (2012). Neuromyths in Education: Prevalence and Predictors of Misconceptions among Teachers. Frontiers in Psychology, 3, 429. http://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2012.00429 Franceschini, S., Gori, S., Ruffino, M., Pedrolli, K., & Facoetti, A. (2012). A Causal Link between Visual Spatial Attention and Reading Acquisition. Current Biology, 22(9), 814–819. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2012.03.013 A. Facoetti, S. Franceschini, O. Gaggi, G. Galiazzo, S. Gori, C. E. Palazzi, and M. Ruffino. Multiplatform games for Dyslexia identification in preschoolers. In 2014 IEEE 11th Consumer Communications and Networking Conference (CCNC), pages 1152–1153. IEEE, jan 2014. Gaggi, O., Galiazzo, G., Palazzi, C., Facoetti, A., & Franceschini, S. (2012). A serious game for predicting the risk of developmental dyslexia in pre-readers children. In 2012 21st International Conference on Computer Communications and Networks, ICCCN 2012 - Proceedings. http://doi.org/10.1109/ICCCN.2012.6289249 Geurts, L., Vanden Abeele, V., Celis, V., Husson, J., Van den Audenaeren, L., Loyez, L., … Ghesquière, P. (2015). DIESEL-X: A Game-Based Tool for Early Risk Detection of Dyslexia in Preschoolers. In Describing and Studying Domain-Specific Serious Games (pp. 93–114). Switzerland: Springer International Publishing. http://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-20276-1_7 Grund, M., Naumann, C. L., & Haug, G. (2004). Diagnostischer Rechtschreibtest f{ü}r 5. Klassen: DRT 5 ; Manual (2., aktual). G{ö}ttingen: Beltz Test. Guttorm, T. K., Leppänen, P. H. T., Tolvanen, A., & Lyytinen, H. (2003). Event-related potentials in newborns with and without familial risk for dyslexia: principal component analysis reveals differences between the groups. Journal of Neural Transmission, 110(9), 1059–1074. http://doi.org/10.1007/s00702-003-0014-x Habib, M., Lardy, C., Desiles, T., Commeiras, C., Chobert, J., & Besson, M. (2016). Music and Dyslexia: A New Musical Training Method to Improve Reading and Related Disorders. Frontiers in Psychology, 7, 26. http://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00026 References 75
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