An introduction tothe species-people correlation           Marco Pautasso,         Division of Biology,      Imperial Coll...
Random sample of 100 papers per year   on ‘species richness’ in WOS (1991-2004)from: Lonsdale et al. (2008) European Journ...
Global biodiversity patterns: vascular plantsfrom Barthlott et al. (2007) Erdkunde
Global human population density patternsfrom Small & Cohen (2004) Current Anthropology
Map of the world by Abraham Ortelius, ~1570From: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Image:1572_Typus_Orbis_Terrarum_Orteliu...
Orbis terrarum, Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, ~27 a.C.from http://www.arqweb.com/vitrum/orbis22.asp
Species-people correlation in Europe    plants                     birdsfrom Araujo (2003)    sppGlobal Ecology &Biogeogra...
A positive species-people correlation                                              for vascular plants in US counties     ...
1. Sampling bias?from: Pautasso & McKinney (2007) Conservation Biology
US counties with (•) or without (o)            Universities and/or Botanical Gardens                 • N = 692, r2 = 0.13,...
number of passengers per dayfrom: Hufnagel, Brockmann & Geisel (2004) PNAS
2. Active conservation?                                  Cupressus                              Quercus robur, Udine      ...
(b)              Monumental trees in Italy’s regions and provinces(a) 3                                                   ...
3. Species introductions?              Trace forward/back zipcode              Positive (Phytophthora ramorum) site       ...
Multi-scale correlation of human presence and        Phytophthora ramorum disease incidencefrom: Cushman & Meentemeyer (20...
Sudden Oak Death in Californiafrom Desprez-Loustau et al. (2007) Trends in Ecology & Evolution
Living collections of the world’s botanical gardens                                                                       ...
4. Both species and people correlate with productivity?(a) vascular plant species richness                     (b) terrest...
Both species and people correlate with productivity           Altitude                      Plant species richness        ...
Excursus: human population density across the AlpsSource: European Academy, Bozen/Bolzano, Italy (EURAC)
Excursus (2): human pop. dens. change across the AlpsSource: European Academy, Bozen/Bolzano, Italy (EURAC)
[1015 mol/cm2; Jan 2003- Jun 2004]Air pollution due to urbanization: NO2source: http://esamultimedia.esa.int/images/EarthO...
Some recent studies of the spp-people correlation                               Araujo                               (2003...
What about invertebrates? (1) Ants (a) 3.0                                                                                ...
What about invertebrates? (2) Grasshoppersfrom Steck & Pautasso (in press) Acta Oecologica
What about invertebrates? (3) May-, stone- & caddis-flies                                                               Pi...
Random sample of 100 papers per year   on ‘species richness’ in WOS (1991-2004)from: Lonsdale et al. (2008) European Journ...
Conclusions1) the scale-dependence of the species-people   correlation has implications for conservation,   2) a positive ...
AcknowledgementsMike McKinney,Univ. of              Kevin                                IngridTennessee, US              ...
ReferencesBarbosa AM, Fontaneto D, Marini L & Pautasso M (2010) Positive regional species–people correlations: a samplinga...
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An introduction to the species-people correlation

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An introduction to the correlation between human population and biodiversity, vascular plants, stream macro-invertebrates, ants, grasshoppers, maps of the world, Synthesis of the North American Flora, Ohio and Virginia not included. Scale-dependence of the correlation between human population and the species richness of stream macro-invertebrates

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An introduction to the species-people correlation

  1. 1. An introduction tothe species-people correlation Marco Pautasso, Division of Biology, Imperial College London, Silwood Campus, UK 8 July 2008
  2. 2. Random sample of 100 papers per year on ‘species richness’ in WOS (1991-2004)from: Lonsdale et al. (2008) European Journal of Forest Research
  3. 3. Global biodiversity patterns: vascular plantsfrom Barthlott et al. (2007) Erdkunde
  4. 4. Global human population density patternsfrom Small & Cohen (2004) Current Anthropology
  5. 5. Map of the world by Abraham Ortelius, ~1570From: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Image:1572_Typus_Orbis_Terrarum_Ortelius.jpg
  6. 6. Orbis terrarum, Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, ~27 a.C.from http://www.arqweb.com/vitrum/orbis22.asp
  7. 7. Species-people correlation in Europe plants birdsfrom Araujo (2003) sppGlobal Ecology &Biogeography people
  8. 8. A positive species-people correlation for vascular plants in US counties 4 log10 vascular plant spp richness (n) 2 n = 2877, r = 0.18, y = 1.75+ 0.22x, p < 0.0001 3 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 log10 human population size (n)Data from the Synthesis of the North American Flora, Ohio and Virginia not included
  9. 9. 1. Sampling bias?from: Pautasso & McKinney (2007) Conservation Biology
  10. 10. US counties with (•) or without (o) Universities and/or Botanical Gardens • N = 692, r2 = 0.13, y = 2.15 (SE = 0.08) + 0.15 (SE = 0.01) x, p < 0.0001 o N = 2187, r2 = 0.10, y = 2.18 (SE = 0.05) + 0.15 (SE = 0.01) x, p < 0.0001from: Pautasso & McKinney (2007) Conservation Biology
  11. 11. number of passengers per dayfrom: Hufnagel, Brockmann & Geisel (2004) PNAS
  12. 12. 2. Active conservation? Cupressus Quercus robur, Udine sempervirens, ForliCeltis australis, San Gimignano Castanea sativa, St. Alfio, Sicily people / km2Quercus cerris,Amatrice, Latium Photos of veteran trees courtesy of G. Bortolotti; Map of human population density from Swiss Federal Statistical Office no information
  13. 13. (b) Monumental trees in Italy’s regions and provinces(a) 3 (c) 2 (c) log10 veteran tree individuals log10 veteran tree species 2 1 1 2 2 y = -1.99 + 0.58x, r = 0.56, p < 0.0001 y = -1.70 + 0.47x, r = 0.69, p < 0.0001 0 0 4 5 6 7 8 4 5 6 7 8 log10 region human population size log10 region human population size(b)(b) (d) 2 2 2 (c) y = -2.98 + 0.68x, r = 0.13, p < 0.0001 2 y = -2.03 + 0.49x, r = 0.15, p < 0.0001log10 veteran tree individuals log10 veteran tree species 1 1 0 0 4 5 6 7 4 5 6 7 log 10 province human population size log10 province human population size a & b: abundance, c & d: spp richness, a & c: regions; b & d: provinces; from: Pautasso & Chiarucci (2008) Annals of Botany
  14. 14. 3. Species introductions? Trace forward/back zipcode Positive (Phytophthora ramorum) site Hold releasedSource: United States Department of Agriculture, 2004Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Plant Protection and Quarantine
  15. 15. Multi-scale correlation of human presence and Phytophthora ramorum disease incidencefrom: Cushman & Meentemeyer (2008) Journal of Ecology
  16. 16. Sudden Oak Death in Californiafrom Desprez-Loustau et al. (2007) Trends in Ecology & Evolution
  17. 17. Living collections of the world’s botanical gardens (c)(a) (c) log10 spp richness (n) (d) (yr) (b) Size of countries reflects n of botanic gardens (d)b from: http://www.worldmapper.org/a, c & d: from: Pautasso & Parmentier (2007) Botanica Helvetica
  18. 18. 4. Both species and people correlate with productivity?(a) vascular plant species richness (b) terrestrial net primary productivity NPP (g C yr-1 m-2) human-appropriated net primary productivity (c)From (all et al.): (a) Kreft (2008) Ecology Letters,(b) Cramer (1999) Global Change Biology, (c) Imhoff (2004) Nature
  19. 19. Both species and people correlate with productivity Altitude Plant species richness in Trentino, Italyfrom: Marini, Prosser, Klimek & Marrs (in press) J Biogeography
  20. 20. Excursus: human population density across the AlpsSource: European Academy, Bozen/Bolzano, Italy (EURAC)
  21. 21. Excursus (2): human pop. dens. change across the AlpsSource: European Academy, Bozen/Bolzano, Italy (EURAC)
  22. 22. [1015 mol/cm2; Jan 2003- Jun 2004]Air pollution due to urbanization: NO2source: http://esamultimedia.esa.int/images/EarthObservation/pollution_europe_hires.jpg
  23. 23. Some recent studies of the spp-people correlation Araujo (2003) McKinney GEB (2003) Moreno- Biol Cons Rueda & Ding et al. Pizarro (2008) (2006) J Ecol Res Vazquez Hunter Biogeog & Gaston (2006) & Jonzon Biodiv & Cons (1993) CB Balmford et al. (2001) Science Real et al. Chown et al. Luck (2007) (2003) J Diniz-Filho et al. (2003) Ecol Appl J Biogeog Biogeog (2006) Acta Oecol.World wilderness map from: UNEP-WCMC World Atlas of Biodiversity, GIS analysisby R. Lesslie (ANU), method developed for the Australian Heritage Commission
  24. 24. What about invertebrates? (1) Ants (a) 3.0 2 y = -0.19 + 0.29x, s.s.e. = 0.03, r = 0.42, p < 0.0001 (c) 3.0 y = -1.00 + 0.87x, s.s.e. = 0.13, r2 = 0.56, p < 0.0001log10 ant species richness (n) log10 ant species richness (n) 2.0 2.0 1.0 1.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 log10 human population size (n) log10 plant species richness (n) (b) 3.0 (d) 3.0 2 y = 0.67 + 0.22x, s.s.e = 0.02, r = 0.30, p < 0.0001 y = 0.65 - 0.27x, s.s.e. = 0.64, r2 = 0.02, p = 0.67 log10 ant species richness (n) log10 ant species richness (n) 2.0 2.0 1.0 1.0 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 -4.6 -4.5 -4.4 -4.3 -4.2 log10 country area (km2) Boltzmann transformed temperature (1/kT) from Schlick-Steiner et al. (in press) Journal of Biogeography
  25. 25. What about invertebrates? (2) Grasshoppersfrom Steck & Pautasso (in press) Acta Oecologica
  26. 26. What about invertebrates? (3) May-, stone- & caddis-flies Pictures from http://biokeys.berkeley.edufrom Pautasso & Fontaneto (in press) Ecological Applications
  27. 27. Random sample of 100 papers per year on ‘species richness’ in WOS (1991-2004)from: Lonsdale et al. (2008) European Journal of Forest Research
  28. 28. Conclusions1) the scale-dependence of the species-people correlation has implications for conservation, 2) a positive spp-people correlation could be due to i) sampling bias, (ii) active conservation, and (iii) species introductions, 3) but its most plausible/frequent explanation is a correlation of both people and spp richness with environmental productivity
  29. 29. AcknowledgementsMike McKinney,Univ. of Kevin IngridTennessee, US Diego Gaston, Parmentier, Fontaneto, Univ. of Univ. of Silwood Sheffield Bruxelles, Mike Jeger, Belgium Wye & SilwoodBirgit & Florian Claude Steck, AlessandroSchlick-Steiner, Lorenzo Marini, WSL, CH Chiarucci,Univ. of Univ. ofQueensland, Univ. of Padua, Italy Siena, ItalyAustralia
  30. 30. ReferencesBarbosa AM, Fontaneto D, Marini L & Pautasso M (2010) Positive regional species–people correlations: a samplingartefact or a key issue for sustainable development? Animal Conservation 13: 446-447Barbosa AM, Fontaneto D, Marini L & Pautasso M (2010) Is the human population a large-scale indicator of the speciesrichness of ground beetles? Animal Conservation 13: 432-441Cantarello E, Steck CE, Fontana P, Fontaneto D, Marini L & Pautasso M (2010) A multi-scale study of Orthopteraspecies richness and human population size controlling for sampling effort. Naturwissenschaften 97: 265-271Chiari C, Dinetti M, Licciardello C, Licitra G & Pautasso M (2010) Urbanization and the more-individuals hypothesis.Journal of Animal Ecology 79: 366-371Golding J, Güsewell S, Kreft H, Kuzevanov VY, Lehvävirta S, Parmentier I & Pautasso M (2010) Species-richnesspatterns of the living collections of the worlds botanic gardens: a matter of socio-economics? Annals of Botany 105:689-696Pautasso M (2009) Geographical genetics and the conservation of forest trees. Perspectives in Plant Ecology,Systematics and Evolution 11: 157-189Pautasso M & Dinetti M (2009) Avian species richness, human population and protected areas across Italy’s regions.Environmental Conservation 36: 22-31Pautasso M & Powell G (2009) Aphid biodiversity is correlated with human population in European countries. Oecologia160: 839-846Pautasso M & Zotti M (2009) Macrofungal taxa and human population in Italys regions. Biodiversity & Conservation 18:473-485Pautasso M & Parmentier I (2007) Are the living collections of the world’s botanical gardens following species-richnesspatterns observed in natural ecosystems? Botanica Helvetica 117: 15-28Pecher C, Fritz S, Marini L, Fontaneto D & Pautasso M (2010) Scale-dependence of the correlation between humanpopulation and the species richness of stream macroinvertebrates. Basic Applied Ecology 11: 272-280

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