Effective communication for effective teaching

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Effective communication for effective teaching is an important aspect of any teaching learning process. Today’s competitive world demands from teachers to teach better, smarter, and effective. The course contents worth nothing if not communicated effectively. To get it across the students a teacher has to be very effective in his communication and presentation skills. An effective communication is always stimulating, inspiring, motivating and adds fuel to the fire if presenter possesses that igniting spark. Unfortunately, many teachers do not realize this aspect. Effective communication is very important for effective teaching. A workshop has been delivered at Directorate of Staff Development (Lahore) to the newly employed school teachers. This workshop coveres various aspects which can help teacher to make their communication stimulating, inspiring, and motivating. The workshop covers following topics
• What is Communication and Why Is It Important?
• What is Persuasion?
• The Rhetorical Approach to Instructional Communication
• Role of Teachers' Credibility
• Role of Clarity
• Role of Humor
• Role of Immediacy
• Factors Facilitate Openness and Acceptance
• Helpful Hints for Effective Communication
• Factors Encouraging Student Responses
• Roadblocks to Communication
• Responses Tend to Communicate Inadequacies and Faults
• Messages Try to Make the Student Feel Better or Deny there is a Problem
• Response Tends to Try to Solve the Problem for the Student
• Messages Tend to Divert the Student or Avoid the Student Altogether
• Active Listening
• Factors of Affecting Listening

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Effective communication for effective teaching

  1. 1. Prof. Dr. M. A. Pasha Chairman Department of CS & IT University of Sargodha 2/17/2014 Prof. Dr. M. A. Pasha at DSD Lahore
  2. 2. 2/17/2014 Prof. Dr. M. A. Pasha at DSD Lahore
  3. 3. What is Communication and Why Is It Important? Teaching is based on communication, and a teacher who communicates effectively with his/her students is a great teacher. 2/17/2014 Prof. Dr. M. A. Pasha at DSD Lahore
  4. 4. What is Communication and Why Is It Important?  Verbal and non-verbal transmission and understanding of information, feelings, and emotions among human being.  Instructional communication is the process by which teachers and students stimulate meanings in the minds of each other using verbal and nonverbal messages. 2/17/2014 Prof. Dr. M. A. Pasha at DSD Lahore
  5. 5. What is Communication and Why Is It Important?  In education, communication is essential for:  understanding roles and assignments,  planning and carrying out learning activities,  coordinating approaches with students,  providing information to teachers on student progress and behaviors, and  building a positive relationship with students, teachers and other staff. 2/17/2014 Prof. Dr. M. A. Pasha at DSD Lahore
  6. 6. Persuasion  To Aristotle, there are three factors that enhance a person's ability to persuade: (1) ethos (the personal character of the speaker), (2) pathos (the use of emotion), and (3) logos (the logical, rational nature of the message). 2/17/2014 Prof. Dr. M. A. Pasha at DSD Lahore
  7. 7. The Rhetorical Approach to Instructional Communication The function of rhetorical communication is to get others to do what you want or need them to do and/or think the way you want or need them to think—to persuade them (McCroskey and Richmond, 1996). 2/17/2014 Prof. Dr. M. A. Pasha at DSD Lahore
  8. 8. The Relational Approach to Instructional Communication  Both teachers and students mutually create and use verbal and nonverbal messages to establish a relationship with one other.  Focuses on how teachers and students perceive and affectively respond to each other, which influences teachers' motivation to teach and students' motivation to learn (Mottet, Beebe, Raffeld, & Medlock, 2004; Ellis, 2000, 2004).  Nonverbal cues such as eye contact, posture, facial expressions, and gestures stimulate the majority of the emotional or social meaning in messages (Burgoon, Buller, & Woodall, 1996; Mehrabian, 1972). 2/17/2014 Prof. Dr. M. A. Pasha at DSD Lahore
  9. 9. Role of Teachers' Credibility  Teachers who have higher perceived credibility are also perceived as more effective teachers.  Students who perceive their teachers as having high credibility are more motivated to learn than students who perceive their teachers as having low credibility.  Students who perceive their teachers as having high credibility report higher cognitive learning than students who perceive their teachers as having low credibility.  Students who perceive their teachers as having high credibility report higher affective learning than students who perceive their teachers as having low credibility.  Students who perceive their teachers as having high credibility are more likely to recommend the course and instructor to their friends than students who perceive their teachers as having low credibility.  Students who perceive their teachers as having high credibility are more likely to participate in class discussions than students who perceive their teachers as having low credibility.  Students who perceive their teachers as having high credibility are more likely to talk to their teacher outside of class than students who perceive their teachers as having low credibility.  Students who perceive their teachers as having high credibility are more likely to take another class with the teachers than students who perceive their teachers as having low credibility. 2/17/2014 Prof. Dr. M. A. Pasha at DSD Lahore
  10. 10. Role of Clarity  Teachers who are perceived as clear are perceived as more effective teachers.  Students who perceive their teachers as clear learn more than from teachers who are perceived as not clear.  Teachers who are clear reduce students' fear or apprehension of communicating in the classroom.  Teachers who are perceived as clear are liked more by their students, and students liked their course content more than that of teachers who are not perceived as clear. 2/17/2014 Prof. Dr. M. A. Pasha at DSD Lahore
  11. 11. Role of Humor  Teachers who win awards for their teaching use moderate amounts of humor.  Students do not prefer teachers who use an excessive amount of humor but do like teachers who use some humor when teaching.  Students have individual differences and preferences for the amount and type of humor used by instructors.  High school teachers use the same kinds and types of humor in the classroom as college teachers but not as extensively. 2/17/2014 Prof. Dr. M. A. Pasha at DSD Lahore
  12. 12. Role of Immediacy  Teachers who use affinity-seeking strategies are perceived to be more      credible—that is more knowledgeable, trustworthy, and dynamic— than teachers who do not use affinity-seeking strategies. Teacher use of affinity-seeking strategies is moderately correlated with student motivation to learn. Teachers who evoke more positive feelings from students enhance the learning climate. Teachers who consciously use affinity-seeking strategies engender increased affinity with both the teacher and the subject matter. Teachers who use selected affinity-seeking strategies (e.g., assuming equality, conversational rule keeping, eliciting others' disclosure, facilitating enjoyment, and optimism) enhance student liking toward the teacher. Teachers of lower grade levels use different affinity-seeking strategies than teachers of higher grade levels. 2/17/2014 Prof. Dr. M. A. Pasha at DSD Lahore
  13. 13. Factors Facilitate Openness and Acceptance  Posture: Try to make your posture mirror that of the students. It is helpful to have your shoulders squared with the student's and on about the same level so you are face-to-face. It is also helpful to have a slightly forward lean toward the student.  Eye Contact: Eye contact with students shows that you are interested in what they have to say.  Facial Expression: What is shown on your face should match what is on the child's. Smiling when the child is obviously sad would be an example of an incongruent facial expression. 2/17/2014 Prof. Dr. M. A. Pasha at DSD Lahore
  14. 14. Factors Facilitate Openness and Acceptance (Cont.)  Distance: Distance from the child shouldn't be too close or too distant; about 3 to 4 feet is the average. Standing too close can make the student uncomfortable, while standing too far away can indicate that you are disinterested in what the students is saying.  Distracting Behaviors: Distracting behaviors, such as playing with your hands, staring out the window, or doing something else while listening should be eliminated when talking to students or staff members.  Voice Quality: Your tone should match the child's. It would be inappropriate to be loud if the child is in a quiet mood. 2/17/2014 Prof. Dr. M. A. Pasha at DSD Lahore
  15. 15. Helpful Hints for Effective Communication  Establish a positive relationship with the students        (respect, courtesy, friendship) Our job is to encourage students rather than to control. Be positive in speaking to the students, avoid "putting them down." When possible, organize ahead of time and think before speaking. Use the student's name. When giving directions, get the student's attention first. Speak in a calm manner. Try to maintain eye contact with the student. 2/17/2014 Prof. Dr. M. A. Pasha at DSD Lahore
  16. 16. Helpful Hints for Effective Communication (Cont.)  Minimize distractions.  Let them know why the topic is important.  Let them know that you are talking to them for their      benefit. Use questions to involve the student and monitor understanding. Include examples from the student's experience. Avoid discussing a student's personal problems when you feel uncomfortable about it. If frustration, anger, or boredom occurs, stop,. Reinforce and support students for listening. 2/17/2014 Prof. Dr. M. A. Pasha at DSD Lahore
  17. 17. Factors Encouraging Student Responses  Pause effectively before and after asking a question: Pausing before you ask a question gives you time to phrase your question. Pausing after you ask your question allows the student to think about their response.  Monitor questioning interactions: What types of questions do you ask? Do you ask closed questions when what you really wanted was for the student to elaborate on his or her answer?  Meaningful questions: Monitor how many questions you ask, and the types of questions. Could you make questioning more effective if you asked less questions, more questions, or different types of questions?  Check for Understanding: It is important that we monitor students' understanding. To check if a student understands what was communicated, ask the student to repeat directions, questions or summarize what was said. 2/17/2014 Prof. Dr. M. A. Pasha at DSD Lahore
  18. 18. Roadblocks to Communication  Ordering, commanding, directing. Example: "Stop     whining and get back to work." Warning, threatening. Example: "You had better get your act together if you expect to pass my class." Moralizing, preaching, giving "shoulds" and "oughts". Example: "You should leave your personal problems out of the classroom." Advising, offering solutions or suggestions. Example: "I think you need to get a daily planner so you can organize your time better to get your homework finished." Teaching, lecturing, giving logical arguments. Example: "You better remember you only have four days to complete that project." 2/17/2014 Prof. Dr. M. A. Pasha at DSD Lahore
  19. 19. Responses Tend to Communicate Inadequacies and Faults  Judging, criticizing, disagreeing, blaming. Example: "You are such a lazy kid. You never do what you say you will."  Name-calling, stereotyping, labeling. Example: "Act your age. You are not a kindergartner."  Interpreting, analyzing, diagnosing. Example: "You are avoiding facing this assignment because you missed the directions due to talking." 2/17/2014 Prof. Dr. M. A. Pasha at DSD Lahore
  20. 20. Messages Try to Make the Student Feel Better or Deny there is a Problem  Praising, agreeing, giving positive evaluations. Example: "You are a smart kid. You can figure out a way to finish this assignment."  Reassuring, sympathizing, consoling, supporting. Example: "I know exactly how you are feeling. If you just begin, it won't seem so bad." 2/17/2014 Prof. Dr. M. A. Pasha at DSD Lahore
  21. 21. Response Tends to Try to Solve the Problem for the Student  Questioning, probing, interrogating, cross-examining. "Why did you wait so long to ask for assistance? What was so hard about this worksheet?" 2/17/2014 Prof. Dr. M. A. Pasha at DSD Lahore
  22. 22. Messages Tend to Divert the Student or Avoid the Student Altogether  Withdrawing, distracting, being sarcastic, humoring, diverting. "Seems like you got up on the wrong side of the bed today." 2/17/2014 Prof. Dr. M. A. Pasha at DSD Lahore
  23. 23. Active Listening  Listening is an important part of effective communication. A good teacher must exhibit good listening behaviors and strategies.  Helps students deal with and "defuse" strong feelings.  Helps students understand their own emotions.  Facilitates problem solving.  Keeps the responsibility with the student.  Makes students more willing to listen to others.  Promotes a closer, more meaningful relationship between teacher and student. 2/17/2014 Prof. Dr. M. A. Pasha at DSD Lahore
  24. 24. Factors of Affecting Listening  Listening can be affected by personal      bias, environmental factors, a short attention span, rehearsing a response, daydreaming, hot words, or through the use of filtering. Using Visual Aids Talking and Listening Communicating Positively with Parents Listening to Parents Learning Disabled Children 2/17/2014 Prof. Dr. M. A. Pasha at DSD Lahore
  25. 25. Factors of Affecting Listening (Cont.)  Listening can be affected by  personal bias,  environmental factors,  a short attention span,  rehearsing a response,  daydreaming,  hot words, etc. 2/17/2014 Prof. Dr. M. A. Pasha at DSD Lahore
  26. 26. Any Question Please 2/17/2014 Prof. Dr. M. A. Pasha at DSD Lahore

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