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  1. 1. MODAL VERBS (I):MODAL VERBS (I):Must, have to, don’t have to,Must, have to, don’t have to,mustn’tmustn’t
  2. 2. OBLIGATIONOBLIGATIONHave toHave to(+) She has to get up at 7 every day.(+) She has to get up at 7 every day.You have to drive on the left in the UK.You have to drive on the left in the UK.(?) Do we have to study this for the exam?(?) Do we have to study this for the exam?Does he have to tidy his room?Does he have to tidy his room?
  3. 3.  UseUse have tohave to to talk aboutto talk about rulesrules andandobligationsobligations, or to say that, or to say thatsomething is necessary.something is necessary.I have to study harder if I want toI have to study harder if I want topass the exam.pass the exam.Muslims have to pray 5 times a day.Muslims have to pray 5 times a day.
  4. 4. Must, mustn’tMust, mustn’t(+)You must do your homework tonight.(+)You must do your homework tonight.She must wash the dishes before sheShe must wash the dishes before sheleaves.leaves.(-) You mustn’t smoke in class.(-) You mustn’t smoke in class.They mustn’t leave their bags here.They mustn’t leave their bags here.(?) Must I do the homework?(?) Must I do the homework?(mustn’t = must not)(mustn’t = must not)
  5. 5.  UseUse must + infinitivemust + infinitive to talk aboutto talk aboutrules and obligations.rules and obligations. MustMust is a modal verb. The onlyis a modal verb. The onlyforms areforms are mustmust andand mustn’t.mustn’t. MustMust, as, as ALL MODALSALL MODALS, is ALWAYS, is ALWAYSfollowed by infinitivefollowed by infinitive WITHOUTWITHOUTTO!!!TO!!!
  6. 6. Must vs. Have toMust vs. Have to Both indicate obligation, but there’s a littleBoth indicate obligation, but there’s a littledifference.difference.It’s getting late. IIt’s getting late. I mustmust go nowgo now obligation from theobligation from the speakerspeaker..It’s getting late. My mum told me IIt’s getting late. My mum told me I havehavetoto be at home at at home at 9.  obligation fromobligation fromanother personanother person..
  7. 7. OBLIGATIONOBLIGATIONFROM THE SPEAKERFROM THE SPEAKER FROM ANOTHERFROM ANOTHERPERSONPERSONII mustmust go to bed. I’mgo to bed. I’mexhausted.exhausted.II mustmust remember toremember tophone her tomorrowphone her tomorrow– it’s her birthday.– it’s her birthday.YouYou have tohave to wear awear aseatbelt in the car.seatbelt in the car.Do youDo you have tohave to workworkon Saturdays?on Saturdays?II had tohad to wear awear auniform when I wasuniform when I wasat school.
  8. 8. PROHIBITION:PROHIBITION:mustn’tmustn’t Don’t have toDon’t have to andand mustn’tmustn’t are completelyare completelydifferent. Comparedifferent. CompareYouYou mustn’tmustn’t smoke inside a hospital. It’ssmoke inside a hospital. It’sforbidden.forbidden. ((It’s the lawIt’s the law))YouYou mustn’tmustn’t drink and drive.drink and drive.YouYou don’t have todon’t have to drive to the party, I’lldrive to the party, I’llpick you up.pick you up. (You can drive if you want,(You can drive if you want,butbut it is not necessaryit is not necessary).).
  9. 9. NO OBLIGATION/NECESSITY:NO OBLIGATION/NECESSITY:YouYou don’t have todon’t have to come to the partycome to the partyif you don’t want to.if you don’t want to.YouYou don’t have todon’t have to pay for thepay for thephotocopies, they are free.photocopies, they are free.Don’t have to
  10. 10. Complete the sentences with: have to, must,Complete the sentences with: have to, must,don’t have to, mustn’tdon’t have to, mustn’tIt is forbidden. You ______ do that.You ______ ask my permission. You can do whatyou want.You ______ speak to the driver when the bus ismoving. Its dangerous.mustn’tmustn’tdon’t have toIn athletics, you ______ start when the gun is fired.have toI _________ do my homework tonight.must
  11. 11. The train is direct. You ______ change trains.I like Saturdays because I ______ go to work.In bridge, you ______ look at other peoples cards.Whatever you do, you ______ click with the rightmouse button or the program will crash.don’t have tomustn’tdon’t have tomustn’tI ______ wear a suit at work. My boss is very formal.have to