Modals of obligation

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Modals of obligation

  1. 1. MODALS OF OBLIGATION MUST, HAVE TO, SHOULD, OUGHT TO
  2. 2. OBLIGATION or STRONG RECOMMENDATION We use must (do) and have to (do) to say that it is necessary to do something. e.g. Well, it’s 11 o’clock. I must/have to go now, I have a meeting at 11,30.
  3. 3. There is sometimes a DIFFERENCE between must and have to. - With MUST the speakers are giving their own feelings, saying what they think is necessary: e.g. I must send an e-mail to Liz. I haven’t written to her since Christmas. e.g. I must study English if I want to pass the exam. - With HAVE TO the speakers are not giving their feelings. They are just giving facts : e.g. I can’t come on Saturday, I have to work. e.g. Students have to wear uniforms at this school.
  4. 4. BUT, NOTE: You can only use must to talk about the present and future: e.g. We must go now. e.g. You must be on time tomorrow Have to, however, can be used in all forms : e.g. I had to leave the party early because I felt ill. e.g. What do I have to do to get a degree in Economics?
  5. 5. Keep fit http://efllecturer.blogspot.com/
  6. 6. You must keep fit! http://efllecturer.blogspot.com/
  7. 7. Put the rubbish in the bin http://efllecturer.blogspot.com/
  8. 8. You must put rubbish in the bin! http://efllecturer.blogspot.com/
  9. 9. Speak English in class http://efllecturer.blogspot.com/
  10. 10. You must speak English in class! http://efllecturer.blogspot.com/
  11. 11. Pay taxes http://efllecturer.blogspot.com/
  12. 12. You have to pay taxes! http://efllecturer.blogspot.com/
  13. 13. Have a passport to travel to Africa http://efllecturer.blogspot.com/
  14. 14. You have to have a passport to travel to Africa! http://efllecturer.blogspot.com/
  15. 15. Wear a uniform http://efllecturer.blogspot.com/
  16. 16. They have to wear a uniform! http://efllecturer.blogspot.com/
  17. 17. PROHIBITION You mustn’t do something means it is prohibited that you do it. e.g. You mustn’t tell anyone what I said. e.g. You mustn’t smoke.
  18. 18. Eat junk food http://efllecturer.blogspot.com/
  19. 19. You mustn’t eat junk food! http://efllecturer.blogspot.com/
  20. 20. Use your phone http://efllecturer.blogspot.com/
  21. 21. You mustn’t use your phone! http://efllecturer.blogspot.com/
  22. 22. Sleep in class http://efllecturer.blogspot.com/
  23. 23. You mustn’t sleep in class! http://efllecturer.blogspot.com/
  24. 24. ABSENCE OF OBLIGATION You don’t have to do something means it is not necessary to do it. e.g. I can stay in bed tomorrow because I don’t have to go to school.
  25. 25. Get up early at the weekend http://efllecturer.blogspot.com/
  26. 26. You don’t have to get up early at the weekend! http://efllecturer.blogspot.com/
  27. 27. Work on holiday http://efllecturer.blogspot.com/
  28. 28. You don’t have to work on holiday! http://efllecturer.blogspot.com/
  29. 29. ADVICE or OPINION We use should (do) and ought to (do) to give advice or say what you think is a good or a bad thing to do. e.g. You shouldn’t smoke so much. e.g. That cyclist should be wearing a helmet. * Should and ought to are very similar, and can often replace each other. But should is much more frequent than ought to.
  30. 30. Take warm clothes if you go to Dublin http://efllecturer.blogspot.com/
  31. 31. You should take warm clothes if you go to Dublin in winter! http://efllecturer.blogspot.com/
  32. 32. Drink so much coffee http://efllecturer.blogspot.com/
  33. 33. You shouldn’t drink so much coffee! http://efllecturer.blogspot.com/

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