Human anatomy and physiology

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Human anatomy and physiology

  1. 1. Anatomy and Physiology by: MARNIE G. SARONO (a)
  2. 2. OBJECTIVES: <ul><li>General Objective: </li></ul><ul><li>Within 3 successive periods, the second year students will be able to gain knowledge about human anatomy and physiology as well as identify the body parts and its functions at 70% level of accuracy. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Specific Objectives: <ul><li>Cognitive: The second year students will be able to: </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiate anatomy and physiology of the human body </li></ul><ul><li>List the different systems in the human body </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the functions of the different systems of the body </li></ul><ul><li>Illustrate the anatomy of each body system </li></ul>
  4. 4. Affective: <ul><li>The second year students will be able to: </li></ul><ul><li>Share the importance of human anatomy and physiology </li></ul><ul><li>Synthesize the connection of one body system to another </li></ul>
  5. 5. Psychomotor: <ul><li>The second year students will be able to: </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the specific body parts and its functions </li></ul><ul><li>Make a diagram of each body system </li></ul><ul><li>Locate the different organ systems using a model </li></ul>
  6. 6. HUMAN ANATOMY <ul><li>study of structure of body: the branch of science that studies the physical structure of a human body </li></ul>
  7. 7. PHYSIOLOGY <ul><li>study of functioning of living things: the branch of biology that deals with the internal workings of living things, including functions such as metabolism, respiration, and reproduction. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>A. Integumentary System </li></ul>
  9. 10. Structures <ul><li>Skin </li></ul><ul><li>Epidermis </li></ul><ul><li>Dermis </li></ul><ul><li>Apocrine gland </li></ul><ul><li>Subcutaneous tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Arrector pili muscle </li></ul><ul><li>Eccrine sweat gland </li></ul><ul><li>Melanocytes </li></ul><ul><li>Hair </li></ul><ul><li>Nails </li></ul>(Continued)
  10. 11. Functions <ul><li>Protect </li></ul><ul><li>Fluid balance </li></ul><ul><li>Absorption </li></ul><ul><li>Synthesis of Vitamin D </li></ul><ul><li>Sensation/communication with external environment </li></ul><ul><li>Thermoregulation </li></ul><ul><li>Immunity </li></ul><ul><li>Excretion </li></ul>What are the major functions of the integumentary system?
  11. 12. <ul><li>B. Respiratory System </li></ul>
  12. 14. Functions <ul><li>Nasal cavity: warms, humidifies, and filters air </li></ul><ul><li>Pharynx: passageway between nose and larynx, and mouth and esophagus </li></ul><ul><li>Larynx: passageway; contains voice box </li></ul>(Continued)
  13. 15. Functions <ul><li>Trachea: airway between larynx and bronchi </li></ul><ul><li>Bronchi: airways with primary, secondary, and tertiary branches </li></ul><ul><li>Bronchioles: transitional airways; some gas exchange occurs here </li></ul>(Continued)
  14. 16. Functions <ul><li>Alveolar ducts and sacs: functional units for gas exchange </li></ul><ul><li>Pleura: serous protective lining of the lungs; reduces friction and helps maintain negative pressure </li></ul>
  15. 17. C. Cardiovascular System
  16. 18. Functions <ul><li>Heart: four chambers (right and left atria and ventricles), double pump </li></ul><ul><li>Atria (right and left): pump blood to the ventricles </li></ul>(Continued)
  17. 19. Functions <ul><li>Arteries: carry blood away from the heart </li></ul><ul><li>Veins: carry blood toward the heart </li></ul><ul><li>Ventricles: right pumps blood to pulmonary circulation; left pumps blood to systemic circulation </li></ul><ul><li>Valves: AV valves (the tricuspid and mitral), Semilunar valves (the pulmonic and aortic) </li></ul>(Continued)
  18. 21. D. Gastrointestinal System
  19. 22. Function <ul><li>What are the functions of… </li></ul><ul><li>Stomach: churns food, intrinsic factor for B12, hydrochloric acid begins digestion </li></ul><ul><li>Small intestines: primary site for digestion </li></ul><ul><li>Large intestines: absorbs sodium and water </li></ul>(Continued)
  20. 23. Function <ul><li>What are the functions of… </li></ul><ul><li>Liver: metabolism; produces bile, clotting factors; detoxifies drugs & alcohol; converts glucose to glycogen; stores vitamins </li></ul><ul><li>Pancreas: produces insulin and glucagon, pancreatic enzymes </li></ul>(Continued)
  21. 24. Function <ul><li>What are the functions of… </li></ul><ul><li>Gall bladder: stores and concentrates bile </li></ul><ul><li>Spleen: stores RBCs, produces RBCs and macrophages </li></ul>(Continued)
  22. 25. Function <ul><li>What are the functions of… </li></ul><ul><li>Bladder: stores urine </li></ul><ul><li>Kidneys: remove wastes, help control B/P, produces erythropoietin </li></ul>
  23. 28. E. FEMALE GENITOURINARY SYSTEM
  24. 29. Functions <ul><li>What are the functions of… </li></ul><ul><li>Mons pubis: subcutaneous pad over symphysis pubis for protection </li></ul><ul><li>Labia majora/minora: folds of adipose and connective tissue that protect and lubricate external genitalia </li></ul>(Continued)
  25. 31. Functions <ul><li>What are the functions of… </li></ul><ul><li>Clitoris: erectile tissue for sexual stimulation </li></ul><ul><li>Urinary meatus: opening to urethra </li></ul><ul><li>Skene’s glands: lubricate and protect </li></ul>(Continued)
  26. 32. Functions <ul><li>What are the functions of… </li></ul><ul><li>Vaginal introitus: opening of the vagina </li></ul><ul><li>Vagina: muscular tube for copulation, birth canal, and menses </li></ul><ul><li>Bartholin’s glands: secretes alkaline mucus that improves viability & motility of sperm </li></ul>
  27. 33. Functions <ul><li>What are the functions of… </li></ul><ul><li>Cervix: end of the uterus into vagina </li></ul><ul><li>Uterus: hollow, muscular organ; site for fertilized egg implantation; protects fetus </li></ul>(Continued)
  28. 34. Functions <ul><li>What are the functions of… </li></ul><ul><li>Tubes: passage for ovum to uterus, site of fertilization </li></ul><ul><li>Ovaries: produce ova, estrogen, and progesterone </li></ul><ul><li>Kidneys: filter and excrete wastes </li></ul>(Continued)
  29. 36. Functions <ul><li>What are the functions of… </li></ul><ul><li>Ureter: connects kidneys to bladder </li></ul><ul><li>Bladder: hollow muscular structure; holds urine </li></ul><ul><li>Urethra: connects bladder to urinary meatus opening </li></ul>
  30. 37. F. MALE GENITOURINARY SYSTEM
  31. 38. Functions <ul><li>What are the functions of… </li></ul><ul><li>Scrotum: sac that contains testes </li></ul><ul><li>Testes: produces sperm and testosterone </li></ul><ul><li>Vas deferens: duct from epididymis to ejaculatory duct </li></ul>(Continued)
  32. 39. Functions <ul><li>What are the functions of… </li></ul><ul><li>Spermatic cord: protective sheath around the vas deferens </li></ul><ul><li>Seminal vesicles: produce 70% of semen </li></ul><ul><li>Bulbourethral gland: secretes alkaline substance to neutralize vaginal secretions </li></ul>(Continued)
  33. 40. Functions <ul><li>What are the functions of… </li></ul><ul><li>Prostate: produces 20% of semen </li></ul><ul><li>Epididymis: stores sperm until it is mature </li></ul><ul><li>Kidney: filters blood and removes wastes </li></ul>(Continued)
  34. 41. Functions <ul><li>What are the functions of… </li></ul><ul><li>Ureter: tube connecting kidney to bladder </li></ul><ul><li>Bladder: hollow, muscular structure, holds urine </li></ul><ul><li>Urethra: passageway for urine </li></ul>(Continued)
  35. 42. Functions <ul><li>What are the functions of… </li></ul><ul><li>Penis: male sex organ and urine elimination </li></ul><ul><li>Glans penis: important for sexual arousal </li></ul>(Continued)
  36. 43. Functions <ul><li>What are the functions of… </li></ul><ul><li>Inguinal area: canal for vas deferens from scrotum through the abdominal muscles, inguinal lymph nodes </li></ul>
  37. 44. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
  38. 45. URINARY SYSTEM
  39. 46. G. MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM
  40. 47. Functions <ul><li>What are the functions of… </li></ul><ul><li>Bones (206): structure; protection; act as levers; produce blood cells; store calcium </li></ul><ul><li>Muscles (650): allow for movement and position; produce heat </li></ul>(Continued)
  41. 48. Functions <ul><li>What are the functions of… </li></ul><ul><li>Joints: point of articulation of two bones; provide ROM </li></ul><ul><li>Tendons: connect muscle to bone </li></ul><ul><li>Ligament: connects bone to bone </li></ul>(Continued)
  42. 49. Functions <ul><li>What are the functions of… </li></ul><ul><li>Cartilage: supports and shapes; acts as a shock absorber </li></ul><ul><li>Bursae: sacs filled with synovial fluid; cushion and reduce friction between joints </li></ul>
  43. 50. Types of Joints <ul><li>Pivot </li></ul><ul><li>Condyloid </li></ul><ul><li>Ball and socket </li></ul><ul><li>Hinge </li></ul><ul><li>Plane/gliding </li></ul><ul><li>Saddle </li></ul>
  44. 51. G. NERVOUS SYSTEM
  45. 53. Structures <ul><li>Cerebrum </li></ul><ul><li>Frontal lobe </li></ul><ul><li>Limbic system </li></ul><ul><li>Occipital lobe </li></ul><ul><li>Thalamus </li></ul><ul><li>Cerebellum </li></ul><ul><li>Midbrain </li></ul><ul><li>Meninges </li></ul><ul><li>Cortex </li></ul><ul><li>Temporal lobe </li></ul><ul><li>Parietal lobe </li></ul><ul><li>RAS </li></ul><ul><li>Hypothalamus </li></ul><ul><li>Brainstem </li></ul><ul><li>Medulla </li></ul><ul><li>Ventricles </li></ul>
  46. 54. Functions <ul><li>What are the functions of… </li></ul><ul><li>Cerebrum: largest part of brain </li></ul><ul><li>Cortex: outer layer of cerebrum; controls most conscious processes </li></ul><ul><li>Frontal lobe: emotional expression, Broca’s area (expressive language) </li></ul>(Continued)
  47. 55. Functions <ul><li>What are the functions of… </li></ul><ul><li>Temporal lobe: hearing, taste, smell, memory, Wernicke’s (language comprehension) </li></ul><ul><li>Limbic system: emotions, sexual arousal, behavioral expression, recent memory </li></ul>(Continued)
  48. 56. Functions <ul><li>What are the functions of… </li></ul><ul><li>Parietal: sensory input </li></ul><ul><li>Occipital lobe: vision and spatial relationships </li></ul><ul><li>RAS: wakefulness </li></ul>(Continued)
  49. 57. Functions <ul><li>What are the functions of… </li></ul><ul><li>Thalamus: clusters multiple sensory stimuli </li></ul><ul><li>Hypothalamus: controls autonomic nervous system and pituitary gland </li></ul><ul><li>Cerebellum: coordination, equilibrium </li></ul>(Continued)
  50. 58. Functions <ul><li>What are the functions of… </li></ul><ul><li>Brainstem: involuntary survival behaviors; includes midbrain, medulla and pons </li></ul><ul><li>Midbrain: visual, auditory, pupils, and eye movements </li></ul>(Continued)
  51. 59. Functions <ul><li>What are the functions of… </li></ul><ul><li>Medulla: regulates heart, respiratory rates, B/P, and protective reflexes </li></ul><ul><li>Pons: helps with respiratory function, facial sensation and movement </li></ul>(Continued)
  52. 60. Functions <ul><li>What are the functions of… </li></ul><ul><li>Meninges: three layers (pia, arachnoid, dura); protect brain and spinal cord </li></ul><ul><li>Ventricles: four cavities; capillaries produce and reabsorb CSF </li></ul>(Continued)
  53. 61. <ul><li>END…. </li></ul>

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