Modal Verbs M ig u e l Á n g e lR o d r íg u e z L ó p e z
What is a Modal Verb?• They are: • Can They are Auxiliary verbs which • Could give additional and specific • May meaning to the main verb of the • Might sentence • Must • Shall Modal verbs are also called • Should Modal Auxiliary verbs since • Will they help other verbs • Would • Ought to
Use John can speak English very well S M V Subject Verb• They do not accept conjugation• They do not need other auxiliary verbs
Form:• There is no “s” in singular• There is no “do / does” in the question• There is no “don’t / doesn’t” in the negative• Modal verbs do not have all the tenses• Modal verbs use other verbs to complete the tenses Can is completed with be able to Must is completed with have to You must come early You had to come early yesterday
What do they express? They can have more than one meaning depending on the situationsThere are 3 categories of Modal Verbs:4 Single Concept Modal: they have one meaning4 Double Concept Modal: they have two meanings4 Modals in past: They are used to express a situation past in the past
CategoriesSingle concept Double Concept Modals in Past Modals Modals (Perfect Modals) Will May Would have Might Must Could have Should Would Might have Ought to Shall Should haveHad better Could May have Can Must have
Single Concept Modal Modal Meaning ExamplesWill Future Joe will travel to NY next weekMight Small probability I might move to Canada some dayShould Recommendation You should go to the doctorOught to Formal We ought to know about first aids recommendationHad better Warning I had better study or I will fail the test
Double Concept Modal Modal Meaning ExamplesShall (1) Educated expression Excuse me, I shall go now Offer Shall I clean it?Shall (2) Contractual The company shall pay on January 1st obligationCould (1) Request Could you pass me the salt, please?Could (2) Past Ability She could play the piano, not anymoreCould (3) Possibility He could visit us todayCan (1) Request Can I have a sweet?Can (2) Ability We can speak EnglishCan (3) Possibility I can visit you now
Double Concept Modal Modal Meaning ExamplesMay (1) Request May I come in?May (2) Good probability We may visit Mexico this summerMust (1) Obligation Everyone must pay taxesMust (2) Certainty She didn’t arrive. She must be sickWould (1) Request Would you open the door, please?Would (2) Suggestion/Offer Would you like something to eat?
Perfect Modals• They refer to actions that happened in the past MODAL + HAVE + verb in past participle It must have been a difficult decision They should have invited her to their wedding
Perfect Modals Modal Meaning ExamplesMust have + a logical Rob has arrived late. He must haveparticiple conclusion about been in a traffic jam. a past factMay/might a supposition She may/might have taken the wronghave + about something bus.participle in the pastCould have Ability to do You could have asked the doctor+ participle something in the before taking the medicine. past which in the end was not doneCouldn’t Certainty that He couldn’t have gone to the concerthave + something did not because he was doing the test.participle happen
Perfect Modals Modal Meaning ExamplesWould have + Desire to do I would have gone to the party, but Iparticiple something in the was too busy. past which in fact could not be doneShould/ought Criticism or You should/ought to have warned meto + participle regret after an earlier. eventShouldn’t Criticism or He shouldn’t have forgotten about herhave + regret after an birthday.participle event, showing that it shouldn’t have happenedNeedn’t have An unnecessary You needn’t have brought anything to+ participle past action my party.
Modals-like verbs There are few verbs which often serve as modals too. These are modal-like verbs. They need to be conjugated. Modal Concept ExampleLike to Enjoy I like to watch TVWant to Desire John wants to buy a carNeed to Necessity We really needed to talk to youHave to Obligation Susan had to pay the rentHave got to Have to I’ve got to go nowLook forward Future plan I look forward to seeing you againto