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Crossing Guard Module 2 Law


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Iowa Adult Crossing Guard Training Module 2, Law

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Crossing Guard Module 2 Law

  1. 1. MODULE 2 – Law & Traffic Control Devices <ul><li>Module Goal </li></ul><ul><li>Participants will apply knowledge of pedestrian and vehicle laws in their school crossing guard program duties. </li></ul><ul><li>Objective One </li></ul><ul><li>Participants will demonstrate a knowledge of school area traffic regulations and the basic workings of school zone traffic controls. </li></ul> 
  2. 2. <ul><li>Crosswalk – portion of a roadway ordinarily included within the prolongation or connection of the lateral lines of sidewalks at intersections, or any portion of a roadway distinctly indicated for pedestrian crossing by lines or other markings on the surface. </li></ul><ul><li>Intersection – area embraced within the prolongation or connection of the lateral curb lines, or, if none, then the lateral boundary lines of the roadways of two highways which join one another at, or approximately at, right angles, or the area within which vehicles traveling upon different highways joining at any other angle may come in conflict. </li></ul><ul><li>Official traffic-control signal – any device, whether manually, electrically or mechanically operated, by which traffic is alternately directed to stop and to proceed. </li></ul>DEFINITIONS
  3. 3. DEFINITIONS <ul><li>Right-of-Way – privilege of the immediate use of the highway. </li></ul><ul><li>School District – territory contiguous to and including a highway for a distance of two hundred feet in either direction from a schoolhouse in a city. </li></ul><ul><li>Traffic – pedestrians, ridden or herded animals, vehicles, streetcars, and other conveyances either singly or together while using any highway for purposes of travel. </li></ul><ul><li>Vehicle – every device in, upon, or by which any person or property is or may be transported or drawn upon a highway. </li></ul>
  4. 4. DEFINITIONS <ul><li>Shall – imposes duty </li></ul><ul><li>Will – future tense </li></ul><ul><li>May – optional practice </li></ul>
  5. 5. VEHICLE/PEDESTRIAN TRAFFIC LAWS <ul><li>Important Vehicle Laws to Know: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vehicles entering stop or yield intersections must stop at clearly marked stop line or before entering the crosswalk [ I.C. 321.322 ] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Yeild to Pedestrians within intersections or crosswalks [ I.C. 321.327 ] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Driver's of vehicles shall exercise due care to avoid colliding with pedestrians upon a roadway including observing children [ I.C.321.329 ]. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No Stopping, standing, or parking on a crosswalk, sidewalk or in front of a ramp or curb cut [ I.C. 321.358 ] </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. VEHICLE/PEDESTRIAN TRAFFIC LAWS When required to stop, vehicular traffic must stop before entering the crosswalk or behind a clearly marked stop line [ I.C. 321.322 ]
  7. 7. “ Does Anyone Stop at Stop Signs?” Watch Clip!
  8. 8. VEHICLE/PEDESTRIAN TRAFFIC LAWS When traffic control signals are not in place, the driver of a vehicle shall yield the right-of-way to pedestrians in crosswalks or any unmarked crosswalk at an intersecion [ I.C. 321.327 ]
  9. 9. VEHICLE/PEDESTRIAN TRAFFIC LAWS Every driver of a vehicle shall exercise due care to avoid colliding with any pedestrian upon any roadway and shall exercise due care upon observing any child upon the roadway. [ I.C.321.329 ]
  10. 10. VEHICLE/PEDESTRIAN TRAFFIC LAWS No parking on a sidewalk, in a crosswalk, in front of a curb cut or ramp or within 10’ of a flashing beacon, stop sign, or traffic-control signal on the side of the road [ I.C. 321.358 ]
  11. 11. What's Wrong with this Picture?
  12. 12. VEHICLE/PEDESTRIAN TRAFFIC LAWS <ul><li>Pedestrian laws to know: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pedestrians are subject to signals [ I.C. 321.325 ] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pedestrians shall walk on left side of road [ I.C. 321.326 ] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pedestrians have the right-of-way where traffic control signals are not in place or in operation [ I.C. 321.327 ] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pedestrians crossing other than at crosswalk shall yield right-of-way to all vehicles upon roadway [ I.C. 321.328 ] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pedestrian shall move upon right half of crosswalk [ I.C.321.330 ]. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. VEHICLE/PEDESTRIAN TRAFFIC LAWS Pedestrians shall be subject to traffic-control signals at intersections [ I.C. 321.325 ]
  14. 14. VEHICLE/PEDESTRIAN TRAFFIC LAWS Pedestrians shall at all times walk on or along the left side of the road [ I.C. 321.326 ]
  15. 15. VEHICLE/PEDESTRIAN TRAFFIC LAWS When crossing the roadway at any point other than a marked crosswalk or within an unmarked crosswalk at an intersection the pedestrian shall yield to the vehicle upon the roadway [ I.C. 321.328 ]
  16. 16. VEHICLE/PEDESTRIAN TRAFFIC LAWS Where traffic-control signals are in operation at any place not an intersection pedestrians shall not cross at any place except in a marked crosswalk [ I.C. 321.328 ]
  17. 17. Vehicle/Pedestrian Traffic Laws Pedestrians shall move, wherever practicable, upon the right half of crosswalks [ I.C.321.330 ].
  18. 18. VEHICLE/BICYCLE TRAFFIC LAWS <ul><li>Bicycle Law </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Every person propelling a device by human power has all of the rights and all of the duties applicable to the driver of a vehicle [ I.C. 321.1 & 321.234 ] </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. TRAFFIC SIGNS, SIGNALS, AND MARKINGS <ul><li>Traffic Control Devices Include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Traffic signs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Traffic signals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pedestrian signals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pavement markings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Must satisfy five basic requirements: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fulfill a need; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Command attention; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Convey a clear, simple meaning; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Command respect from road users; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Give adequate time for response. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. TRAFFIC SIGNS, SIGNALS, and MARKINGS <ul><li>Early Traffic Control Devices: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1911, a centerline is painted on a Michigan road </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1914, the first electric traffic signal is installed in Cleveland </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1915, the first STOP sign appears in Detroit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1916, the Federal-Aid Act requires that a State have a highway department before it can get Federal money </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1918, Wisconsin is the first state to erect official route signs as part of its maintenance functions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1920, the first 3-color traffic signal is installed in Detroit </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. TRAFFIC SIGNS, SIGNALS, and MARKINGS <ul><li>Background Law: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I.C. 761-130.1(321) Constitutes the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD), 2003 ed. As the manual and specifications a uniform system of traffic control devices in Iowa. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>130.1(1) Gives exceptions to manual for specific for school zones regarding portable or part-time stop signs: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Emergency and temporary traffic control purpose </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>At appropriate school crosswalks. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Uniformity <ul><li>Reasonably safe and effective traffic control through uniformity: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Policies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Practices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Standards </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Definitions <ul><li>School Area – Those streets and highways abutting the grounds of an active educational institution that includes school property. Only streets and highways that are adjacent to a school are included in the school area. </li></ul><ul><li>School Zone – That portion of a street or highway located within a school area that is subject to a reduced speed limit at certain times of a day. A school zone is defined by traffic control devices and normally adjacent to school property. It may be established at other locations when justified by an engineering study. School zones are not to be applied in a blanket manner for all streets and highways within a school area. </li></ul><ul><li>School Crossing – An official school student crossing on an adopted school route plan of a school safety program. Any crossing not so officially designated is termed a “pedestrian crossing.” </li></ul>
  24. 24. SCHOOL AREA TRAFFIC SIGNS <ul><li>Standard </li></ul><ul><ul><li>shall be retroreflectorized or illuminated. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>shall have a yellow or yellow-green background with a black legend and border. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>should be placed where messages are most effective without restricting lateral clearance or sight distances. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Placement should consider highway design, alignment, vehicle speed, and roadside development. </li></ul></ul>MUTCD
  26. 26. SCHOOL ADVANCE WARNING Installed in advance of the school grounds or school crossings*. Used in advance of any installation of the School Crosswalk Warning assembly , or in advance of the first installation of the School Speed Limit assembly . The assembly shall be installed not less than 150 ft (45m) nor more than 700 ft (210m). Reduced speed zone Crosswalk Warning assembly MUTCD
  28. 28. REDUCED SCHOOL SPEED ZONE AHEAD May be used to provide road users advance notice of a reduced speed zone *. The speed limit displayed on the Reduced Speed School Zone Ahead sign shall be identical to the speed limit displayed on the subsequent School Speed Limit sign or School Speed Limit assembly. Reduced speed zone MUTCD * Note: Placement in advance of school speed zone dictated by MUTCD Design Standards.
  29. 29.
  30. 30. <ul><li>Reduced speed zones should begin 200 ft (60m) from a school crosswalk, or 100 ft (30m) prior to the school property line *. </li></ul><ul><li>The School Speed Limit assembly shall be </li></ul><ul><ul><li>fixed-message sign assembly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>changeable message sign. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A Speed Limit Sign Beacon also may be used, with a WHEN FLASHING legend, to identify the periods that the school speed limit is in effect. </li></ul>SCHOOL SPEED LIMIT MUTCD * Note: Placement dictated by MUTCD Design Standards.
  34. 34. <ul><li>Installed at the marked crosswalk, or as close as possible. </li></ul><ul><li>Shall not be used at marked crosswalks except those: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adjacent to schools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>onn established school pedestrian routes. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Shall not be installed on if controlled by a STOP sign. </li></ul>SCHOOL CROSSWALK WARNING R1-6 not used at signalized crosswalks OR MUTCD Located in Street Old Style
  35. 35. School Crosswalk Warning Old Style High Visibility
  39. 39. <ul><li>Shall be marked with standard Speed Limit sign for the section of highway that follows </li></ul><ul><li>Or with an END SCHOOL ZONE sign. </li></ul>END SCHOOL ZONE School speed zone MUTCD
  41. 41. Or Or Or Or MUTCD
  42. 42. PORTABLE STOP SIGNS <ul><li>“ Portable or part-time STOP signs may be used in school zones at appropriate school crosswalks.” </li></ul><ul><li>Iowa State Code makes the following exception to the MUTCD for School Zones [ 761-130.1(1) ]: </li></ul>
  44. 44. <ul><li>May Use: </li></ul><ul><li>To prevent vehicles blocking pedestrians' and driver views. </li></ul><ul><li>As school traffic plan to control vehicles. </li></ul>PARKING AND STOPPING SIGNS <ul><li>No Parking X:XX AM to X:XX PM School Days Only; </li></ul><ul><li>No Stopping X:XX AM to X:XX PM School Days Only; </li></ul><ul><li>X Min Loading X:XX AM to X:XX PM School Days Only; and </li></ul><ul><li>No Standing X:XX AM to X:XX PM School Days Only </li></ul>MUTCD
  45. 45. MARKINGS <ul><li>Pavement word (preferred) and symbol markings can: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Guide, Warn, & Regulate. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shall be white </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shall not be used for mandatory messages except in support of standard signs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supplement warning and regulatory signs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not used as sole protection for children </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Should be limited to roadways adjacent to school grounds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need to be maintained! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be hidden by vehicles </li></ul></ul>MUTCD
  46. 46. MARKINGS The SCHOOL marking is generally used in conjunction with a School Advance Warning Sign. White
  47. 47. MARKINGS
  48. 48. CROSSWALK <ul><li>Provide guidance for pedstrians </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Define and delineating paths </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Serve to alert road users of a pedestrian crossing point </li></ul><ul><li>At non-intersection locations, crosswalk markings legally establish the crosswalk. </li></ul>MUTCD
  49. 49. CROSSWALK EXAMPLES Any of these 3 styles may be used.
  50. 50. CROSSWALK Speed Humps with Crosswalks MUTCD
  51. 51. YIELD LINES Unsignalized midblock crosswalk May use to indicate the point behind which vehicles are required to yield. Minimum of 4 ft in advance at signalized crosswalk MUTCD Yield Poin t
  52. 52. STOP LINES Stop lines may be used to indicate the point behind which vehicles are required to stop. Stop Point ≥ 4 ft Stop Point MUTCD or or
  53. 53. Iowa Adult School Crossing Guard Training Program SIDEWALK Gives children a visual cue to keep them a safe distance back from the curb or edge of the street. Yellow “stand-back” line is marked or taped on sidewalk. OPTIONAL Detectable Warning
  54. 54. 400 Iowa Adult School Crossing Guard Training Program Module - 2 / Law & Traffic Control Devices 200 ft
  55. 55. TRAFFIC CONTROL SIGNALS <ul><li>Midblock pedestrian crossing: </li></ul><ul><li>Should be pedestrian-actuated. </li></ul><ul><li>Parking and other sight obstructions should be prohibited for at least 100 ft in advance of and at least 20 ft beyond the crosswalk. </li></ul><ul><li>Should include suitable standard signs and pavement markings. </li></ul>MUTCD
  56. 56. TRAFFIC CONTROL SIGNALS <ul><li>Design and operation shall consider the needs of pedestrian as well as vehicular traffic. </li></ul><ul><li>Signal faces conveniently visible to pedestrians shall be provided by pedestrian signal heads or a signal face for an adjacent vehicular movement. </li></ul><ul><li>Pedestrians should be provided with sufficient time to cross the roadway </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adjustments can be made for more time, call traffic engineer to observe and adjust </li></ul></ul>Iowa Adult School Crossing Guard Training Program Module - 2 / Law & Traffic Control Devices MUTCD
  57. 57. TRAFFIC CONTROL SIGNALS “ steady circular green light ” or “ steady green arrow ” vehicular traffic shall yield the right-of-way to other vehicular and pedestrian traffic lawfully within the intersection [ I.C. 321.257 ].
  58. 58. TRAFFIC CONTROL SIGNALS “ steady circular yellow ” or “ steady yellow arrow ” Are advised that there is insufficient time to cross the intersection. Any pedestrian starting to cross the roadway shall yield the right-of-way to all vehicles [ I.C. 321.257 ].
  59. 59. TRAFFIC CONTROL SIGNALS <ul><li>“ steady circular red ” </li></ul><ul><li>Shall not enter the roadway, unless the pedestrian can safely cross the roadway without interfering with any vehicular traffic [ I.C. 321.257 ]. </li></ul>
  60. 60. <ul><li>May be used to provide instructions to pedestrians or drivers with traffic signal controls. </li></ul><ul><li>Should be located adjacent to the signal face to wich they apply. </li></ul><ul><li>Applicable to pedestrians include: </li></ul>TRAFFIC CONTROL SIGNALS Signage MUTCD
  61. 61. PEDESTRIAN CONTROL SIGNALS <ul><li>Shall be used in conjunction with traffic control signals if justified by an engineering study. </li></ul><ul><li>Exclusively intened for controlling pedestrian traffic </li></ul><ul><li>Consist of the illuninated symbols of a WALKING PERSON (symbolizing WALK) and an UPRAISED HAND (symbolizing DONT WALK) </li></ul>MUTCD OR
  62. 62.
  63. 63. PEDESTRIAN CONTROL SIGNALS <ul><li>A steady WALKING PERSON or WALK light means </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pedestrian facing the illuminated pedestrian signal indication may proceed to cross the roadway in the direction of the pedestrian signal, possibly in conflict with turning vehicles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shall be given the right-of-way by drivers of all vehicles [ I.C. 321.257 ]. </li></ul></ul>
  64. 64. PEDESTRIAN CONTROL SIGNALS <ul><li>A flashing UPRAISED HAND or DON'T WALK light means </li></ul><ul><ul><li>pedestrian traffic facing the illuminated pedestrian signal shall not start to cross the roadway in the direction of the pedestrian signal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Any pedestrian already crossing on a steady WALKING PERSON signal indication shall proceed [ I.C. 321.257 ]. </li></ul></ul>
  65. 65. PEDESTRIAN CONTROL SIGNALS <ul><li>A pedestrian interval countdown display </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May be added to inform pedestrians of time left to cross. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shall be located immediately adjacent to the associated UPRAISED HAND pedestrian signal head indication. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Displayed of the number of remaining seconds shall begin only at the beginning of the pedestrian change interval. </li></ul></ul>MUTCD 4 4
  66. 66. <ul><li>A steady UPRAISED HAND signal indication means </li></ul><ul><li>Pedestrian shall not enter the roadway in the direction of the illuminated pedestrian signal. </li></ul>PEDESTRIAN CONTROL SIGNALS MUTCD
  67. 67. PEDESTRIAN CONTROL SIGNALS MUTCD Some pedestrian signals provide audio cues to inform pedestrians with visual disabilities. OR
  68. 68. <ul><li>Pedestrian Detectors and Signage </li></ul><ul><li>Detectors should be capable of easy activation and conveniently located near each end of the crosswalk. </li></ul><ul><li>Signs shall be mounted adjacent to or integral with pedestrian push button detectors, explaining their purpose and use. </li></ul>PEDESTRIAN CONTROL SIGNALS MUTCD
  69. 69. PEDESTRIAN CONTROL SIGNALS Pedestrian Clearance Time Facing Traffic Signal Red Clearance Interval (≤ 6 SEC) Conflicting Traffic Signal
  70. 70.