70 V.A. KUMURUR & M.T LASUT PROVINCIAL GOVERNMENT or 4 miles from the coastline is under the POLICIES ON MARINE AND authority of the Local Government COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT IN (Kabupaten). NORTH SULAWESI According to EnvironmentalIn North Sulawesi Province, more than 68% management Act No. 23 (1997),of the population live in coastal areas and it management of the coastal zone is not onlyis increasing day-by-day due to migration conducted by the government but also by thefrom inland areas. Approximately 90% of local community as one of the stakeholders.the national infrastructure (roads) and 25% Based on this, local communities in Northof the provincial are situated in coastal Sulawesi Province participate in variouswatersheds. Tourism activity is increasing in activities in order to assist the government,all parts of the province (Manado Bay, especially local government, in managingBitung, Likupang, Bolaang Mongondow, the environment and natural resources. Theetc.) and it is followed by problems in each communities are facilitated by non-area. government organizations (NGOs) to Most of the problems aris ing in promote bottom-up plans and activities incoastal areas are caused by lack of which the NGOs play as a bridge stoneinformation and understanding of the between local communities and theimpacts of an activity in the coastal area. government.Based on this condition, the localgovernment is forced to establish a local NGOs PARTICIPATION INregulation about protection and management INTEGRATED COASTAL ZONEof the coastal area. This is following the MANAGEMENT IN NORTHautonomy in the marine sector in the SULAWESINational Government Regulation No. 25 In Indonesia, in former times, national and(1999) about authority between National and provincial government policies on integratedProvincial Governments. The Local coastal zone management (IZCM) wereRegulation will be as described in the Laws made only for government purposes whereNo. 22 (1999) that states that marine areas those policies contradicted with communityup to 12 miles from the coastline is managed interests. Some examples, presidentialby provincial authorities, and 1/3 of the area decree on "Reklamasi pantai Utara Jakarta" PROVINCE INFORMATION REGENCY/ MUNICIPALITY -TECHNICAL ASSIST KECAMATAN -EDUCATION -PRACTICAL NGOs VILLAGE Figure 1. Participation of the NGOs in integrated coastal zone management activities
THE PARTICIPATION OF NGOs IN MANAGING COASTAL 71(land reclamation at the coastal area of community information center to providenorthern Jakarta, Java), Ministry Decree on information about sustainable marine and"Reklamasi Pantai Manado" (la nd coastal zone management for the localreclamation of coastal areas of Manado, community.North Sulawesi). Both decrees gave benefits To increase income of fisherman whoonly for economic aspects without live in the coastal area which are notablyconsideration of benefits for the local poorer than farmers living in inland areas,communities who live in such areas. Coastal collective fishing involving small andresources were destroyed and used middle scale fishing industry needs to beunsustainably. Most of the policies were improved. In relation to this ssue, NGOs i"top-down". serve as a bridge between fisherman and Nowadays, in North Sulawesi, non- bank creditor. Another activity is to developgovernment organizations (NGOs) together ecotourism conducted by the localwith the community, government, and community itself.investors are effectively establishingcollaboration to develop a suitable model as Environmental educationthe strategy for planning, regulation, and Most of the people who live in coastalpolicy for coastal zone management in areas exploit their coastal resources to meetwhich the local community is central their daily life. They, sometimes, destroy(bottom-up). The NGOs establish working corals to fish coral fishes, cutting mangrovegroups, participate in coastal zone activities, for charcoal and do not understand what theand together with the community try to functions are of such habitats. So an effort tounderstand government policies. They can conserve the habitats is far from their mind.also be as a bridge-stone for the community Degradation of coastal resources is a resultto advice the local government to produce of such activities. Based on thosebottom-up policies. experiences, NGOs who are concerned Participation of the NGOs in about the environment see how important itintegrated coastal zone management is that the environmental education for theactivities is figured out by implementing community starts from elementary andtheir program activities to local communities secondary schools. The NGOs collaboratingand coastal resources (Figure 2). with the donor foundation in IndonesiaCommunity empowerment and (KEHATI Foundation, Natural Resourceenvironmental education program activities Management) have done some programs forare mostly implemented to local environmental education, i.e.:communities. 1. Living environmental education start from elementary and secondary schoolsCommunity empowerment activities for communities in coastal areas. Such Most of coastal communities education introduces directly coastalinhabiting small houses have low income, resources (mangrove, seagrass, corals,low quality of life due to lack of knowledge and other important marine biotas).on sanitation and are more vulnerable to 2. Conducting competitions fordiseases. This is also due to lack of health elementary, secondary and high schoolfacilities for their daily activities. The NGOs teachers to make academic modules oncollaborate with a local community and living environment. An example of that,funding agencies to improve health care and YCCN Foundation (Yayasan Cintaenvironmental quality in various activities, Cipta Nusantara) has conducted such ato improve environ-physical infrastructure competion in collaboration withsuch as clean water. The NGOs establish a KEHATI (Indonesia) in a theme of
72 V.A. KUMURUR & M.T LASUT "Lingkungan 2000, Saatnya Bertindak Based on NGOs participation in Nyata" (Environment 2000, now action). coastal management activities, two Local3. Conducting short training on living Village Regulations have been established, environment, such as participatory such as from Alungbanua and Blongko mapping, coral reef conservation, and Villages. An example the regulations from mangrove replantation. The short Alungbanua Village are: training courses, for instance, have been 1. Village Act No. 02 (1994) about conducted by KELOLA Foundation. zonations (buffer zone) and its exploitation;Coastal management activities 2. Village Act No. 03 (1994) about In coastal management activities, protection on fauna and marine biota;NGOs in North Sulawesi focus their 3. Village Act No. 01 (1995) aboutprogram on conservation of coastal zonations for coastal exploitation.resources, which is funded by internationalfunding agencies, such as World Bank, US- ACKNOWLEDGEMENTAID. All the activities involved local This paper has been presented incommunities in which the NGOs served as International Twinning Workshop offacilitators. Some of the activities are: Integrated Tropical Coastal Zone- Mangrove replantation, Management (ITCZM), 9-11 October 2001,- weeping and cleaning coral reefs, Bangkok, Thailand.- Establishing marine protected area We are particularly grateful to staffs (MPA) and marine sanctuary, of KELOLA Foundation and staffs of- Establishing local village regulation on Natural Resources Management (NRM), protected area and coastal management, North Sulawesi for their help and- Community participatory mapping on willingness to share information. coastal resources in North Sulawesi,- Protection on endangered species (dugong, coral fishes),- Environmental advocacy.