Multi-Process JavaScript Architectures


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Exploiting Multi-Process Architectures using JavaScript

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  • Introduce yourself!
  • Batch programming – job schedulerCoding pad– (72 columns) – because card (intro by IBM 1928) had 80 columns –but machines could only read 72 columns – a key puncher made a card –each card was 1 line of code - on tray to remote job entry = card reader = set in queue in memory = output to printer – look @ core dump if failed – repunch changes ~1980s crt came out & interactiveLate 1970s timesharing – DEC (ethernet & networking) & IBM (PS/0) came interactivityWhere we came fromWrite program on coding pad – give to keypunchers – feed into computer - wait (up to 24 hours) – get printout – repeat = batch processing – only operators ran computers – everything else offlineLong waits between steps – once computer running it can’t do anything else until program quits or dies80 columns card A 4.7 GB DVD, with 80 characters per card, would require about 58 million cards, or a stack about 10 km high.
  • OMG SLOW!!Pdp10Cpus still expensive so had to share them –bob’s big boy restaurant - time sharing you paid for what u used – did not have to own your own computer &/or can share it w/lots of people simultaneously (CLOUD!) – hooked up via terminal & modem – renting all of this stuff & tracking usage because a big business & security was now a concern – financial institutions didn’t want others to see their data (first sec. conf. 1971 because of it) until…CPUs became CHEAP! Cost of transistors plummeted. Don’t need timesharing anymore everyone has their own cpu (6502 $25!)But now had similar problem –instead of waiting for other people’s jobs to finish you were waiting for your own job to finish. bursty CPU activity followed by waiting for IO sitting at a terminal – waiting.Led to multiprogramming – running multiple processes at the same timeInitially coop mt = programs would voluntarily give up CPU – one bad program hung the system (pre Windows NT & 95 & Mac OS 9)Waiting for peripherals (tape) very slow so switched to another batch program – nothing was interactive so I didn’t matter how long each program tookBut people wanted to get on the computer! Time sharing – individuals ‘inefficient’ – groups not- time shared systems first polled & then interrupted for input when idleBursts of activity then idle = web apps! Single server can handle lots of simultaneous ‘users’Time sharing led to multiprogramming = cpus became cheap enough that time sharing wasn’t necessaryCooperative multitasking = tasks voluntarily giving up cpu – 1 program can hog cpu & bring server downPreemptive multitasking – cpus kicks u out – timeslice – OS can deal with external events like data coming inEvery process is IO bound or CPU bound – now with interrupts and preemptive MT processes no longer poll or busywait – when data is ready current process is context switched to the one that was waiting.IO bound process waits while CPU bound process executesAmiga first pMT then Windows NT and 95 & later macos 9.xBob bemer of Mich first timesharing machine – could not figure out how to bill time – so guy spent 10k hours on machine & built unix
  • Process context switches more costlyCrazy fastcpus1971 intel 4004 2300 transistors – address 640 bytes of memoryKeep cpus busyPreemptive multitaskingHighest priorityTimesliceProcessesScheduled by kernelNo shared memoryThreadsScheduled in userland or kernelShared memoryAll softwareCooporative multitasking
  • Cpu prices dropped – everyone can afford one1977 Apple II1977 TRS-801981 IBM PC1982 Commodore 641984 Apple MacEveryone has a cpu at home & at workSuddenly cpus have plenty of time lying aroundUntil mac there was nothing else to do – could not have multiple programms
  • So inter-process scheduling on a uniprocessor is handled!Uniprocessor systems can now reliably multitask between processes efficientlyMULTITASKING1984 macBut now everyone has their own CPU – unwashed masses need something to look at! Amiga Workbench 1.0 - 1985 – first preemptive multitasking…1985 windows 1.0 cooperative mtMultitasking coop in Windows before XP and Mac OSX before XLinux always preempt.Windows NT/95 first supported threads 1993Linux Kernel 2.6 kernel threads 1993 JAVA 1995! Green threads on Sun - The next issue was a responsive UI – all apps now have GUIs.Don’t wanna block Uis while work happening – threads share memory & are cheap to create but have issues. Windows OS optimized for threads – linux for processes-------------------------------------------------------------------But my app now has a UI – I need to be responsiveBut starting a process is ‘slow’ and IPC is cumbersome. It’d be neat Was waiting for disk – now I’m waiting for UI and network.What else can I do while I’m/CPU is waiting? Creating a new process WAS heavyweight and communicating between processes via IPC was cumbersome. My program can still do work while waiting for IO – how about ‘light weight processes’: threads
  • Computers had to WAIT – for user input – for disk drives & secondary storage & by the late 1980s/early 1990s networkInstead of people waiting – cpus were waiting
  • Process context switches more costlyCrazy fastcpus1971 intel 4004 2300 transistors – address 640 bytes of memoryKeep cpus busyPreemptive multitaskingHighest priorityTimesliceProcessesScheduled by kernelNo shared memoryThreadsScheduled in userland or kernelShared memoryAll softwareCooporative multitasking
  • 2001 OSX preemptive MT1995 preemptive2.6 2003 – fully preemptive kernel O(1) scheduler1994 linux 1.0 – preemptive scheduler
  • Java 1996 (linux green threads) java 1.3 (2000) kernel threads (using clone) (windows threads in process itself)Pthreads 1995 – standardized api- Linux supportuserland threads – 2.6 kernel moved pthreads to kernel ghreadsUserland access to threading
  • Hardware support via hyper-threading came to Xenon 2002 and Pentium 4 2002 – needed OS SMP & HT support (Windows XP & Linux < 2.4)First dual core intel 2005 Pentium D desktopsAMD first dual core 2005 Athlon 64 X2Since 2005 we’ve been able to take full advantage of multicore/HT cpus with preemtivpemt + kernel threadsLinux kernel fully preemptible 2.6
  • unix philosophy:Doug McIlroy, the inventor of Unix pipesBrian Kernighan 1976Unix philosophy faqLoosely coupled set of independent modules working together w/o knowledge of the other focused on ONLY 1 thing
  • SmallJSON-izedUpgraded / restarted w/o effecting systemIPC vs. threadingPrivate methods hard to test – don’t use / need so many of them
  • Charles Perrow's "Catastrophic Potential" model: Normal Accidents: Living with High-Risk Technologies: systems-behavior expert Apps fails because systems complexity makes failures inevitable(At Chernobyl, tests of a new safety system helped produce the meltdown and subsequent fire.)Tightly coupled code = ‘bad’Loosely coupled code = ‘good’Complex = ‘bad’Simple = ‘good’What does that look like?
  • - open source java projectsStatic code analysisComplexity measuresMoredeps = more tests
  • Required by your object to workExternal to objectPulled in by object: DI, or instantiation or passed in or globalTesting more difficult – mock/stub them all outSystem more brittle – complex & lots to maintainBesides the number of dependencies & length of dep chain: deps are described how they relate to your objectThe way dependencies are handled is described by….How are deps expressed??
  • Tight coupling – cannot be pulled apartLoose coupling – barely togetherCoupling describes dependeniesWhen testing need to deal with coupled deps
  • Tight coupling – cannot be pulled apartLoose coupling – barely togetherCoupling describes dependeniesWhen testing need to deal with coupled deps
  • You gotta have a referenceInstantiate or inject or globalYour object waits for your responseUNDERSTOOD so there’s that
  • With some eventsPromotes couplingFor JS:Load the fileInstantiate maybeUse
  • You gotta have a referenceInstantiate or inject or globalYour object waits for your response
  • e.g. ButtonConstructorClick eventStill need the object locally
  • Still same as method-based apisGet some asynchronicityBut basically very similar to method-basedProblems with using all events all the time – what about return values? Will each object have a mish-mash of interfaces? Still needs the object locally to fire/listen to its events.
  • This is a star architecture – with many emitters & listeners – anyone can be anythingAnalogous to a network switch- switch learns the topology – & unicast directly to listener if unicast event otherwise broadcastFrom network world.Given that apps pass messages from end to end – so do networks. There are control messages between nodes to help route messages.
  • http webserver brokers ALL communication for your webapp!http webserver brokers ALL LOGIC of you webappRestart whole thing for changesOh ya browser over there in the corner – a special case
  • Module can be in-browser or in-serverLocal or remote – anywhere on webBuild on IPC NOT threading
  • Views instantiate Models to use them1973 first proposed for smalltalk (inspiration for JS)Decouple model from viewsAsync-arch = split model – data independent of methodsTheory remains – communication changes – no more views instantiating models or controllers instantiating views
  • You don’t have to use threads anymore!The biggest gain of event-based arch – no more threads!
  • Don’t need to load scripts / libraries locally!
  • If it can happen it will happenApps failPieces dieBoxes crashShit happens
  • SmallJSON-izedUpgraded / restarted w/o effecting systemIPC vs. threadingPrivate methods hard to test – don’t use / need so many of them
  • JavaPerlJavascriptPythonRubyFlashErlang, Lua. GoWebSocktesHTTPIFRAMEJSONP PollingAJAX long pollingAJAX multipart streamingFlash
  • Microkernelmach
  • That’s all software! All threading was done by software – either in userland or in the kernel – CPUs are single threadedOnly supercomputers &/or specialized operating systems could handle multiple cpus UNICOS and IRIX – sys V variants – early 1990sNow they all run variants of linuxK computer in japan – 86000 ultrasparc64s – 10.51 petaflops – 864 racks
  • Multi-Process JavaScript Architectures

    1. 1. AsynchronousArchitectures Mark Ethan Trostler @zzoass
    2. 2. Motivation Write programs that do one thing and do it well. Write programs to work together. Write programs to handle text streams, because that is a universal interface. Controlling complexity is the essence of computer programming The only way to write complex software that wont fall on its face is to hold its global complexity down — to build it out of simple parts connected by well-defined interfaces, so that most problems are local and you can have some hope of upgrading a part without breaking the whole.
    3. 3. The Goal Bite sized Text-based communication Independent KISS Naturally private methods Naturally loosely coupled Fail gracefully Maximize processor
    4. 4. Code Complexity #1 indicator of bugs: code size ( > 9300 chars) In the eye of the beholder: the Co-Worker Test Dependency count - coupling
    5. 5. Dependencies Required for object operation Lots of dependencies make code complex Long chains of dependencies make code complex More code loaded locally – more chance for something to go wrong* Load JS, ‘require’ Minimize Dependencies!
    6. 6. Coupling What do you do with a dependency??  Instantiate it?  Call methods?  Access properties?  Change shared global state?  Alter all of them (prototype)? Keep Coupling Loose!
    7. 7. Application?Applications are message passing systems with a bag ofobjects in the middle with input and output at eitherends. Object1 Object2 Object3
    8. 8. Current Application Paradigms Method based APIs  Tight coupling adds complexity Remote interfaces  Non-local – sync or async  Local interface to remote object (Model) Object-based callbacks  Eventing/Callbacks require dependent object to be local
    9. 9. Current: Method-based API
    10. 10. Current: Method-based API Maximizes coupling Easy to add dependencies Synchronous across objects (typically) – blocks caller Local Understood
    11. 11. Method / Event Hybrid Local reference to object Synchronous emitter Asynchronous listener Same process / memory space Same coupling Same dependencies
    12. 12. Pure Event API Local reference Same dependency / Same coupling Return values? Semantics? Not as understood Something still wrong…
    13. 13. A Different App Paradigm
    14. 14. Pure Event with Hub Asynchronous emitter Asynchronous listener NO local reference Shared nothing Loose coupling Function callbacks
    15. 15. Central Hub Independent modules cannot find each other All connect to central hub Hub unicast/broadcast events/responses Session handling Authorization services Event registration No local references Services run anywhere (no same-domain)
    16. 16. What Does It Look Like?Listeners on event name, get an object and an optional callbackEmitters send event name, data object and an optional callbackCallback function expects (error, response) where error is either an object or string or null and response is an object (NodeJS standard)
    17. 17., function(err, userObject) { if (!err) {‘#user’).set(‘innerHTML’, JSON.parse(userObject)); } else {‘ui:error’, { msg: err} ); }});
    18. 18. Emitter / Listenerhub.on(user:getProfile, function(obj, callback) { hub.emit(session:get, { eventHub:session: obj[eventHub:session] }, function(err, session) { if (err) { callback(err); } else { redis.hgetall(user: + session.user, callback); } }); });
    19. 19. Listenervar redis = require(redis).createClient();hub.on(session:get, function(obj, callback) { var session = obj[eventHub:session]; if (session) { redis.hgetall(session: + session, callback); } else { callback(No session); } });
    20. 20. Typical Web Server/AppBrowser Controller / Router Sink/Source ALL Session communication Servlet container Models HTTP 540+ apache modules Server Authentication DB connectors Authorization Static content Threading
    21. 21. Webserver?? HTTP server is just a module Serves only static content No entangled business logic No entangled routes Do not need to restart on changes to other modules
    22. 22. EventHub Architecture HTTP Server User Session Module Event Hub Browser DB Module Browser View
    23. 23. Unicast and Broadbast Both kinds! Event sent to one listener or many Still must register for the event for broadcast! Hub can return error if no one is listening
    25. 25. Wither MVC?
    26. 26. Processes vs. Threads PROCESSES EASY THREADS HARD• IPC handled by • Non-deterministic hub • Synchronization• Independent issues modules • Deadlock• Deterministic • Testing dicey• Straightforward • Syntactic cruft testing• DB ACID
    27. 27. Performance Methods Events• FASTer • SLOWer• synchronous • asynchronous
    28. 28. Scaling Web Apps Webservers behind VIPs / load balacners Load balancers affinity / sticky sessions Serialize session data
    29. 29. Scaling Event-based Apps Multiple hubs with replicated modules Clients specify hub – dynamic or static Broadcast events – bring up more modules
    30. 30. Complexity Method Event• Dependencies • Self-contained• Straightforward • More moving• Internal pieces complexity • External• Bigger pieces complexity • Smaller pieces
    31. 31. Testability Methods Events• Coupled • Isolatable dependencies • Loosely• Threads Non- coupled deterministic • Processes deterministic
    32. 32. Deploy Method Events• Big Bang • Only• No incremental incremental changes changes • Complex• Simple
    33. 33. Third Party Options Method Event Hub•Import locally •Import locally•Hosted •Hosted remotely remotely•Loaded •Global locally hosted remotely •Not Loaded!
    34. 34. FAILURE Monolithic systems fail completely Event-based systems fail incrementally  Can route around failure  Degrade gracefully
    35. 35. The Goal Bite sized Text-based communication Independent KISS Naturally private Naturally loosely coupled Fail gracefully
    36. 36. Solves World Hunger?
    37. 37. Theories Actor Model Hypervisors Microkernels Event hub analogy: Ethernet  Hubs  Switches  Router
    38. 38. EventHub Built on Hub serves JS Server clients  NodeJS Browser clients  YUI  jQuery
    39. 39. Practices EventHub Korus Akka Netty Minix 3.2 L4