Authentic Joy

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Therapy doesn\'t have to be painful / shameful / full of anger or sadness. It can also be joyful!

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  • Put out ChoicesMap and rating scale Get names and a brief introduction, one lovely thing about the place you live or come from,
  • what’s bought you to this workshop – keep that in mind so that you can make sure we answer it
  • In pairs or groups of up to 4, max 6 groups in totals, explain exercise a couple of mins, finish feedback by 40 mins
  • 105 mins
  • Authentic Joy

    1. 1. Authentic Joy Anger, Sadness, Scared and Joy Berne Institute November 09
    2. 2. Outcomes <ul><li>If you don’t consciously choose to practice authentic joy, you may get really good at practicing stress and pain and anger and sadness and anxiety and fear. </li></ul><ul><li>Can you learn how to choose authentic joy? </li></ul><ul><li>Some of my subjective experience of authentic joy </li></ul><ul><li>Background - Different theories of emotion – Brief explanations </li></ul><ul><li>Define “Authentic Joy” from a TA perspective and compare to “Positive Psychology’s Authentic Happiness” </li></ul><ul><li>TA methodology – how this fits into how I use TA </li></ul><ul><li>Q&A </li></ul>
    3. 3. Not about to … <ul><li>Tell you anything you probably don’t already know </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasise a right or a wrong way to expand awareness of authentic joy </li></ul><ul><li>Down play the importance of anger, sadness or fear </li></ul>
    4. 4. I am about to <ul><li>Share some of my own subjective authentic joy </li></ul><ul><li>Share some different theories of emotion </li></ul><ul><li>Ask you all to define your own subjective concept of authentic joy </li></ul><ul><li>Wonder if you may also be willing to practice strengthening your own process of “how you do” authentic Joy? </li></ul>
    5. 5. Client Groups <ul><li>Alcohol issues </li></ul><ul><li>Addiction issues (including ongoing recovery) </li></ul><ul><li>PTSD and trauma </li></ul><ul><li>General fitness / weight management / rehabilitation (sports psychotherapy) </li></ul><ul><li>Homelessness issues </li></ul><ul><li>Young People (6 to 25 years) </li></ul>
    6. 6. New Orleans
    7. 7. New Orleans
    8. 8. New Orleans
    9. 9. New Orleans
    10. 10. New Orleans
    11. 11. New Orleans
    12. 12. Different Theories of Emotion <ul><li>Darwinian – Evolutionary </li></ul><ul><li>Big 6 (or 7 or 8) – Happiness, Sadness, Anger, Fear, Disgust, Surprise (and maybe Interest and Contempt) </li></ul><ul><li>Sympathetic nervous system activation – adaptive responses to the environment ( expression ) </li></ul><ul><li>Research – Ekman, P. (1973) Darwin and Facial Expression: A century of research in review. New York: Academic Press </li></ul><ul><li>Izard, C. E. (1971) The Face of Emotion. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts </li></ul>
    13. 13. Different Theories of Emotion <ul><li>The Jamesian Perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Small number of emotions show autonomic nervous system (ANS) specificity ( bodily experience ) </li></ul><ul><li>Anger, Sadness, Fear and Happiness (similar to another theory?) </li></ul><ul><li>Facial feedback hypothesis (similar to the NLP act as if) Smiling makes you “feel Happier” etc </li></ul><ul><li>Research: Levenson, R.W., Ekman, P. & Friesen, W. V (1990) Voluntary facial action generates emotion-specific autonomic nervous system activity. Psychophysiology, 27, 363-384 </li></ul>
    14. 14. Different Theories of Emotion <ul><li>The Cognitive Perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Appraisal ( MEANING ) is the main focus – emotions are responses to the meaning of events and are closely associated with a person’s goals and motivations </li></ul><ul><li>Predictive model (again similar to TA) Appraisal = emotional response </li></ul><ul><li>Change the way an event is appraised, and you change the way a particular emotion is experienced </li></ul><ul><li>Research: Roseman, I. J., Wiest, C., & Swartz, T. S. (1994) Phenomenology, behaviours, and goals differentiate discrete emotions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 206-221 </li></ul>
    15. 15. Different Theories of Emotion <ul><li>The Social Constructivist Perspective </li></ul><ul><li>How we talk about emotions – the way we define emotions – the way emotions are differentiated in our language and social practices, and the metaphors and metonyms (10 Downing St for the Prime Minister) for emotion and emotional experience determine how we experience emotion </li></ul><ul><li>Emotions are dependant on learned conventions and rules and differ in cross-cultural context (still quite controversial) </li></ul><ul><li>Research: Ellsworth, P. C. (1994) Sense, Culture, and sensibility. In S. Kitayama & H. R. Markus (Eds) Emotion and Culture: Empirical studies of mutual influence (pp. 23-50). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association </li></ul>
    16. 16. Different Theories of Emotion <ul><li>The Transactional Analysis perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Feeling – also called emotion or affect. Transactional Analysis distinguishes between authentic feelings, which lead to engagement with current life issues, and racket feelings, which involve replaying past issues and adaptations. It recognises four authentic feelings </li></ul>
    17. 17. Different Theories of Emotion <ul><li>The Transactional Analysis perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Four authentic feelings – sadness, anger, happiness and fear (sad, mad, glad and scared) are feelings which, if expressed in a healthy and supportive environment, lead to problem solving and getting needs met . Each has an appropriate context and an appropriate time frame. Each of the authentic feelings can also be expressed unauthentically as racket feelings. </li></ul>
    18. 18. Different Theories of Emotion <ul><li>The Transactional Analysis perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Anger – an emotion elicited by obstruction to the satisfaction of one’s needs and wishes by others and also by threats to the self (e.g. From a physical attack to a slighting remark). Used appropriately, anger generates an active and assertive approach to solving interpersonal problems and is a useful signal to others. Anger is often repressed as a result of being disallowed by parents. Repressed anger may be redirected against the self and is then the source of many psychological problems, in particular of depression and low self esteem. </li></ul>
    19. 19. Different Theories of Emotion <ul><li>The Transactional Analysis perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Sadness – is experienced in the process of mourning. It relates to the loss of someone or something one has been attached to and expressing the feeling and having it validated by others helps in the process of letting go so that new attachments can be made. Unlike other authentic feelings, its time frame is in the past. Although it is classified as an authentic feeling, it can be expressed unauthentically as a racket feeling. Sadness should be distinguished from unhappiness and depression. </li></ul>
    20. 20. Different Theories of Emotion <ul><li>The Transactional Analysis perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Fear – is a feeling that motivates the individual to avoid danger. Unlike anxiety, fear is valuable. It differs in being focused on to specific dangers, thus motivating present action to avoid harm. Anxiety is an unfocused state of arousal that seeks unspecified threats. Appropriate arousal in dangerous environments is useful but anxiety is often disabling and may not relate to current dangers. By focusing on specific dangers, fear leads to problem solving but anxiety does not. </li></ul>
    21. 21. Different Theories of Emotion <ul><li>The Transactional Analysis perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Happiness – a positive feeling indicating that all is going well and no changes need to be made. Its time frame is the present. </li></ul><ul><li>All definitions are from Tony Tilney (1998) Dictionary of Transactional Analysis, Whurr Publishers, UK </li></ul>
    22. 22. Authentic Happiness <ul><ul><li>H = S + C + V </li></ul></ul>
    23. 23. Authentic Happiness <ul><ul><li>H is enduring level of happiness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>S is your set range </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C is the circumstances of your life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>V is factors under your voluntary control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seligman, M.E.P. (2003) Authentic Happiness, London, Nicholas Brealey Publishing </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. Authentic Happiness <ul><li>H = Enduring level of happiness </li></ul><ul><li>Seligman states that it is important to distinguish your momentary happiness (Chocolate etc) from your enduring level </li></ul><ul><li>Your enduring level is where you are on your set range. </li></ul>
    25. 25. Authentic Happiness <ul><li>S = Set range </li></ul><ul><li>Similar to a thermostat – we have a set range that is our own personal levels of happiness (may be genetic) </li></ul><ul><li>Hedonic Treadmill – adaption to good things and then taking them for granted affects our happiness </li></ul>
    26. 26. Authentic Happiness <ul><li>C= Circumstances of your life </li></ul><ul><li>“ I’ve been rich, and I’ve been poor. Rich is better.” Sophie Tucker </li></ul><ul><li>“ Money doesn’t buy happiness.” Proverbial saying </li></ul><ul><li>So what makes a difference? </li></ul>
    27. 27. Authentic Happiness <ul><li>Live in a Wealthy democracy, not in an impoverished dictatorship </li></ul><ul><li>Get married </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid negative events and negative emotion </li></ul><ul><li>Acquire a rich social network </li></ul><ul><li>Get religion </li></ul><ul><li>Do you think there is a cultural bias in this information? </li></ul>
    28. 28. Authentic Happiness <ul><li>V= factors under your voluntary control </li></ul><ul><li>Positive emotion about the past – satisfaction, contentment, fulfilment, pride and serenity </li></ul><ul><li>Optimism about the future – faith, trust, confidence, hope and optimism </li></ul><ul><li>Happiness in the present – distinguishing between: </li></ul><ul><li>Pleasures – ecstasy, thrills, orgasm, delight, mirth, exuberance and comfort </li></ul><ul><li>Gratifications – are more about engagement – things we like doing – involve quite a lot of thinking and interpretation, they do not habituate easily, and they are underpinned by our strengths and virtues. </li></ul>
    29. 29. Authentic Joy Question <ul><li>What does Authentic Joy mean to you? </li></ul>
    30. 30. Authentic Joy in TA Terms <ul><li>One of the 4 Authentic feelings – the other three being anger, sadness and fear (Mad, Sad, Glad and Scared) </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes called Glad </li></ul><ul><li>It is encapsulated by a subjective body mind experience of wellbeing and can be “experienced” through the Visual, Auditory, Kinaesthetic, Olfactory and Gustatory systems – singularly and also simultaneously </li></ul><ul><li>Sexuality is also mentioned sometimes as an authentic feeling – although maybe an instinctual “Drive” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Racket” joy may be partly to blame for such conditions as Addiction, Overeating, Sexually acting out etc – </li></ul><ul><li>Stipanovsky, St Clair (2009) ITA National Conference, Nottingham, UK </li></ul><ul><li>The ability to perceive, receive and give authentic strokes </li></ul><ul><li>Stipanovsky, St Clair & Workshop participants (2009) Mary Goulding Memorial Conference , New Orleans, USA </li></ul>
    31. 31. Joy / Happiness – A Personal View <ul><li>For Mark, authentic Joy means I have time in my life to think about nice things, authentic Joy means I may share my feelings, both good and bad with people who care for me and I for them. I can choose to do wonderful things with others and visit wonderfully lovely places. </li></ul><ul><li>Authentic Joy is something that helps me to be grateful because of the beauty I can now see, Authentic Joy means that I can be aware of my anger, my anxiousness, notice when I am sad, scared or depressed or have genuine worries. </li></ul><ul><li>Life can be good and this is because I have chosen to look for authentic joy, and also to choose to accept the joyfulness of others and now I am able to communicate this awareness because today I choose to define authentic Joy. </li></ul>
    32. 32. So how does this help me or my clients? <ul><li>I have began to look at how this fits into what I know about TA so far in my studying. </li></ul><ul><li>The next few slides are about TA methodology and things I feel are important when thinking about how to “do” authentic Joy </li></ul><ul><li>(I researched the TAJ disk) and </li></ul><ul><li>a couple of books </li></ul>
    33. 33. TAJ and Anger, Sadness, Fear and Joy (chronological) <ul><li>1974 – 4:3 Three Pots of Anger, H.D. Johns </li></ul><ul><li>1983 –13:1 Fear, Anger & Sadness, G Thomson </li></ul><ul><li>1989 – 19:3 Expressing Anger Safely, C. Fisher, K. Hallet </li></ul><ul><li>1991 – 21:4 Depression & Fears of Individuation and Attachment, D. Lester </li></ul><ul><li>1995 – 25:2 Anger: Don’t express it & don’t repress it, T. Frazier </li></ul><ul><li>1995 – 25:2 Anger and its disavowal in shame-based people, F.C. Clark </li></ul>
    34. 34. TAJ and Anger, Sadness, Fear and Joy (chronological) <ul><li>1995 -25:2 The many faces of anger, F.N. Garcia </li></ul><ul><li>1995 – 25:2 A development approach to anger, V.S. Joines </li></ul><ul><li>1996 –26:3 The good, the bad and the one-armed bandit: Transactional Analysis, slot machines, and parental object transference, G. Himelhoch </li></ul><ul><li>1997 – 27:3 Is a happy teenager a healthy teenager? 4 levels of adolescent anger, T. White </li></ul><ul><li>2000 – 30:3 Every revolution should have dancing: biology, community organisation, constructionism & Joy, J.R. Allan & B.A. Allan </li></ul>
    35. 35. TA methodology <ul><ul><li>CONTRACTING </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Some clients won’t consider a contract to be happy because they believe they have never been happy” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Goulding, Mary McClure and Goulding, Robert L 1979: Changing Lives Through Redecision Therapy, New York:Brunner/Mazel </li></ul>
    36. 36. TA Methodology <ul><li>Ego States </li></ul><ul><li>Memories are incorporated into our Parent ego states </li></ul><ul><li>“ So if I fill my subjective world with memories of kind, fun loving and caring interactions or with suffering, oppressing and cruel ones, this will determine both how I feel and how I fare.” </li></ul><ul><li>Sandstrom, S. (2004) EATA newsletter </li></ul>
    37. 37. TA Methodology <ul><li>Ego States </li></ul><ul><li>“ As if therapy should always be difficult & painful. We also need to explore the relationship of these processes to various ego states.” </li></ul><ul><li>Allan, J.r., Allen, B.A. (2000) Every revolution should have dancing: Biology, community organisation, constructionism & Joy. TAJ 30:3 </li></ul>
    38. 38. TA Methodology <ul><li>Positive Psychotherapists – pre Seligman et al </li></ul><ul><li>“ A problem with standard diagnostic categories is that they are based on pathology “ </li></ul><ul><li>“ In short term-work we focus on the client’s strengths rather than his pathology “ </li></ul><ul><li>Goulding, Mary McClure and Goulding, Robert L 1979: Changing Lives Through Redecision Therapy, New York:Brunner/Mazel </li></ul>
    39. 39. TA Methodology <ul><li>“ People come to therapists in discomfort, it is true, and this needs to be taken seriously and not discounted, but there is considerable evidence for the positive roles of Joy and Hope in healing and health.” </li></ul><ul><li>Allan, J.r., Allen, B.A. (2000) Every revolution should have dancing: Biology, community organisation, constructionism & Joy. TAJ 30:3 </li></ul>
    40. 40. TA Methodology <ul><li>Account for the genuine emotions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Yes you have genuine reason to feel anger / fear / sadness / </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Also bring into awareness happiness as a choice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accentuate the positive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What could you choose instead? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ great idea, Zach are you willing to pretend that you are the part of you that loves you and say what is lovable and what is nice about you” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Goulding, Mary McClure and Goulding, Robert L 1979: Changing Lives Through Redecision Therapy, New York:Brunner/Mazel </li></ul>
    41. 41. TA methodology <ul><li>“ The advantages of using a model that can be actually played with or visualised are great when compared with mere description. A description only looks at one way of looking at something; it describes what is noticed at the moment. A physical model, however, contains all that could be noticed at any time; it includes all the possible ways of looking at the situation.” </li></ul><ul><li>De Bono, Edward 1969: The Mechanism of Mind </li></ul>
    42. 42. As we go into the discussion <ul><li>How can this presentation make a difference for real? </li></ul><ul><li>Authentic Joy can?????????? </li></ul>
    43. 43. The End Discussion & Feedback
    44. 44. References <ul><li>Allan, J.r., Allen, B.A. (2000) Every revolution should have dancing: Biology, community organisation, constructionism & Joy . TAJ 30:3 </li></ul><ul><li>De Bono, Edward 1969: The Mechanism of Mind </li></ul><ul><li>Clark. F.C. (1995) Anger and its disavowal in shame-based people , TAJ 25:2 </li></ul><ul><li>Cornelius. R.R. (1996) The Science of emotion , Prentice Hall, New Jersey </li></ul><ul><li>Ekman, P. (1973) Darwin and Facial Expression: A century of research in review. New York: Academic Press </li></ul><ul><li>Ellsworth, P. C. (1994) Sense, Culture, and sensibility. In S. Kitayama & H. R. Markus (Eds) Emotion and Culture: Empirical studies of mutual influence (pp. 23-50). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association </li></ul><ul><li>Frazier. T. (1995) Anger: Don’t express it & don’t repress it , TAJ 25:2 </li></ul><ul><li>Garcia, F.N. (1995) The Many faces of anger , TAJ 25:2 </li></ul><ul><li>Goulding, Mary McClure and Goulding, Robert L 1979: Changing Lives Through Redecision Therapy, New York:Brunner/Mazel </li></ul><ul><li>Hallet. K. (1989) Expressing anger safely , TAJ 19:3 </li></ul><ul><li>Himelhoch. G. (1996) The good, the bad and the one armed bandit: Transactional Analysis, slot machines, and parental object transference, TAJ 26:3 </li></ul><ul><li>Izard, C. E. (1971) The Face of Emotion. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts </li></ul><ul><li>Johns. H.D. (1974) Three pots of anger , TAJ 4:3 </li></ul><ul><li>Joines. V.S. (1995) A development approach to anger , TAJ 25:2 </li></ul><ul><li>Lester. D. (1991) Depression & fears of individuation and attachment , TAJ 21:4 </li></ul><ul><li>Levenson, R.W., Ekman, P. & Friesen, W. V (1990) Voluntary facial action generates emotion-specific autonomic nervous system activity. Psychophysiology, 27, 363-384 </li></ul><ul><li>Roseman, I. J., Wiest, C., & Swartz, T. S. (1994) Phenomenology, behaviours, and goals differentiate discrete emotions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 206-221 </li></ul><ul><li>Sandstrom, S. (2009) Writings on Transactional Analysis - originally in 2004 EATA newsletter, Magenta Press, Sweden </li></ul><ul><li>Seligman. M.E.P. (2003) Authentic Happiness, Nicholas Brearley, UK </li></ul><ul><li>Tilney. T (1998) Dictionary of Transactional Analysis , Whurr Publishers, UK </li></ul><ul><li>Thomson. G. (1983) Fear, anger & sadness , TAJ 13:1 </li></ul><ul><li>White. T. (1997) Is a happy teenager a healthy teenager? 4 levels of adolescent anger , TAJ 27:3 </li></ul>

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