Key Movements in Design


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Key Movements in Design

  1. 1. Key Movements in Design
  2. 2. Victorian Style (1837-1901)This style we can be definitely considered to be the first trend,which began to develop industrial design.As the name itself indicates, the Victorian style developed in theperiod of the reign of Queen Victoria and included not onlydesign but also had a big influence on the architecture.It was a period of great transformations, the second IndustrialRevolution broke out, there was the development of industry,technology and inventions and a mass production was alsocommenced
  3. 3. Victorian Style (1837-1901)
  4. 4. Victorian Style (1837-1901)Style highlights:• distinguished by the severity of the numerousornaments and form reloaded• artificial pomposity of ornaments, decorations,which occupied every available space in interiors• lack of consistency of style and quality, whichseemed to be cheesy• application of new materials• eclectic (the use of styles from different periods)
  5. 5. Arts & Crafts (1850-1914)Arts and Crafts Movement was founded in Great Britain inresponse to the mass production, having been pioneered by theindustrial revolution. It was propagating a program of revival ofthe art and the craft.It was believed that the industrial revolution through massproduction had led to the collapse of the taste, the personalityand the morality of people. Arts and Craft caused that theproducts were made by hand, the return of handicraft.Straighter forms, large smooth surfaces and linear shapesstarted taking the place of products overloaded with thedecorative art. Motiffes were often taken from nature.
  6. 6. Arts & Crafts (1850-1914)
  7. 7. Arts & Crafts (1850-1914)Style highlights:• simple forms• inspiration with natural forms, the flora and thefauna• simple linear shapes• abstract forms, inspired by movement and mysticalbeings• use of high quality materials• an interest in Gothic, medieval art, using bold formsand strong colours based on medieval design
  8. 8. Art Nouveau (1880-1910)Art Nouveau was a concerted attempt to create an international style basedon decoration. The essence of this movement was to strive for the unity ofthe stylish art, by combining its activities in various areas, particularly artsand crafts, interior design, sculpture and graphics.Inspired by Japan culture, they began to use oriental, simple forms, the whitespaces in their works as well as they started to assimilate new approach inthe problem of perspective, free composition, asymmetry and bright colour.In contrast to Arts And Crafts, Art Nouveau began to use media technology tomass production. Representatives of this trend, having been fascinated bynew technologies, began to use new materials, construction and techniquesmethods.
  9. 9. Art Nouveau (1880-1910)
  10. 10. Art Nouveau (1880-1910)Style highlights:• curved lines and organic shapes,• winding, non-geometrical, rough edges• asymmetry,• colours: mostly bright, delicate, such as whiteor lilac,• inspiration of Japan culture.
  11. 11. Modernism (1880-1940)Modernism is the trend in avant-garde art, design andarchitecture. The main objective of this trend was tostrive for originality, innovations, thereby rejecting thetradition and false rationalism.Modernism was a revolt against the conservativevalues, in exchange was interested in it what is unusualand unknown. This often led to experimentation withform, highlight the processes and materials being usedand it showed tendencies to the abstraction.
  12. 12. Modernism (1880-1940)
  13. 13. Modernism (1880-1940)Style highlights:• using new materials such as concrete, steel, glass,• simple forms, devoid of decorative elements,• using simple mass, smooth finishes of walls and openspace plan in architecture,• austere (severe or strict) interiors, it was desirableto provide order,• modular, simple furniture,• using toned down, natural colours.
  14. 14. Art Deco (1910-1939)Art deco was a reaction to the Art Nouveau movement, an expression of theopposition to the disharmony. This style diverged significantly into the future,began to use mass production to create useful objects, however consistenttheir highest quality. Because of that they unfortunately were not availableto the whole society.Exploiting geometrical, trapezoidal shapes were characteristic features of thisstyle. People were more and more travelling, therefore Egyptian, Aztec,African or ancient motifs were becoming more popular and accessible inornamentation. In addition, artists began to use materials such as ivory,ebony, silver, pearls, which were also imported from foreign travel. By usingnew materials, Art Deco objects looked elegant, were both styled andfunctional.
  15. 15. Art Deco (1910-1939)
  16. 16. Art Deco (1910-1939)Style highlights:• applying geometric shapes, sharp edges, but with roundedcorners,• using materials such as chrome, glass, shiny fabrics, mirrors,ceramic tiles, bakelite and expensive, imported materials suchas ivory, bronze, precious stones,• shells, sunrises, flowers were recurring motifs,• bright colours,• using historical themes e.g. Egyptian,• architecture with large windows and doors, flat roofs, cornerwindows often appeared,• furniture in single copies, streamline shapes.
  17. 17. Bauhaus (1919-1933)This Art college, which was founded in Germany, was arising with specificantithesis (opposite) of the Arts and Crafts movement. It sought to usetechnology in mass production, in the same time threw away singlehandicraft which in its workmanship was a luxury good, being too expensivefor the average society class.The art presented by artists of the Bauhaus expressed the simplicity in theform, was using repetition of elements and textures. They were usingstraight, regular lines.The importance of materials such as plastic, aluminium, chrome, concrete,steel was emphasized. Above all they were putting the functionality, as wellas the simplicity which does not interfere with human life.
  18. 18. Bauhaus (1919-1933)
  19. 19. Bauhaus (1919-1933)Style highlights:• simplicity of the forms, lines, shapes,• regular, repetitive forms,• projects which give the impression of lightness, using new materials toachieve this purpose,• using mostly aluminium, steel, chrome, plastic and glass,• simple, beautiful, but at the same time inexpensive furniture,• functionality of the product – a form derived from the function,• using frequently concrete in constructions, including interiors,• lack of ornamentation,• regional conditions, climates, landscapes and inhabitants customs wereleading into the architecture form.
  20. 20. Organic Design (1930-60, 1990-)Organic designs gained the inspiration from nature and wildlife.Living in harmony with nature was inspiring artists to createproducts and architecture, using delicate forms, cylindricalshapes, smooth lines. Buildings became the part of thelandscape.Design respected the product user and the form followed thefunction. This style emanated the sensitivity, the harmoniousand the lack of sharp edges.The first organic projects were created during the interwarperiod, however the bloom of this movement took place afterthe second world war.
  21. 21. Organic Design (1930-60, 1990-)
  22. 22. Organic Design (1930-60, 1990-)Style highlights:• mild, smooth lines and sculptural forms,• holistic design, referring to the surrounding environment,• using both natural and synthetic materials, from which it waseasy to model organic forms,• delicacy of the form,• buildings, furniture harmonize with the surroundings, thearchitecture with the landscape,• inspiration taken from nature,• projects were supposed to meet the social, physical andspiritual needs.
  23. 23. Minimalism (1967-1978)Minimalism emerged in the 50s of the twentiethcentury, but it was rapidly growing in the years60s, 70s. This trend was a reaction to theconsumerism of society. As the name itselfsuggests, designers of this movement wereminimizing the use of art means, decoration.Artists were using simplified form, the basicshapes in their projects such as triangles, circles,squares, smooth surfaces, limited number ofcolours, lines and textures.
  24. 24. Minimalism (1967-1978)
  25. 25. Minimalism (1967-1978)Style highlights:• simplicity and harmony in interiors and furniture,• open spaces in interiors,• avoiding inner walls,• the illumination had the significant influence oninteriors,• using basic geometric shapes – squares, triangles,• colour white was dominating,• furniture and decorations limited to the minimum,• elegant.
  26. 26. Pop Art (1958-1972)As the name Pop art suggests it was also drawing itsinspiration from the culture of music – popular culture.The main topic of paintings were well-knowncelebrities with the legendary example of MarilynMonroe. Pop art was in some extent a satire, becauseartists were persuading the museums to invest largesums of money in the paintings of mundane themesmade with acrylic paints on plywood, which quickly wasbecoming ruined.
  27. 27. Pop Art (1958-1972)
  28. 28. Pop Art (1958-1972)Style highlights:• bright, rainbow colours,• expressive forms,• using mainly plastic,• using repetitions in art,• using well-known personalities, consumerproducts in works of art,• comics inspiration.
  29. 29. Post Modernism (1978-)Postmodernism is a movement in architecture, art, whichdeveloped as the response on the simplicity and rationality ofmodernism.The creators of this style drew inspiration from historical styles,mixed them. Therefore we can say that the lack of a particularstyle characterized postmodernism. Post-modern design objectwas supposed to take care of the comfort of the body, mind andthe soul of its user. It was believed that creating buildings,objects with a certain message and symbolism will attract userswhich did not want to live in austere modernist interiors.Therefore, in postmodernism times return to ornamentationtook place.
  30. 30. Post Modernism (1978-)
  31. 31. Post Modernism (1978-)Style highlights:• combining previous styles,• superficial decorations,• collage, photomontage in graphic,• playing with the form,• form individually adjusted to the user,• using many layers and mixing them,• pastel colours.
  32. 32. American Kitsch (1940-1960)American kitsch otherwise known as Golden50s, can be described as a trend in which thedecorative was dominating. Artists were usingunusual colours. Kitsch was often described astoo sentimental, vulgar and pretentious. It wasseen by some as an expression of bad taste.
  33. 33. American Kitsch (1940-1960)
  34. 34. American Kitsch (1940-1960)Style highlights:• copying art icons,• presenting people in dramatic poses,• appearing motifs of atomic bombs, aeroplanes,• exaggerated use of decorations, ornaments,• aerodynamic shapes,• exceeding principles of the functionality in the kitschy object,collecting different functions in one object,• impact on many senses in the same time,• avoiding everything that is difficult and inconvenient.
  35. 35. Space Age (1960-1969)Space age, it is a period in which the society wasfascinated with space travels, therefore werecreated projects that had futuristic character. In1969 the Apollo XI expedition ended withsuccess, Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin werethe first people which put the first steps on theMoon. Space exploration has become aubiquitous theme.
  36. 36. Space Age (1960-1969)
  37. 37. Space Age (1960-1969)Style highlights:• futuristic shapes,• silver, white and blue colours,• space motifs,• smooth, shiny surfaces,• using such materials as glass, metal, plastic.
  38. 38. Deconstruktivism (1988-)Deconstructivism began to develop in the 80 s of the twentieth′century, being a continuation of post-modern architecture.Designers disturbed the ordinary space and basic characteristicsof traditional buildings such as e.g. the body/block/shape of thebuilding and frame construction.Many walls are curved, some waving, others are simply broken.As a result, buildings are characterized by a stimulatingunpredictability and controlled chaos. Architects rejectedornamentations, while interesting form was for them some kindof decoration.
  39. 39. Deconstruktivism (1988-)
  40. 40. Deconstruktivism (1988-)Style highlights:• using broken, shredded forms,• multi-layered structures, twisted geometries,• rejecting the decoration,• multilayered fonts and images imposingdifferent interpretations.